The Fleet Finch is a two-seat, tandem training biplane produced by Fleet Aircraft of Fort Erie, Ontario. There were a number of variants based on engine variations. Over several years beginning in 1939, a total of 447 Finches were built, nearly all of them for use as elementary trainers in the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan during the Second World War; the Fleet 16B Finch II was a progressive development of the original Consolidated Fleet primary trainer, manufacture of which commenced in Canada by Fleet Aircraft in 1930. After a Royal Canadian Air Force evaluation in 1938 recommended a number of changes, a total of 431 Finch trainers were built for the RCAF between 1939 and 1941; the aircraft had conventional construction for the period with a welded steel-tube fuselage and composite metal and fabric design features, with Frise ailerons, a flat-bottom airfoiled lifting tailplane and "lifting airfoil" on the fixed vertical stabilizer, cambered into an airfoil on its port side only, to offset the P-factor of the propeller's swirling slipstream.
The RCAF acquired the aircraft type as an elementary trainer. The Fleet 16 first entered RCAF service with tandem open cockpits, but the severity of the Canadian winter necessitated the introduction of a sliding canopy at an early stage in the trainer's service career; the earlier Model 10's centre-hinged main landing gear radius rods were retained for the Model 16 series, as these centre-hinged units had replaced the "looped" left mainwheel's radius rod design, on the even-earlier Fleet Models 1, 2 & 7 biplanes from their own origins in November 1928. The Finch was a mainstay of the RCAF prior to and during the early part of the Second World War, flying at the Elementary Flying Training Schools in parallel with the better known de Havilland Tiger Moth produced in Canada; the earlier Fleet Model 7 was in use for primary training. During 1940, initial production problems were solved and timely deliveries were made to the RCAF, allowing the first training programs to start up. In the following year, the Portuguese Navy purchased ten Model 16Ds and a further five 16Ds were delivered in 1942.
A total of 606 Fleet Finches were produced as Model 16s, the majority for the RCAF. They were used as initial trainers in the BCATP at no fewer than 12 Elementary Flight Training Schools across Canada. Both the Fleet Finch and Tiger Moth were replaced by the Fairchild PT-26 Cornell; the Finch was progressively phased out of service from October 1944 with the last of the Model 16s struck off strength from the RCAF inventory in 1947. Model 10 Model was an improved Fleet 7 with a deeper rear fuselage, a new two-piece tail and a better cockpit. Model 10A Model powered by 100 hp Kinner K-5 five-cylinder radial engine Model 10B Model powered by 125 hp Kinner B-5, five cylinder radial engine Model 10D Model powered by 160 hp Kinner R-5, five cylinder radial engine Model 10-32D 32-foot-long span wing for high altitude operations in Mexico. Powered by 175 hp Kinner R5, five cylinder radial engine Model 10E Model powered by 145 hp Warner Super Scarab seven cylinder radial engine Model 10F Model powered by 145 hp Warner Super Scarab seven cylinder radial engine Model 10G Model powered by 90 hp Wright-Gypsy or 130 hp Gypsy Major inline engine, built under license in Romania at IAR, SET & ICAR factories used in Portugal.
Model 10H Model 150 hp supercharged Menasco C-4S Inline Model 16F One prototype based on the Fleet Model 10. Model 16Bregistration CF-GER, serial 399, at the Guelph Airport in Ontario and painted as 4488. Registration unknown, serial 542, at the Canadian Museum of Flight in British Columbia and painted as 4725. Registration N666J, one of two airworthy Finches based at the Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome in New York State, since at least 1970, with at least three different color schemes in its four decades-plus of flying in Old Rhinebeck's weekend airshows. Model 16Rregistration C-FDAF, serial 92319, at the Guelph Airport in Ontario and painted as 4494. Model 16Bregistration C-GQWE, serial 567, at the RCAF No.6 Dunnville Museum in Ontario and painted as 4708. Registration C-FFUI, serial 623, at the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum in Ontario and painted as 4738. Serial unknown, at the Canada Aviation and Space Museum in Ontario and painted as 4510. Data from General characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 21 ft 8 in Wingspan: 28 ft 0 in Height: 7 ft 9 in Wing area: 194.4 ft2 Empty weight: 1,222 lb Gross weight: 2,000 lb Powerplant: 1 × Kinner B-5 five-cylinder radial piston engine, 125 hp Performance Maximum speed: 104 mph Cruise speed: 85 mph Range: 300 miles Service ceiling: 10,500 ft Rate of climb: 435 ft/min Related development Fleet Model 1 Fleet Fawn Related lists List of Interwar military aircraft List of British Commonwealth Air Training Plan facilities in Canada (specifies which BCATP schools used the
Fort Macleod named Macleod, is a town in the southwest corner of the province of Alberta, Canada. It was founded as a North-West Mounted Police barracks, is named in honour of the North-West Mounted Police Colonel James Macleod, it was known as the Town of Macleod between 1892 and 1912. The fort was built as a 70 by 70 meters square on October 18, 1874; the east side held the west side held those of the Mounties. Buildings such as hospitals and guardrooms were in the south end. Stables and the blacksmith's shop were in the north end; the town grew on the location of the Fort Macleod North-West Mounted Police Barracks, the second headquarters of the NWMP after Fort Livingstone was abandoned in 1876. Fort Macleod was established in 1874 on a peninsula along the Oldman River moved in 1884 to the present town location; the Museum of the North-West Mounted Police is located in Fort Macleod. Once agricultural settlement and the railway came to the region, Macleod boomed; the town became a divisional point for the Canadian Pacific Railway and frontier wood construction began to be replaced by brick and sandstone.
In 1906 a fire destroyed most of the wooden buildings. From 1906 to 1912 Macleod had its greatest period of growth, as more new brick and stone building replaced the destroyed wooden ones. In 1912 the CPR moved the divisional point and 200 jobs to Lethbridge, devastating the local economy. Fort Macleod ceased to grow, in 1924 was forced to declare bankruptcy; until the 1970s, the town's economy stagnated and the buildings from the turn-of-the-century remained untouched. In 1978 Alberta Culture started to inventory the downtown buildings, in 1982 the downtown became Alberta's first "Provincial Historic Area"; as well, Heritage Canada started a Main Street Restoration Project in 1982, aiming to preserve the sandstone and brick buildings, some dating back to 1878. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Town of Fort Macleod recorded a population of 2,967 living in 1,226 of its 1,426 total private dwellings, a −4.8% change from its 2011 population of 3,117. With a land area of 23.41 km2, it had a population density of 126.7/km2 in 2016.
In the 2011 Census, the Town of Fort Macleod had a population of 3,117 living in 1,244 of its 1,350 total dwellings, a 1.5% change from its 2006 population of 3,072. With a land area of 23.34 km2, it had a population density of 133.5/km2 in 2011. The town is located in the Municipal District of Willow Creek No. 26, at the intersection of Highway 2 and Highway 3, on the Oldman River. It lies west of the larger community of Lethbridge, near the reserves of the Peigan and Kainai First Nations, it is located close to the Waterton Lakes National Park. The town is located 8 kilometres north of the McBride Lake Wind Farm, one of the largest wind farms in Alberta; the wind farm has a capacity of 75 megawatts of electricity. Fort Macleod experiences a humid continental climate; the community enjoys frequent breaks from cold spells in winter when the Chinook wind blows down-slope from the Rocky Mountains. A Chinook on 27 February 1992 caused the temperature to rise to 26.5 °C. The highest temperature recorded at Fort Macleod was 102 °F on 7 July 1896, 18 July 1910 and 17 July 1919.
The coldest temperature recorded was −49 °F on 2 February 1905, 17 December 1924 and 28 January 1929. The town is home to the Fort Macleod Mustangs hockey team of the Ranchland Hockey League. Fort Macleod's local weekly newspaper is the Fort Macleod Gazette. Historical newspapersMacleod Advertiser — published May 25, 1909, through September 11, 1913 Macleod Chronicle — in print July 1908 through June 1909 Macleod Gazette — early issues were entitled The Macleod Gazette and Alberta Stock Record Macleod News — ran from November 2, 1916, through to June 1919 Macleod Spectator — lasted from April 30, 1912, until October 26, 1916 A selection of historical newspapers from Fort Macleod have been digitized from microfilm and are available in the Southern Alberta Newspaper Collection from the University of Lethbridge Library digitized collections. Included are: Macleod Advertiser, Macleod Chronicle, Macleod Gazette, Macleod News, & Macleod Spectator. Henrietta Muir Edwards, women's rights activist Frederick Maurice Watson Harvey, Irish-Canadian soldier and rugby union athlete Sir Frederick Haultain, former premier of the North-West Territories Joni Mitchell, musician Constantine Scollen, missionary Ang Lee's Academy Award-winning movie Brokeback Mountain was filmed in part in Fort Macleod.
The laundry apartment is located at 2422 Third Avenue, where a sign is posted marking the "passionate reunion" of Jack and Ennis. Passchendaele was filmed in Fort Macleod's historic downtown, which acted as a stand-in for Calgary circa 1915. Scenes involving the dust storm and Matthew McConaughey's character were filmed in Fort Macleod in Christopher Nolan's 2014 film Interstellar, where the giant dust clouds were created on location using large fans to blow cellulose-based synthetic dust through the air. Francesco Lucente's motion picture drama Badland was filmed in Fort Macleod. Francesco Lucente lived in Fort Macleod from 1974 to 1978, his father Salvatore Lucente owned Queens Hotels during that time. Fort Macleod Airport List of communities in Alberta List of towns in Alberta RCAF Station Fort Macleod Famous Five Foundation biography of Henrietta Muir Edwards http://www.usask.ca/history/buffalo/About%20Buffalo.htm Official website
In the 1930s, Fleet Aircraft manufactured a series of single-engined, two-seat training aircraft, based on US designs. The Fleet Model 7B and Model 7C, known as Fawn I and Fawn II were purchased by the RCAF as primary trainers. After years of reliable service, many were available for use in the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan during the Second World War while others remained as station "hacks." As a subsidiary of Consolidated Aircraft set up in 1928, Fleet Aircraft had factories at Buffalo, NY, across the border at Fort Erie, Ontario. The Canadian company produced a series of single-engined, two-seat training aircraft, based on US designs but including variants adapted to Royal Canadian Air Force needs; the Fleet Model 7 began as an American design, the Model 2 designed by Consolidated. Besides two prototypes imported from the US, a total of seven Fleet Model 2 trainers were built in Canada for civilian operators. Derived from earlier Fleet Model 2, the Model 7 featured an aircraft structure consisting of a fabric-covered, welded-steel fuselage with metal panels forward of the wooden cockpits.
It had steel-tube faring wooden stringers. The wings were wire braced; the upper wing was constructed with two solid Spruce spars. Ailerons were found only on the bottom wings. Stamped aluminium alloy ribs were used to construct the wings and steel-tube compression struts were at the interplane and centre section of the wings. Interlaced between the wings were flying wires. Except for a broader chord tail-fin introduced after the first production series, while retaining the original rudder of the Model 2, the Model 7 was superficially identical to its earlier predecessor. A variety of equipment could be fitted to the Canadian variant including optional wheel brakes, a tail skid or tail wheel arrangement, a fuselage belly tank and a fixed cockpit enclosure or "coupe top" with hinged sides. During the late 1930s, a sliding cockpit enclosure became standard equipment of all RCAF Fawns; the aircraft could be configured to use skis, floats or wheels. The main landing gear's radius rods on the Models 2 and 7 were notable for having the one coming from the left wheel "looped", with an open oval piece near its middle, so the one from the right mainwheel could pass right through it.
Engine choices further dictated the different variants of the Fawn design: the Mk I with a 125 hp Kinner B-5 engine was superseded by the Mk II powered by a 140 hp Armstrong Siddeley Civet seven-cylinder radial engine. Although the RCAF ordered the bulk of the production runs, 12 civil-registered Model 7Bs were completed for the Department of National Defence to be issued to flying clubs; the Fleet Model7 first saw service with the Royal Canadian Air Force in 1931 when 20 Mk Is were delivered. As a two-seater primary trainer they were felt to have excellent flying characteristics together with a rugged strength which inspired confidence in novice pilots; the RCAF was impressed with the Fleet Fawn and claimed that the aircraft was one of the factors which improved its flying standards during the 1930s. A total of 31 Model 7Cs were built between 1931 and 1938 at the Fleet Aircraft of Canada's plant at Fort Erie, with the first deliveries made in 1936. Due to the smoother and more powerful engine, the Model 7C was considered the definitive variant.
Forty three Fleet Model 7B and C trainers were operational with the Royal Canadian Air Force when war was declared in 1939. In service during the Second World War, the RCAF adopted the name "Fawn" for both variants. Along with the more modern follow-up design, the Fleet Finch, Fleet Fawns helped train thousands of pilots under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan during the war; the Fawn remained in service with the RCAF until 1947. Model 7A One example completed with a 100 hp Kinner K-5 radial engine Fleet Model 7B 32 examples with a 125 hp Kinner B-5 engine five-cylinder, radial engine Fleet Model 7C 31 examples with a 140 hp Armstrong Siddeley Civet seven-cylinder, radial engine Model 7G A "one-off" conversion of a Model B with a 120 hp de Havilland Gipsy III, four-cylinder, inline engine CATA 150 A conversion of Fleet 7 biplanes in Argentina, powered by 150 hp Lycoming O-320 engines. CanadaRoyal Canadian Air Force Department of National Defence A number of airframes are still in existence including a Fleet Fawn Mk II CF-CHF on display at the Reynolds-Alberta Museum in Wetaskiwin, Alberta.
Fleet 7 Fawn MK1 on display at Yanks air museum Chino CA, Chino Airport Information based on Fleet: The Flying Years Manufacturer: Fleet Aircraft of Canada Crew/Passengers: two pilots in tandem Powerplant: one 125 hp Kinner B-5 five-cylinder radial piston engine Dimensions Length: 21 ft 8 in Height: 7 ft 10 in Span: 28 ft 0 in Wing area: 194 sq ft Weights Empty: 1,130 lb Gross: 1,860 lb Performance Maximum speed: 112 mph Cruising speed: 87 mph Service ceiling: 15,500 ft Range: 320 mi Armament: None Related development Fleet Model 1 Fleet Finch Related lists List of Interwar military aircraft Notes Bibliography Fleet Fawn Mk II Fleet Fawn
The Avro Lancaster is a British four-engined Second World War heavy bomber. It was designed and manufactured by Avro as a contemporary of the Handley Page Halifax, both bombers having been developed to the same specification, as well as the Short Stirling, all three aircraft being four-engined heavy bombers adopted by the Royal Air Force during the same wartime era; the Lancaster has its origins in the twin-engine Avro Manchester, developed during the late 1930s in response to the Air Ministry Specification P.13/36 for a capable medium bomber for "world-wide use". Developed as an evolution of the Manchester, the Lancaster was designed by Roy Chadwick and powered by four Rolls-Royce Merlins and in one version, Bristol Hercules engines, it first saw service with RAF Bomber Command in 1942 and as the strategic bombing offensive over Europe gathered momentum, it was the main aircraft for the night-time bombing campaigns that followed. As increasing numbers of the type were produced, it became the principal heavy bomber used by the RAF, the RCAF and squadrons from other Commonwealth and European countries serving within the RAF, overshadowing contemporaries such as the Halifax and Stirling.
A long, unobstructed bomb bay meant that the Lancaster could take the largest bombs used by the RAF, including the 4,000 lb, 8,000 lb and 12,000 lb blockbusters, loads supplemented with smaller bombs or incendiaries. The "Lanc", as it was known colloquially, became one of the most used of the Second World War night bombers, "delivering 608,612 long tons of bombs in 156,000 sorties"; the versatility of the Lancaster was such that it was chosen to equip 617 Squadron and was modified to carry the Upkeep "Bouncing bomb" designed by Barnes Wallis for Operation Chastise, the attack on German Ruhr valley dams. Although the Lancaster was a night bomber, it excelled in many other roles, including daylight precision bombing, for which some Lancasters were adapted to carry the 12,000 lb Tallboy and the 22,000 lb Grand Slam earthquake bombs; this was the largest payload of any bomber in the war. In 1943, a Lancaster was converted to become an engine test bed for the Metropolitan-Vickers F.2 turbojet. Lancasters were used to test other engines, including the Armstrong Siddeley Mamba and Rolls-Royce Dart turboprops and the Avro Canada Orenda and STAL Dovern turbojets.
Postwar, the Lancaster was supplanted as the main strategic bomber of the RAF by the Avro Lincoln, a larger version of the Lancaster. The Lancaster took on the role of long range anti-submarine patrol aircraft and air-sea rescue, it was used for photo-reconnaissance and aerial mapping, as a flying tanker for aerial refuelling and as the Avro Lancastrian, a long-range, high-speed, transatlantic passenger and postal delivery airliner. In March 1946, a Lancastrian of BSAA flew the first scheduled flight from the new London Heathrow Airport. In the 1930s, the Royal Air Force was interested in twin-engine bombers; these designs put limited demands on engine production and maintenance, both of which were stretched with the introduction of so many new types into service. Power limitations were so serious that the British invested in the development of huge engines in the 2,000 horsepower class in order to improve performance. During the late 1930s, none of these was ready for production. Both the United States and the Soviet Union were pursuing the development of bombers powered by arrangements of four smaller engines, the results of these projects proved to possess favourable characteristics such as excellent range and fair lifting capacity.
Accordingly, in 1936, the RAF decided to investigate the feasibility of the four-engined bomber. The origins of the Lancaster stem from a twin-engined bomber design, submitted in response to Specification P.13/36, formulated and released by the British Air Ministry during the mid 1930s. This specification had sought a new generation of twin-engined medium bombers suitable for "worldwide use". Further requirements of the specification included the use of a mid-mounted cantilever monoplane wing, all-metal construction. Various candidates were submitted for the specification by such manufacturers as Fairey, Boulton Paul, Handley Page and Shorts; the majority of these engines were under development at this point. In response, British aviation company Avro decided to submit their own design, designated the Avro 679, to meet Specification P.13/36. In February 1937, following consideration of the designs by the Air Ministry, Avro's design submission was selected along with Handley Page's bid being chosen as "second string".
Accordingly, during April 1937, a pair of prototypes of both designs were ordered. The resulting aircraft, named the Manchester, entered RAF service in November 1940. Although considered to be a capable aircraft in most areas, the Manchester proved to be underpowered and troubled by the unreliability of the Vulture engine; as a result, only 200 Manchesters were constructed and the
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
De Havilland Tiger Moth
The de Havilland DH.82 Tiger Moth is a 1930s British biplane designed by Geoffrey de Havilland and built by the de Havilland Aircraft Company. It was operated by many other operators as a primary trainer aircraft. In addition to the type's principal use for ab-initio training, the Second World War saw RAF Tiger Moths operating in other capacities, including maritime surveillance and defensive anti-invasion preparations; the Tiger Moth remained in service with the RAF until it was succeeded and replaced by the de Havilland Chipmunk during the early 1950s. Many of the military surplus aircraft subsequently entered into civil operation. Many nations have used the Tiger Moth in both military and civil applications, it remains in widespread use as a recreational aircraft in several countries, it is still used as a primary training aircraft for those pilots wanting to gain experience before moving on to other tailwheel aircraft. Many Tiger Moths are now employed by various companies offering trial lesson experiences.
The de Havilland Moth club, founded in 1975, is now an owners' association offering a mutual club and technical support. Among the reasons for which de Havilland came to pursue development of the Tiger Moth was the personal dissatisfaction of Geoffrey de Havilland, the company's owner and founder, who sought to produce a light aircraft superior to two of his previous designs, the de Havilland Humming Bird and de Havilland DH.51. From earlier experience, de Havilland knew the difficulty and importance of sizing such an aircraft to appeal to various sectors of the civil market, such as touring, flying club and private aviation customers; the starting point for the Tiger Moth was, in fact, the successful Gypsy Tiger. Successively more capable engines had been developed, the company had produced a prototype to test the new de Havilland Gipsy III engine; this prototype, a low-wing monoplane, was a modification of the standard Gypsy Tiger. Improvements made on the Tiger Moth monoplane were first incorporated into a military trainer variant of the de Havilland DH.60 Moth, designated the DH.60T Moth – in parlance the T came to stand for'Tiger' in addition to'Trainer'.
According to aviation author A. J. Jackson, development of the standard Tiger Moth version from the monoplane prototype had proceeded straightforward after this point; the DH.60T Moth had several shortcomings, thus was subject to several alterations, such as the adoption of shortened interplane struts in order to raise the wingtips after insufficient ground clearance was discovered while it was undergoing trials at RAF Martlesham Heath. As a result of the Martlesham trials, a favourable report for the type was produced, which in turn led to the type soon being formally adopted as the new basic trainer of the Royal Air Force. A single prototype, designated the DH.82 Tiger Moth, was ordered by the British Air Ministry under Specification 15/31, which sought a suitable ab-initio training aircraft. One of the main changes made from the preceding Moth series was necessitated by a desire to improve access to the front cockpit since the training requirement specified that the front seat occupant had to be able to escape especially when wearing a parachute.
Access to the front cockpit of the Moth's predecessors was restricted by the proximity of the aircraft's fuel tank, directly above the front cockpit and the rear cabane struts for the upper wing. The solution adopted was to shift the upper wing forward but sweep the wings back to maintain the centre of lift. Other changes included a strengthened structure, fold-down doors on both sides of the cockpit and a revised exhaust system. On 26 October 1931 the first'true' Tiger Moth, the prototype E6, conducted its maiden flight at Stag Lane Aerodrome, London. Shortly thereafter construction of the first 35 production aircraft for the RAF, designated K2567-K2601, began following the issuing of Specification T.23/31. The Tiger Moth became a commercial success, various models were exported to more than 25 air forces of various nations. In addition to the military demand, aircraft were produced for the civil market. At one point the flow of orders for the Tiger Moth occupied the entirety of de Havilland's capacity to manufacture aircraft, little capacity could be spared to accommodate domestic customers.
In 1932 de Havilland developed an affordable air taxi from the Tiger Moth. Following the end of all manufacturing, third parties would re-build Tiger Moths to a similar configuration to the Fox Moth, such as the Thruxton Jackaroo. In late 1934 50 Tiger Moths of a more refined design, sometimes referred to as the Tiger Moth II, were delivered to the RAF. Throughout the period 1934–1936 production activity was centred upon meeting the demand for military trainers, including several contracts having been placed by the RAF to Specification T.7/35 a
The Airspeed AS.10 Oxford was a twin-engine monoplane aircraft developed and manufactured by Airspeed. It saw widespread use for training British Commonwealth aircrews in navigation, radio-operating and gunnery roles throughout the Second World War; the Oxford was developed by Airspeed during the 1930s in response to a requirement for a capable trainer aircraft that conformed with Specification T.23/36, issued by the British Air Ministry. Its basic design is derived from a commercial passenger aircraft. Performing its maiden flight on 19 June 1937, it was put into production as part of a rapid expansion of the Royal Air Force in anticipation of a large-scale conflict; as a consequence of the outbreak of war, many thousands of Oxfords would be ordered by Britain and its allies, including Australia, France, New Zealand and the United States. Following the end of the conflict, the Oxford continued to achieve export sales for some time, equipping the newly formed air forces of Egypt, India and Yugoslavia.
It was considered to be a capable trainer aircraft throughout the conflict, as well as being used a general-purpose type. A large number of Oxfords have been preserved on static display. During the 1930s, a major expansion of the Royal Air Force had been directed by the British government, which led to the formulation and issuing of a number of operational requirements by the Air Ministry. One of these was Operational Requirement 42, which sought an advanced training aircraft to be used by aircrews destined to serve on bomber aircraft; as the RAF was in the process of migrating from biplanes to monoplanes, which were capable of greater speeds and had more demanding flight characteristics, a suitable trainer was needed to match this step change. At one point, the Avro Anson was considered for the role, however, it was thought that an aircraft more difficult to fly would be necessary. Accordingly, on 10 July 1936, Specification T.23/36 was issued to Airspeed for the development of a twin-engined training aircraft to meet OR.42.
Developed to meet the requirements of Specification T.23/36 by Airspeed, the Oxford was based on the company's existing commercial 8-seater aircraft, the AS.6 Envoy, designed by Hessell Tiltman. Seven Envoys had been modified for the South African Air Force as the "Convertible Envoy", which could be equipped at short notice with bomb racks and with a machine-gun in a hand-operated Armstrong Whitworth dorsal turret. Airspeed gained substantial benefit from its prior work on the Envoy and the Convertible Envoy in its development of the Oxford; the Air Ministry approved of the project, leading to an initial order for the type being placed during 1937. It was decided to opt for a large first batch, totalling 136 aircraft, as this allowed for the implementation of more economical flow-line production at Airspeed's Portsmouth factory. On 19 June 1937, L4534, conducted its first flight at Portsmouth. Two variants were planned; as further large contracts for the aircraft were placed with Airspeed, it was arranged that de Havilland Aircraft would build them at Hatfield to meet the demands for Oxfords for training.
Other companies manufactured the aircraft. By the end of production, a total of 8,751 Oxfords had been completed. Of these, 4,411 had been produced by Airspeed at its Portsmouth factory, another 550 at the Airspeed-run shadow factory at Christchurch, Dorset, 1,515 by de Havilland at Hatfield, 1,360 by Percival Aircraft at Luton and 750 by Standard Motors at Coventry; the Oxford was a low-wing twin-engine cantilever monoplane, featuring a semi-monocoque constructed fuselage, a conventional landing gear configuration and a wooden tail unit. It was capable of reproducing the flight characteristics of many contemporary front-line aircraft in military service, it was developed to be suitable for a range of training missions, including navigation, flying instruction, night flying, instrument flying, direction-finding and vertical photography. The Oxford was planned and developed to incorporate various modern innovations and equipment fittings, including a full array of instruments and controls within the cockpit, which assisted in its principal trainer role.
In addition, the Oxford could be used in various secondary roles, such as an air ambulance and maritime patrol aircraft. In terms of flying experience, the Oxford was suitably representative as to enable pilots to migrate onto larger transport aircraft with ease while possessing smooth flight characteristics; the controls were straightforward remaining consistent and adjustable. It was equipped with the standard blind-flying panel, incorporating an airspeed indicator, artificial horizon, directional gyroscope, rate of climb indicator and turn indicator. Life support equipment includes three oxygen regulators, a flowmeter, three bayonet unions and three high-pressure oxygen cylinders of 750 litres capacity; the external view of the cockpit was considered to be high for the era, superior to the majority of its contemporaries, but is unavoidably interrupted by the engine cowlings acting as blind spots. It was operated by a three-man crew; the cockpit was outfitted with dual flying controls and