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RAF Tangmere

RAF Tangmere was a Royal Air Force station located in Tangmere, famous for its role in the Battle of Britain. The famous Second World War aces Wing Commander Douglas Bader, the inexperienced Johnnie Johnson were stationed at Tangmere in 1941; the aerodrome was founded in 1917 for use by the Royal Flying Corps as a training base. In 1918 it was turned over to the United States Army Air Force as a training ground, continued as such until the end of the Great War in November of that year, after which the airfield was mothballed. In 1925 the station re-opened to serve the RAF's Fleet Air Arm, went operational in 1926 with No. 43 Squadron equipped with biplane Gloster Gamecocks. As war threatened in the late 1930s, the fighter aircraft based at Tangmere became faster, with Hawker Furies, Gloster Gladiators, Hawker Hurricanes all being used. In 1939 the airfield was enlarged to defend the south coast against attack by the Luftwaffe, with Tangmere's only hotel and some houses being demolished in the process.

The RAF commandeered the majority of houses in the centre of the village, with only six to eight families being allowed to stay. The village would not resume its status as a civilian community until 1966. In August 1940 the first squadron of Supermarine Spitfires was based at the satellite airfield at nearby Westhampnett, as the Battle of Britain began. By now the villagers had been evacuated, extensive ranges of RAF buildings had sprung up; the first, worst, enemy raid on the station came on 16 August 1940 when hundreds of Stuka dive bombers and fighters crossed the English coast and attacked Tangmere. There was extensive damage to buildings and aircraft on the ground and 14 ground staff and six civilians were killed; however the station was brought back into full operation. Throughout the war, the station was used by the Royal Air Force Special Duty Service when 161 Squadron's Lysander flight came down to do their insertion and pick-up operations into occupied Europe; the SOE used Tangmere Cottage, opposite the main entrance to the base to house and receive their agents.

Today the cottage sports a commemorative plaque to its former secret life. In the war, as the RAF turned from defence to attack, Group Captain Douglas Bader, the legless fighter ace, commanded the Tangmere wing of Fighter Command. Today he is commemorated by a plaque outside the former Bader Arms public house, now a Co-operative Food outlet in the village. 616 Squadron, which included Johnnie Johnson and Hugh Dundas, arrived at Tangmere in late February 1941. Johnson went on to become the highest scoring Western Allied fighter ace against the Luftwaffe. Many of those killed at the base, from both sides in conflict, are buried in the cemetery at St Andrews Church, today tended by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. American RAF pilot Billy Fiske who died at Tangmere in 1940 was one of the first American aviators to die during the Second World War. After the war, the RAF High Speed Flight was based at Tangmere as part of Central Fighter Establishment. In September 1946, a world air speed record of 616 mph was set by Group Captain Edward "Teddy" Mortlock Donaldson in a Gloster Meteor.

In September 1953, Squadron Leader Neville Duke became holder of the world air speed record when he flew a Hawker Hunter at 727 mph – the 50th anniversary of this event was commemorated in 2003. No 38 Group Tactical Communications Wing RAF and 244 Signal Squadron were the last units to leave the base, relocating to RAF Benson. On 1 June 1950, a Gloster Meteor flying eastwards over Portsmouth reported a UFO at 20,000ft, it is seen by the radar at RAF Wartling, was described as Britain's first flying saucer, led to the Flying Saucer Working Party that year. In the late 1950s the flying was restricted to ground radar calibration and the Joint Services Language School moved there. In 1960 the station was granted the "Freedom of Chichester" and the event was marked by a march through the town and service in the Cathedral; some of the last flying units to be based at the station included: No. 245 Squadron RAF. No. 98 Squadron RAF No. 115 Squadron RAF'B' Flt, No. 22 Squadron RAF In 1963-64 the last flying units left.

However the station continued to be used for several years and, in 1968, Prince Charles took his first flying lesson at Tangmere. The station closed on 16 October 1970. Following the closure of the RAF station, some of the land around the runways was returned to farming. Tangmere Airfield Nurseries have built large glasshouses for the cultivation of peppers and aubergines; until 1983 37 acres of barracks, admin blocks and repair workshops remained derelict until bought by Seawards Properties Ltd. Housing soon spread around the airfield, most RAF buildings were demolished. Officers' quarters have been retained as homes and a two original RAF buildings remain, the grade II listed Control Tower, one of the ‘H Block’ accommodation buildings; the majority of the airfield is now farmed, since 1979 the runways have been removed thus returning the whole airfield back to large scale farming once again. In 2016 the final piece of apron and the three T.2 hangars were removed, with houses built in their place on a street called Hangar Drive.

The derelict control tower forms part of the farm but is n

List of English words of Brittonic origin

The number of English words known to be derived from the Brittonic language is remarkably small. In fact, as far as can be ascertained it is lower than the number of words of Gaulish origin found in the English language, which arrived through Norman French; the influence of the Brittonic language on English has been limited. However, it is possible that many British words have been obscured by their close similarity to Germanic words which are perceived to offer a more etymology, that some of them have been misidentified as Gaulish via French, which are unattested until after the Norman invasion; this list does not include words of Celtic origin borrowed into English from other languages/later forms of Brittonic, namely: Later Brythonic: Welsh, Cornish, or Breton. Gaelic Gaulish Gaulish or similar Indo-European via early Germanic. Conservative scholarship recognises fewer than ten' Brittonic loan-words in English; this list includes all the putatively Brittonic loan-words listed in key surveys, to which a range of suggestions for Brittonic etymologies for words attested only in Old English could be added, principally from the work of Andrew Breeze.

Oxford English Dictionary etymologies are included to indicate the view of this authoritative source, distinguishing between the first and third editions.' Brittonicisms in English Celtic language-death in England Why Don’t the English Speak Welsh? - Hildegard Tristram

Mariah Robertson

Mariah Robertson is an American photographer. She lives in New York City. Robertson has exhibited work internationally including at Saatchi Gallery in London and MoMA PS1 in Long Island City. In 2015 she co-founded Situations gallery on the Lower East Side in New York City with Jackie Klempay, where she hosts Temporal Situations, a month-long program of live and time-based events. Robertson was born in Indianapolis and spent her childhood in Sacramento, California, she served as curator at Lair of the Minotaur gallery in San Francisco in the 2000s. 2006: Please lie down and take a nap with me in my grave, Guild & Greyshkul, New York City 2007: Nudes, Still Lives and Landscapes, Guild & Greyshkul, New York City 2009: Guild & Greyshkul, New York City. Performance. 2009: I am Passions, Marvelli Gallery, New York City 2009: Take Better Pictures, Museum 52, New York City 2010: Performance, Art Basel Miami Beach, Miami, FL. Curated by Klaus Biesenbach. 2010: Solo Presentation, Art Forum Berlin, Berlin 2011: MoMA PS1, Long Island City, NY.

Performance. 2011: Hot Tropical Rain Jam, Museum 52, New York City 2011: Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art, Gateshead, UK. Solo exhibition. 2011: Central Utah Art Center, Ephraim, UT. Performance. 2012: Let's Change, Grand Arts, Kansas City, MO. Solo exhibition. 2012: Robert and Arlene Kogod Courtyard, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC. Performance. 2012: The First Annual Artists’ Halloween Carnival and Parade, Museum of Modern Art, New York City. Performance. 2012: New Art Dealers Alliance, New York City 2018: The Hydra, M+B, Los Angeles, CA 2011: Central Utah Art Center Robertson's work is held in the following permanent public collections: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, CA Museum of Modern Art, New York City North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh, NC: 1 item "Bio, Mariah Robertson". American Contemporary, website. Archived from the original on July 10, 2012. Retrieved December 5, 2012. Official website Mariah Robertson’s Chemical Reactions | ART21 “New York Close Up” Mariah Robertson Wears a Yellow Suit to Work | "New York Close Up" | Art21 West, Tanner, "On View: Mariah Robertson’s Prismatic Photograms Showcase Her Startling Darkroom Ingenuity—See Them Here", January 19th, 2018 “The Look Out”, Art in America, May 18, 2017 Russeth, Andrew.“Mariah Robertson: Permanent Puberty at American Contemporary”The New York Observer.

November 2013. Small, Rachel. “Mariah Robertson's Unplanning.”Interview. October 2013

Dutch Landrace pig

The Dutch Landrace pig is a standardized breed of domestic pig originating in the Netherlands. The breed was developed from the native landrace of pigs of the area, crossbred with strains from neighboring counties; the Dutch Landrace is considered "a meaty and efficient breed". The breed is unusually responsive to the halothane test, which can be used to weed out individuals with low projected survivability and meat production; the Dutch Landrace is found in the south and north of the Netherlands. The Centraal Bureau Voor de Varkensfokkerij, in Nijmegen, serves as the breed registry; the breed is exported to Spain and Japan. Dutch Landrace pigs are similar to those of the other "Landrace"-named breeds of Europe, they are white, have large, drooping ears. However, they have heavier hams than some other Landrace strains; these latter two traits are stronger in individuals that are heterozygous for the halothane-responsive gene. The breed has high fertitility and strong maternal abilities. At four test stations throughout the Netherlands, the Centraal Bureau tests over 1,000 Dutch Landrace litters per year, for conformation, for the rate and meat-to-fat ratio of their weight gain.

Whether a boar can be used as a stud for artificial insemination is controlled by the Centraal Bureau, through testing of progeny, boar sire performance, conformation. The Dutch strain of the "Landrace" pig breeds originated, as its name suggests, from the native landrace of pigs in the Netherlands, plus controlled crossbreeding with German Landrace and Danish Landrace pigs. Dutch Landrace sows are the bulk of the female stock for a standardized three-way cross, the Dutch Yorkshire pig, a 3/4 Large White and 1/4 Dutch Landrace mix, developed with "great stress on production detail", by the following breeding formula: Large White boar × sow. A 1978 study showed that Dutch Landrace pigs are responsive – compared, for example, to the Dutch Yorkshire crossbreed – to the halothane-induced malignant hyperthermia test, which can be used to weed out specimens with high susceptibility to stress and abnormal meat quality. Dutch Landraces are responsive 22% of the time, those responsive to the test are ten times likelier to die during the fattening period than responsive Dutch Yorkshires.

Two 1980 follow-up studies by the same team of researchers found that the Dutch Landrace's susceptibility is inherited as "a single recessive autosomal trait", "he gene for this trait affects production traits", including carcass and meat quality. Three genotypes have been identified in the breed: Heterozygous for the gene, homozygous either for the gene, or not possessing it at all; the heterozygous has a selection advantage. The homozygous for reactivity to halothane had lowest meat quality, though highest meat production of the three genotypes, as noted in the first study, its high reactivity level can be used for screening, it has the lowest percentage loss at slaughter. Halothene-reactive castrated males, as opposed to un-modified boars, differed from non-reactive in "all carcass and meat quality traits", had "significantly lower feed conversion ratios". Halothene reactivity seems to be more heritable from the sire than the dam. List of domestic pig breeds


Atomera Incorporated is a materials engineering company and is engaged in the development, commercialization and licensing of processes and technologies for the semiconductor industry. Atomera is headquartered in Los Gatos, California, it was known as Mears Technologies, Inc. and changed its name to Atomera Incorporated in January 2016. It is traded on NASDAQ as ATOM. Atomera used atomic level material science to develop a material called Mears Silicon Technology™ in response to the slowdown in the advancement of Moore's law. MST enhances transistors to deliver better performance in today's electronics by inserting a layer of oxygen in between the silicon lattice as the latter forms MST is a thin film of 100 to 300 angstroms thick, a reengineered silicon. In 2018, Atomera Licensed MST Technology to Asahi Kasei STMicroelectronics. Materials science

Li Congyi

Li Congyi, known as the Prince of Xu, was an imperial prince of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Later Tang. He was the youngest son of its second emperor Li Siyuan. In the confusion of the destruction of Later Tang's successor state Later Jin, he was forced into claiming imperial title by Xiao Han, a general of the Khitan Liao Dynasty, was subsequently killed by Liu Zhiyuan, the founder of the succeeding Later Han. Li Congyi was born in 931, he was Li Siyuan's youngest son, the only one born after he became emperor. His biological mother was a concubine of Li Siyuan's, but nothing further is known in history about her identity. Li Siyuan gave Li Congyi to Consort Wang, to raise. In 933, Li Siyuan created Li Congyi the Prince of Xu, at the same time that he created his adoptive son Li Congke and nephews Li Congwen, Li Congzhang, Li Congmin princes. In 933, Li Congrong tried to seize power in Li Siyuan's illness, but was defeated and killed; when Li Siyuan died shortly after, Li Conghou succeeded to the throne.

Subsequently, Li Congyi's wet nurse Lady Wang was exposed to have had an affair with Li Congrong and put to death. Because of this, Li Conghou suspected Li Congyi's adoptive mother Consort Wang, but did not take further actions against her. In 934, Li Conghou was overthrown by Li Congke. In 936, Shi Jingtang — who had married Li Congyi's sister the Princess of Jin and therefore was a brother-in-law — in turn, rebelled against Li Congke declaring that as an adoptive son, Li Congke was unfit for the throne and should pass it to Li Congyi, but shortly after, with the support of the Khitan Liao Dynasty's Emperor Taizong, declared himself emperor of a new Later Jin, attacked south toward the Later Tang capital Luoyang from his power base in Taiyuan after the joint Liao/Later Jin forces defeated the Later Tang forces Li Congke sent against him; the situation at Luoyang appeared hopeless, Li Congke prepared for a mass suicide of his family members by fire. Li Congyi's mother Consort Wang tried to persuade Li Siyuan's wife, Empress Dowager Cao, the birth mother of the Princess of Jin, not to join in the mass suicide, but was unable to persuade the empress dowager.

The empress dowager, urged her to live on, so she took Li Congyi and Princess Yong'an, hid in a polo field, while Empress Dowager Cao, Li Congke, Li Congke's immediate family members, a number of officers loyal to him committed suicide by fire. Shi took over the realm. After Later Jin's takeover of Later Tang territory, Shi Jingtang created Li Congyi's sister, the Later Tang Princess of Jin, empress; the empress took Li Congyi and Consort Dowager Wang into the palace raised Li Congyi, honored Consort Dowager Wang like a mother. In 939, Shi Jingtang created Li Congyi the Duke of Xun and had him be in charge of offering sacrifices to five emperors of Tang Dynasty and Later Tang — Tang's first emperors Emperor Gaozu and Emperor Taizong, as well as Later Tang's founder Li Cunxu, Li Siyuan, Li Conghou — at Zhide Palace, where Consort Dowager Wang and Li Congyi resided. Shi Jingtang died in 942, was succeeded as emperor by his nephew Shi Chonggui. After Shi Chonggui's succession, Consort Dowager Wang and Li Congyi returned to Luoyang and took up residence there.

In contrast to Shi Jingtang's view of Khitan's Emperor Taizong as a benefactor — going as far as referring to himself as "Son Emperor" and "subject" while honoring Emperor Taizong as "Father Emperor" — Shi Chonggui, at the advice of the general Jing Yanguang, took a confrontational stance against the Khitan only referring to himself as "grandson" and not as subject, went as far as closing the Liao trade office, seizing its assets, killing Khitan merchants. This led to repeated Liao incursions. In 946, Shi Chonggui launched a punitive expedition, commanded by the generals Du Wei and Li Shouzhen, but Emperor Taizong defeated and induced Du and Li Shouzhen to surrender to him, he attacked south. With nearly the entire Later Jin army given to Du and Li Shouzhen for the expedition, Kaifeng was defenseless, Shi Chonggui surrendered, ending Later Jin. After Emperor Taizong entered Kaifeng, he claimed to be the emperor of China as well. Meanwhile, the wife of the Liao general Zhao Yanshou had died by this point, Emperor Taizong thus wanted to give Princess Yong'an to Zhao in marriage as his next wife.

As her mother, Consort Dowager Wang went to Kaifeng for the ceremony. When Emperor Taizong saw her, he, claiming that he and Li Siyuan had agreed to be blood brothers, bowed to her, greeting her as a sister-in-law. Meanwhile, Liu Suining, whose father, the Later Liang general Liu Xun, had been Consort Dowager Wang's master, asked her to intercede for him to ask for a military governorship, she did. Emperor Taizong thus commissioned Liu Suining as the military governor of Anyuan Circuit