RAF Mildenhall

Royal Air Force Mildenhall, more known as RAF Mildenhall, is a Royal Air Force station located near Mildenhall in Suffolk, England. Despite its status as a Royal Air Force station, it supports United States Air Force operations, is the home of the 100th Air Refueling Wing. On 8 January 2015, the United States Department of Defense announced that operations at RAF Mildenhall would end, be relocated to Germany and elsewhere within the UK. On 18 January 2016, the British Ministry of Defence announced that the RAF Mildenhall would be closed as an airfield and the site to be sold. However, a change in presidential administrations in the United States, heightened security concerns on the part of the United States, the United Kingdom and NATO pertaining to Europe and the Middle East, a variety of other issues have prompted a reassessment on RAF Mildenhall's closure; as of 2017, the closure process of RAF Mildenhall has been put on indefinite hold. As of December 2018, it is planned that USAF personnel will move from RAF Mildenhall to RAF Fairford by 2024 the earliest.

A recent news report by Forces News says the closure has been extended to at least 2027. RAF Mildenhall is named after the nearby town of Suffolk, it was established as a Royal Air Force station in 1930, opened in 1934. During World War II, RAF Bomber Command used the station for operational combat missions until 1945. Placed on standby status after the war, it was reopened by the Royal Air Force and became a USAF-RAF joint operation base on 11 July 1950. Assigned to Strategic Air Command to station B-29 Superfortress bombers that date, it became a B-50 Superfortress base in 1952, a B-47 Stratojet and KC-97 Stratofreighter base in 1953 until 1958. Closed for runway repairs throughout 1958, the Military Air Transport Service transferred its main United Kingdom terminal to Mildenhall from RAF Burtonwood on 1 March 1959. S. military personnel and dependents departing the United Kingdom since. Assigned from Strategic Air Command to United States Air Forces in Europe on 1 September 1959, RAF relinquished joint operations status that date.

Has been in continuous USAFE operation to present. Reference RAF Mildenhall opened on 16 October 1934. King George V reviewed 350 aircraft there in 1935 on the occasion of his Silver Jubilee; this historical event is commemorated by a memorial tablet located in front of the Building 562, the current 100 ARW headquarters. During World War II, Mildenhall became a bomber station, flying Vickers Wellingtons, Short Stirlings and Avro Lancasters, it was the headquarters of 3 Group Bomber Command. From 1950, Mildenhall became home to bombers and tanker aircraft of the United States Air Force. Throughout the 1950s, Strategic Air Command bomber units were deployed on a regular rotational basis from the United States to the United Kingdom; the B-47 Stratojet was a familiar sight in the skies over RAF Mildenhall and RAF Upper Heyford at this time, as entire wings deployed on 90-day rotations. From 1976 to 1990, the SR-71 Blackbird was flown out of Mildenhall by Detachment 4 of the 9th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing of the USAF.

RAF Mildenhall was, until 2003, the home of the largest military-sponsored air show in Europe, when it was cancelled because of increasing operational requirements. In order to meet a perceived'continental threat', the British military developed the idea to site an RAF bomber base at Mildenhall in the late 1920s. Shortly thereafter, the government purchased the land in 1929, followed by the completion of the first buildings in 1931. Three years RAF Mildenhall opened on 16 October 1934, as one of the RAF's largest bomber stations. On the same day, Wing Commander Francis Linnell, O. B. E. Assumed his position as the stations's first station commander. Although open, the airfield had yet to receive its first complement of military aircraft. RAF Mildenhall's premature inauguration was due in large part with its selection to host the Royal Aero Club's prestigious MacRobertson Air Race on 20 October 1934. At the time, the air race stood as the longest race devised, attracted over 70,000 spectators to the airfield.

More telling of the race's significance in the world's sporting spotlight, on short notice King George V and Queen Mary visited RAF Mildenhall the day before the race. In the end, pilots Tom Campbell Black and C. W. A. Scott flying the de Havilland Comet Grosvenor House, crossed the finish line first at Melbourne, less than 72 hours after starting the race. Following this propitious beginning, RAF Mildenhall received its first squadron and aircraft with the arrival of 99B Squadron, equipped with Handley Page Heyford bombers; the threat the RAF had envisioned in the late 1920s materialised during the Munich Crisis. Between 26 September 1938 and 4 October 1939, the airfield completed its installation of its defence systems. After a brief reprieve from war, the airfield prepared for war, bringing station defences and squadrons to full combat readiness. On 3 September 1939, three days after Germany invaded Poland and France declared war on Germany; that same day, three Wellington aircraft from Mildenhall were dispatched to bomb the German naval fleet at Wilhelmshaven.

Throughout World War II, RAF Mildenhall remained active as in addition to its own airfield, the base had responsibility for Newmarket and Lakenheath. During the course of the war, the base witnessed the transition from the two-engine Wellington, to the four-engine Short Stirling, to the Avro Lancaster. In 1941 RAF Mildenhall was used

1983 Pacific hurricane season

The 1983 Pacific hurricane season was the longest season recorded at that time, surpassed by the 2015 and 2016 seasons. It was a active Pacific hurricane season; the season started on May 15, 1983 in the eastern Pacific, on June 1, 1983 in the central Pacific, lasted until November 30, 1983. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. During the 1983 season, there were 21 named storms, less than the previous season. Furthermore, twelve of those storms became hurricanes, and eight of the storms reached major hurricane status, or Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. The decaying 1982–83 El Niño event contributed to this level of activity; that same El Niño influenced a quiet Atlantic hurricane season. The first storm of the season, Hurricane Adolph became the southernmost-forming east Pacific tropical cyclone on record after forming at a latitude of 7.1°N. After a slow start, activity picked up in July, when Hurricane Gil moved through the Hawaiian Islands, resulting in moderate damage.

In early August, Hurricane Ismael was responsible for $19 million in damage. During early September, Hurricanes Kiko and Lorena brought significant damage and seven deaths to southern Mexico. About a month Tropical Storm Octave became the worst tropical cyclone on record to affect Arizona. Octave killed 15 people, caused $500 million in damage to Arizona and $12.5 million to New Mexico. In October, Hurricane Tico was a intense hurricane at the time of its landfall and thus left 25,000 homeless. Damage throughout the country was estimated at $200 million while 135 deaths were reported in Mexico. Although most of its impact occurred in Mexico, Tico's remnants brought significant flooding in the Central United States, resulting in six deaths and $42 million in damage. A few days Hurricane Raymond posed a threat to Hawaii, but did little actual damage; the final storm of the season, Hurricane Winnie, was a rare December cyclone. During the 1983 season, a total of 21 named storms formed, well-above the long-term average of 15.

However, this total was less active than the 1982 Pacific hurricane season, which saw a then-record 22 storms form. However, 1983 was at that time the most active season in the Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center warning zone, but this record itself was surpassed during the 1985 Pacific hurricane season, again in the 1992 Pacific hurricane season. Additionally, 12 storms reached hurricane intensity, above the average of eight. Of the 12 hurricanes, eight attained Category 3 intensity or higher on the SSHWS; the season started on May 21 with the formation of Adolph and ended on December 9, with the dissipation of Hurricane Winnie. Lasting 201 days, 1983 was the longest season on record. There were a total of 1,238 storm hours, the most in four years. Despite the activity in the EPHC's warning responsibility, only two storms formed in the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's area of responsibility, both of which stayed depressions. A moderate El Niño was present throughout the season, with water temperatures across the equatorial Central Pacific was nearly 5 °F above normal.

The Pacific decadal oscillation was in a warm phase during this time period. Both of these factors are known to enhance Pacific hurricane season activity. Furthermore, 1983 was in the middle of an era where all but the 1988 Pacific hurricane season was near or above average. One storm in 1983 formed in an event the occurs every other year on average. Another storm formed in June, below the average of 1.7 storms per June. Despite a somewhat slow start, activity picked up in July; this was twice the average. Although August was less active, with only 3 storms developing, compared to the average of 4, two of the storms that formed in July lasted into the early part of the month. However, activity picked back up again in September, with 5 storms forming, above the average of 3. Three storms formed in October, two storms above normal. One storm developed in November as a somewhat unusual occurrence. For the first time since 1947, a hurricane developed in December. Three storms during the season made landfall on Mexico.

The first, Adolph did so in May. The second, hit near Mazatlán as a powerful hurricane, resulting in severe damage. Around this time, a weak tropical depression made landfall along the western portion of the nation as well. In addition, Tropical Depression Raymond made landfall on Hawaii in late October. Hurricane Hunters flew into 2 storms within the EPHC zone. Moreover, they flew into 3 storms in CPHC's area of responsibility, Tropical Storms Gil and Narda, Hurricane Raymond. On May 21, a tropical depression formed 500 mi southwest of Managua, at a latitude of 7.1°N, becoming the southernmost-forming tropical cyclone in the east Pacific basin. As the depression headed west-northwestward over warm sea surface temperatures, it intensified; that day, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Adolph. Further intensification occurred. Shortly thereafter, the storm turned northwestward and intensified into a Category 2 hurricane on the SSHWS. Around that time, Adolph attained its peak intensity with winds of 110 mph as the storm developed a

Opel Corsa

The Opel Corsa is a supermini car engineered and produced by the German automobile manufacturer Opel since 1982. It has been sold under a variety of other brands and spawned various other derivatives; the front-wheel drive Opel Corsa was first launched in September 1982. It went on sale first in France and Spain - markets where small cars represented from 34 to 43 percent of sales. Built in Zaragoza, the first Corsas were three-door hatchback and two-door saloon models, with four-door and five-door versions arriving in 1984. In certain markets commercial "van" models were sold, with or without rear windows depending on local requirements. In mainland Europe, the saloon versions were known as the "Corsa TR" until May 1985 and received an eggcrate grille rather than the four slits used on hatchbacks; the saloons were intended to appeal to customers of the Opel Kadett C and its sister the Vauxhall Chevette who still desired a traditional 3-box sedan shape - but it did not sell well in most of Europe but were popular in Spain and Portugal, among other markets.

While only taking ten per cent of French Corsa sales during the car's first half year, the TR represented half of all Corsas sold in Spain. The basic trim level was called just the Corsa, followed by the Corsa Luxus, Corsa Berlina and the sporty Corsa SR; the SR receives a spoiler which surrounds the rear window, alloy wheels, checkered sport seats, a somewhat more powerful 70 PS engine. Six years the Corsa received a facelift, which included a new front fascia and some other minor changes; the models were called LS, GL, GLS and GT. The Corsa A was known in the United Kingdom market as the Vauxhall Nova, where it was launched in April 1983, following a seven month long union dispute due to British workers being angry about the car not being built there whilst British-built cars were subject to huge import tariffs in Spain prior to its entry into the European Community. Power first came from 1.0 L 45 hp, 1.2 L 55 hp, 1.3 L 70 hp petrol engines. The engines were based on the well proven Family II design, except for the 1.0 L and early 1.2 L engines, which were based on the OHV unit from the Kadett C.

There was an Isuzu-built, 67 PS 1.5 L turbo diesel engine available, used in the Isuzu Gemini at around the same time. The diesel joined the line up at the Frankfurt Motor Show, along with the sporty GSi; the engines and most of the mechanical componentry were derived from those used in the Astra/Kadett. In September 1987 the Corsa received a light facelift, with a new grille, now the same on hatchbacks and sedans, an updated interior, other slight changes. For the 1989 model year the 1.3 was bored out to 1.4 liters. Power remained the same. A rare "Sport" model was produced in 1985 to homologate for the sub 1,300 cc class of Group A for the British Rally Championship; these sport models were white and came with unique vinyl decals, a 13SB engine with twin Weber 40 DCOE carburettors, an optional bespoke camshaft, a replacement rear silencer, few luxuries. This gave a top speed of 112 mph with a 0 -- 60 mph time of 8.9 seconds. These are by far the rarest models and thus acquire a high market price if one does become available.

A 1.6 L multi point fuel-injected engine with 101 PS at 5600 rpm and capable of 186 km/h was added to the Corsa/Nova at the 1987 Frankfurt Motor Show, giving decent performance and being badged as a GSi. The GSi's engine mapping had been carried out by Opel tuning specialists Irmscher. A model with the 82 PS 1.4 L multi point fuel injected engine, otherwise mechanically identical to the GSi became available as the Nova SRi in the United Kingdom. In January 1988, a turbocharged version of the Isuzu diesel engine was introduced, with power increased to 67 PS; the design was freshened in September 1990, with new bumpers, headlights and interior, but it was recognisable as a gentle makeover of an early 1980s design, when it had to compete with the latest two all new superminis in Europe – the Peugeot 106 and the Renault Clio. The Corsa A was rebadged as the "Vauxhall Nova" between 1983 and 1993 for the United Kingdom - "Nova" being a trademark which GM used on various Chevrolet products in North America..

It replaced the ageing Chevette, which finished production in January 1984. Nearly 500,000 Novas were sold in Britain over the next ten years, but by February 2016, only 1,757 were still on the road. In its best year, 1989, it was Britain's seventh best selling car with more than 70,000 sales. All Nova models were manufactured in Spain, with the first customers in the United Kingdom taking delivery of their cars in April 1983, it gave Vauxhall a much needed modern competitor in the supermini market in the United Kingdom, as the Chevette was older than the majority of its main competitors which consisted of the Ford Fiesta and the Austin Metro. With the late 1990 facelift a small van version called the Vauxhall Nova Van. Sales in the United Kingdom were strong right up to the end, but by the time the last Nova was built in the beginning of 1993, it was looking dated in comparison to more modern rivals like the Peugeot 106 and the Renault Clio. Vauxhall dropped the Nova name in 1993 when their version of the Opel Corsa B made its debut, models were sold as the Vauxhall Corsa instead.

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