Carrier Dome is a 49,250-seat domed sports stadium located on the campus of Syracuse University in the University Hill neighborhood of Syracuse, New York. It is home to the Syracuse Orange football and lacrosse teams; the Syracuse Orange men's basketball team drew the highest average home attendance in college basketball in 2015-16, with an average of 26,253. In 2006–07, the women's basketball team began playing home games in the Dome. New York high school football state championships as well as the annual New York State Field Band Conference championships are held in the stadium, as are occasional concerts; the Carrier Dome is the largest domed stadium of any college campus, the largest domed stadium in the Northeastern United States. It is the largest on-campus basketball arena in the nation, with a listed capacity of 33,000. However, that number has been exceeded on many occasions with a record attendance of 35,642. Toward the end of the 1970s, Syracuse University was under pressure to improve its football facilities in order to remain a Division I-A football school.
Its small concrete stadium, Archbold Stadium, was 70 years old and not up to the standards of other schools. The stadium could not be expanded. Therefore, Syracuse University decided to build a new stadium on the site of Archbold, appropriately for Syracuse's cold weather, was to have a domed Teflon-coated, fiberglass inflatable roof. While the Dome was being built during the 1979 season, Syracuse played "home" games at three different locations—Giants Stadium, home of the NFL's New York Giants; when it opened in September 1980, it was made clear. The inflatable roof causes the sound produced to echo many times, multiplying the loudness produced inside, it would serve as the home for the men's basketball team, as a replacement for Manley Field House. Syracuse University's men's basketball per-game and single-season attendance numbers are annual contenders for the top rank in the nation. Lacrosse crowds are not as large, but the venue allows Syracuse's lacrosse teams to play home games throughout the February–May regular season.
The Dome has seen many of NCAA basketball's largest crowds. On February 1, 2014, the attendance record for an NCAA men's basketball on-campus game was broken by a few hundred spectators in the Duke vs. Syracuse ACC matchup. Attendance was announced as 35,446, as Syracuse went on to win 91-89, in dramatic fashion in overtime; this win marked the 21st straight win of the season for the Orange, breaking a school record for the longest unbeaten streak to start a season. The previous attendance record was set February 23, 2013, the final game vs. long-standing Big East Conference rivals Georgetown Hoyas, as a member of the Big East. The Orange were defeated 57-46. Prior to the Georgetown Hoyas attendance record, Syracuse University held the previous attendance record also. On February 27, 2010, an announced attendance of 34,616 came to see the Orange beat the Villanova Wildcats 95-77. University officials considered moving the basketball court to the middle of the football field for the 2014 regular season game with Duke- a move that could have pushed the attendance over 50,000.
It was decided, that the court would stay in its usual location. However, the university did reconfigure the Dome to hold a new record capacity of 35,446. For the 2018–19 season, Syracuse modified the Dome's basketball configuration to allow a maximum crowd of 35,642, on February 23, 2019, the Orange drew that exact number for the visit of top-ranked Duke, setting a new single-game record for on-campus college basketball attendance; this number surpassed the entire regular-season home attendance of 180 different NCAA Division I men's teams in that same season—more than half of the 353 teams that played in Division I. On March 19, 2007, a new NIT attendance record was set, at 26,752, in the second-round men's basketball game against the San Diego State University Aztecs. On November 22, 2014, the Syracuse Crunch of the American Hockey League set a new "United States Indoor Professional Hockey" record by playing in front of 30,715 fans at the Carrier Dome for the "Toyota Frozen Dome Classic".
Syracuse defeated the Utica Comets 2-1. The Oswego State Lakers hosted a game against the Utica Pioneers, establishing an NCAA record attendance volume for a Division III hockey game. Oswego tied Utica with a final score of 4-4; the 1981 Big East Conference men's basketball tournament was held there, as were the 1988 and 1991 Division I NCAA Men's Lacrosse Championships. The Men's NCAA Basketball Tournament East Regional semi-finals & finals have been held at the Dome seven times; the NCAA Men's Division I Indoor Track and Field Championships were held there in 1984 and 1985. Artists who have performed at the stadium include Paul McCartney, Bon Jovi, David Bowie, Van Halen, Elton John, Billy Joel, Bruce Springsteen, Garth Brooks, Rod Stewart, U2, The Rolling Stones, The Police, Frank Sinatra, The Who, Neil Diamond, Kid Cudi, Grateful Dead, Kid Rock, Duran Duran, Kenny Chesney, Rick Ross, Meek Mill, Taylor Swift, Pink Floyd, Zac Brown Band and Ryan Lewis, Kaskade, Trey Songz and Travis Scott among others.
Each October, the Dome hosts the New York State Field Band Conference marching band championships. It hosts the New York State High School Football Championshi
Indiana Convention Center
The Indiana Convention Center is a major convention center located in Downtown Indianapolis, United States. The original structure has undergone multiple expansions. In total, there are 71 meeting rooms, 11 exhibit halls, three multi-purpose ballrooms; the connected facilities of Lucas Oil Stadium offer an additional 183,000 square feet of exhibit space and 12 meeting rooms. Named the Indiana Convention-Exposition Center, the venue first opened in 1972; the first major expansion to the Indiana Convention Center was finished in 1984 concurrent with construction of the Hoosier Dome, to which it was connected. The combined cost was around $94.7 million. The center was used as the site of the boxing events at the 1987 Pan American Games. During the games, anti-Castro protestors mocked the Cuban boxers from the stands; the police were unable to stop the Cuban boxers from entering the stands and punching the protestors in retaliation. According to witnesses, up to a dozen Cuban boxers, including Pablo Romero, as well as a hundred spectators were involved.
Two people were hospitalized. The most recent major expansion to the ICC was undertaken from 2008 to 2011. In the first phase of that expansion, Lucas Oil Stadium was constructed one block south of the RCA Dome. Opening in August 2008, the stadium covers 1.8 million square feet. Upon completion of Lucas Oil Stadium, the RCA Dome was demolished; the iconic air-lifted dome was deflated and the implosion of the stadium was completed in December 2008. A new two-story convention center building was constructed on the site. An underground walkway along the west side of Capitol Avenue was built to directly connect this new portion of the facility to Lucas Oil Stadium. Ratio Architects, Inc. was the lead architectural firm for the expansion, assisted by other Indiana companies, BSA LifeStructures, Blackburn Architects, Domain Architecture Inc. Indianapolis-headquartered Shiel Sexton Co. Inc. was the lead construction manager, in association with Powers & Sons Construction Company Inc. In addition to its space, the Indiana Convention Center now possesses 49 loading docks, seven drive-in ramps and three food courts.
It is connected to over 4,700 downtown hotel rooms via skywalks. The Indiana Convention Center has been the host to a large variety of conventions; these include: Annual Events Gen Con FDIC International Indy PopCon Indiana Comic Con Big Ten Football Championship Game Fan Fest Indiana Black Expo Summer Celebration National FFA Convention Performance Racing Industry Show Indianapolis Auto ShowPast Events 1987 Pan American Games boxing competitions Star Wars Celebration II and III USA Wrestling 2003 Senior World Team Trials NFL Experience Bracket Town Final Four Fan Fest Tourney Town Church of the Nazarene General Assembly NFL Scouting Combine Experience United Pentecostal Church International North American Youth Congress King at Rest Indiana Convention Center & Lucas Oil Stadium
Geiger Engineers is a structural engineering consulting firm located northwest of New York City. Founded in 1988 by David H. Geiger, the company has worked on large projects throughout the world. Building from a solid foundation in long span and tensile membrane structures, Geiger Engineers has branched out over the years into a range of specialties from designing sports facilities to providing engineering services for the entertainment industry. Recent high-profile projects include the new retractable roof on the USTA's Arthur Ashe Stadium, the new roof for BC Place Stadium in Vancouver and the Flushing Meadows Corona Park Pool and Rink in Queens, New York which won the national 2009 AISC Ideas2 Award for Innovative Design in Engineering and Architecture with Structural Steel. In addition to providing a wide range of engineering services, Geiger Engineers continues to be involved in industry innovations. For example, in 2008 it was announced that the new Tensotherm composite fabric with Lumira aerogel would be used for the first time on the Dedmon Athletic Center’s new roof.
“Working with Cabot and Geiger Engineers, we now have… long-wearing insulated light transmissive fabric system that…meets performance standards and… higher energy-efficiency.” More Geiger has developed a nonlinear bearing for large movable structures such as retractable roofs. This nonlinear bearing is an improvement on the used linear bearing in that it is able to combine rotation and translation in varying ways thereby giving structural designers greater flexibility. In 1968 while an adjunct professor at Columbia University David Geiger was contacted by Davis-Brody, a New York architectural firm. With their design of a 30-story tall, air-supported fabric structure, Davis-Brody had won the design competition for the U. S. exhibition hall at Expo'70 in Osaka, Japan. They needed a structural engineer with the expertise to implement their design and they turned to Dr. Geiger. In order to meet the lower than expected budget passed by Congress, Geiger changed the design and invented the low profile cable-restrained air-supported roof.
The success of the Osaka Pavilion led to a surge in the design and construction of air-supported roofs. After Osaka, Geiger founded Geiger Berger Associates with Horst Berger and the firm remained central to the new-found interest in utilizing air-supported roofs. Eight stadia were built with air-supported roofs in the U. S. during the 1970s and early 1980s with Geiger Berger Associates as the structural engineers for all of them. As important as the air-supported roof projects was Geiger Berger's work in pioneering long-span cable, tensile membrane, tensegrity structures. Among the notable structures engineered by Geiger Berger are the tensile membrane Hajj Terminal which in 2010 won the AIA 25-Year Award. In addition, Geiger Berger was involved in the development of structural fabric materials such as Teflon PTFE coated fiberglass. By the early 1980s, the partnership between David Geiger and Horst Berger began to break apart and in 1983 Geiger Berger Associates was dissolved. Geiger founded Geiger Associates, bought by KKBN in 1986.
In 1988, the year before he died, David Geiger helped found Geiger Engineers with a group of former colleagues from Geiger Associates. New Louis Armstrong Stadium, USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center, New York, USA U. S. Bank Stadium - Snow Catchment Walls, Minnesota, USA Flushing Meadows-Corona Park Pool and Rink, New York, USA TD Arena, College of Charleston, South Carolina, USA Athletic and Wellness Center, SUNY at New Paltz, New Paltz, New York, USA Resch Center Arena, Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA Xcel Energy Center, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA PNC Arena, Raleigh, NC, USA Verizon Arena, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA Bon Secours Wellness Arena, South Carolina, USA Icahn Stadium, Randall’s Island, New York, New York, USA Myao Li Arena, Myao Li County, Taiwan, R. O. C. Arthur Ashe Stadium, New Retractable Roof, USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center, New York, USA BC Place Stadium Revitalization, New Roof, British Columbia, Canada Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome Roof Replacement, Minnesota, USA Canada Harbour Place, Fabric Roof Replacement, British Columbia Trade & Convention Centre, British Columbia, Canada Dedmon Center Roof Replacement, Radford University, Virginia, USA Littlejohn Coliseum Renovation, Clemson University, South Carolina, USA Purcell Pavilion at the Joyce Center, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana, USA USTA National Tennis Center, Stadium 3 Renovation, New York, USA Centerhung LED Scoreboard, Golden1 Center, California, USA Sami Family Amphitheater, Zoo Miami, Florida, USA Lyric Theater, modular stage apron, New York, New York, USA Marvel Experience, touring interactive show in air-inflated domes, various cities, USA NBC's Million Second Quiz, prime-time outdoor stage structure and set, New York, New York, USA 150th Cinco de Mayo Celebration outdoor stage and set, Puebla, Mexico Halo for 2011 Pan American Games Opening Ceremonies, Omnilife Stadium, Jalisco, Mexico Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark, New York, New York, USA Stage Lifts, Le Rêve's "aqua" theater, Wynn Casino, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA Aria Pool Deck Structures, Aria Resort & Casino, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA Conference Table in the Sky, Butler Amusements, California, USA Large onstage tilting turntable for LA Opera, Los Angeles, Califo
HNTB Corporation is an American architecture, civil engineering consulting and construction management firm, founded in 1914. The firm has numerous offices across the United States, has designed many roadways, bridges, sports stadiums, rail and transit systems across the United States and around the world. In 1941, it changed its name to Howard, Tammen & Bergendoff when Enoch Needles, Henry Tammen & Ruben Bergendoff joined as partners. In 1975, it merged with Myers to form a sports architecture practice. In 1982, it acquired the rail firm of Thomas K. Dyer adding track, signal and traction power to its portfolio, thus positioning the firm to serve the rail industry. In 1993, it formally changed its name to HNTB Corporation. In 2000 the firm became employee-owned; the firm provides infrastructure services in the following areas. Laddie Irion is HNTB's national aviation market sector leader. In 2014, Airport Business Magazine recognized two of the company's aviation experts, James Long PE and Jennie Santoro, with a "Top 40 Under 40" award.
In 2015, HNTB's Clint Laaser, RA, LEED AP, received the same recognition. The annual award by the magazine recognizes 40 aviation industry professionals under the age of 40 for their academic and community achievements. HNTB's aviation projects have earned several awards; the firm created the conceptual design for the 221-foot-tall air traffic control tower at San Francisco International Airport. In 2016, the facility earned a Grand Conceptor Award from the American Council of Engineering Companies. HNTB was lead architect and performed initial planning and engineering services on the San Diego International Terminal 2 expansion project. In 2014, the project earned a Best of the Best Projects award from Engineering News-Record in the Airport/Transit category. HNTB is the architect of record on Orlando International Airport's new south terminal project; the project won a 2017 American Architecture Award. The firm supports mentoring programs for young professionals in the aviation market. Chris Price, PE, is HNTB's bridge practice leader.
Ted Zoli is the national bridge chief engineer at HNTB. In 2016, the National Steel Bridge Alliance gave HNTB awards for several bridge projects; these included the South Park Bascule Bridge in Seattle. HNTB serves as owner's engineer for the New York State Thruway Authority on the New NY Bridge project, which replaces the Tappan Zee Bridge over the Hudson River in New York; the new bridge is called the Gov. Mario M. Cuomo Bridge. HNTB was project oversight representative for the Florida Department of Transportation on the Sisters Creek Bridge replacement in Jacksonville, Florida. In 2017, the project earned a National Awards of Merit in the Transportation category from the Design-Build Institute of America. HNTB led the final design for the Leonard P. Zakim Bunker Hill Memorial Bridge in Boston; the company won an award for the repair of the John E. Mathews Bridge after it was damaged by a ship impact in September 2013. HNTB serves, has served, on a variety of projects for state departments of transportation across the U.
S. The firm's DOT work has included construction engineering and inspection services on the I-595 Express Corridor Improvements Project for the Florida Department of Transportation, the Johnson County Gateway Interchange for the Kansas Department of Transportation, program management consultant services on the U. S. 290 Corridor rebuild for the Texas Department of Transportation. Additionally, the firm has served on the I-94 reconstruction for the Michigan Department of Transportation, the Milwaukee Zoo Interchange for the Wisconsin Department of Transportation, the Poplar Street Bridge project for the Missouri Department of Transportation. Jim Barbaresso is Intelligent transportation systems practice leader at HNTB. In 2015, he gave a presentation at TEDxJacksonville about driverless cars. HNTB's intelligent transportation systems projects have included system design and maintenance and operations services for a smart truck parking system in Michigan and the Tampa Bay SunGuide Center. HNTB supports the Tampa Hillsborough Expressway Authority on Tampa Connected Vehicle Pilot and a Truck Parking Availability System for the Florida Department of Transportation.
Kevin Hoeflich, PE, is toll services chairman at HNTB and Matt Click is national director, priced managed lanes. In 2017, HNTB conducted a survey, known as an America THINKS survey, that polled Americans about their views of where funds for transportation infrastructure should come from and what entities are responsible for constructing and sustaining the country's transportation system; the survey found 70 percent of Americans would be willing to support increases in tolls and taxes to fund infrastructure. Results were generated from a sample of 1,027 Americans, all over the age of 18, from July 14–16, 2017. HNTB supported the Florida Department of Transportation to complete I-595 Corridor Roadway Improvements in Broward County, which reached substantial completion in 2014. Kimberly Slaughter is HNTB's transit/rail market sector leader. HNTB works on many types of transit projects, including transit stations, commuter rail, Bus Rapid Transit, Positive Train Control and others; the company is a supporter of high-speed rail projects.
HNTB provided several services on the Chicago Transit Authority Red Line Wilson Station Reconstruction Project in Chicago, including train control, mechanical, environmental mitigation support and structural. The project was completed in 2017. HNTB was
Lucas Oil Stadium
Lucas Oil Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Downtown Indianapolis, United States. It replaced the RCA Dome as the home field of the NFL's Indianapolis Colts and opened on August 16, 2008; the stadium was constructed to allow the removal of the RCA Dome and expansion of the Indiana Convention Center on its site. The stadium is on the south side of South Street, a block south of the former site of the RCA Dome. In 2006, prior to the stadium's construction, Lucas Oil Products secured the naming rights for the stadium at a cost of $122 million over 20 years; the venue serves as the current home for the United Soccer League's Indy Eleven. The architectural firm HKS, Inc. was responsible for the stadium's design, with Walter P Moore working as the Structural Engineer of Record. The stadium features a retractable roof and window wall, thus allowing the Colts and the Eleven to play both indoors and outdoors; the field surface was FieldTurf but was replaced in 2018 with Shaw Sports Momentum Pro. The exterior of the new stadium is faced with a reddish-brown brick trimmed with Indiana limestone, similar to several other sports venues in the area, including Bankers Life Fieldhouse, Hinkle Fieldhouse, the Fairgrounds Coliseum.
Lucas Oil Stadium has a seating capacity of 67,000 and covers 1.8 million square feet. The stadium offers two club lounges, two exhibit halls and 12 meeting rooms. There are 360-degree ribbon boards and two 53-foot tall high definition video boards. An underground walkway directly connects the stadium to the Indiana Convention Center. Other features include: 183,000 square feet of exhibit space 7 locker rooms 11 indoor truck docks 14 escalators 11 passenger elevators 2 accessible pedestrian ramps The stadium's retractable roof can open or close in 9 to 11 minutes, it is composed of two panels. The home team determines if the roof is to be closed 90 minutes before kickoff; the retractable north window offers a view of downtown Indianapolis during games and other events due to the stadium's angled position on the city block. The four gates leading into Lucas Oil Stadium are each named for sponsoring corporation: Lucas Oil and Huntington Bank; the ground-level concourses of their respective gates feature banners and floor coverings with the corporations' logos and merchandise displays.
Annual events include: Bands of America Grand National Championships and Indianapolis Super Regionals Big Ten Football Championship Game Circle City Classic Drum Corps International World Championships FDIC International IHSAA Indiana State Football Championships ISSMA Band State Finals Monster Energy Supercross Monster Jam NFL Draft CombineUpcoming events include: General Conference Session of Seventh-day Adventists College Football Playoff National Championship NCAA Men's Basketball Final Four NCAA Men's Basketball Final Four Significant past events included: Super Bowl XLVI Kenny Chesney concerts Chelsea vs. Inter Milan NCAA Men's Basketball Final Four One Direction – On The Road Again Tour Gen Con 50 U2 – The Joshua Tree Tour 2017 Taylor Swift's Reputation Stadium Tour The first games played at Lucas Oil Stadium occurred on August 22, 2008, were part of the PeyBack Classic, featuring Indiana high school football games between Noblesville High School and Fishers High School in Game 1, followed by New Palestine High School and Whiteland Community High School in Game 2.
On November 26, 2008, Cardinal Ritter High School became the first high school to win a state championship on the field, beating Sheridan High School 34-27 for the class A state title. The Colts faced the Chicago Bears in a rematch of Super Bowl XLI in their first regular season game in the stadium; the stadium hosted its first soccer game on August 1, 2013, when Chelsea played Inter Milan in a first-round game of the International Champions Cup, drawing 41,983 fans. As of 2018, Lucas Oil Stadium serves as the home field for the United Soccer League's Indy Eleven, replacing the venue the team used while in the North American Soccer League, Carroll Stadium. Drum Corps International announced on August 9, 2006, that it would move its corporate offices to Indianapolis and that the DCI World Championships would be the inaugural event for the stadium and would be held at Lucas Oil Stadium every year through 2018. In 2015, Drum Corps International and the city of Indianapolis announced a 10-year contract extension, allowing the World Championships to continue through 2028.
The competition was held for the first time at Lucas Oil Stadium in 2009. Other regular events include the Bands of America Grand National Championships and the Indiana Marching Band State Finals, both major events for the city in Marching band competitions; the total cost of Lucas Oil Stadium was $720 million. The stadium is being financed with funds raised by the State of Indiana and the City of Indianapolis, with the Indianapolis Colts providing $100 million. Marion County has raised taxes for food and beverage sales, auto rental taxes, innkeeper's taxes, admission taxes for its share of the costs. Meanwhile, there has been an increase in food and beverage taxes in the eight surrounding doughnut counties and the sale of Colts license plates; the County Commissioners of each county voted whether to levy the 1% food and beverage tax proposed by Marion County. Sweetening the deal for those counties was the fact that half of the revenue from the tax would stay in the
Indiana University Bloomington
Indiana University Bloomington is a public research university in Bloomington, Indiana. It is the flagship institution of the Indiana University system and, with over 40,000 students, its largest university. Indiana University is a "Public Ivy" university and ranks in the top 100 national universities in the U. S. and among the top 50 public universities. It is a member of the Association of American Universities and has numerous schools and programs, including the Jacobs School of Music, the School of Informatics and Engineering, the O'Neill School of Public and Environmental Affairs, the Kelley School of Business, the School of Public Health, the School of Nursing, the School of Optometry, the Maurer School of Law, the School of Education, the Media School, the Hamilton Lugar School of Global and International Studies; as of Fall 2017, 43,710 students attend Indiana University. While 55.1% of the student body was from Indiana, students from all 50 states, Washington, D. C. Puerto Rico and 165 countries were enrolled.
As of 2018, the average ACT score is a 28 and an SAT score of 1276. The university is home to an extensive student life program, with more than 750 student organizations on campus and with around 17 percent of undergraduates joining the Greek system. Indiana athletic teams are known as the Indiana Hoosiers; the university is a member of the Big Ten Conference. Indiana's faculty and alumni include nine Nobel laureates, 17 Rhodes Scholars, 17 Marshall Scholars, five MacArthur Fellows. In addition and alumni have won six Academy Awards, 49 Grammy Awards, 32 Emmy Awards, 20 Pulitzer Prizes, four Tony Awards, 104 Olympic medals. Notable Indiana alumni include James Watson, one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Indiana's state government in Corydon established Indiana University on January 20, 1820, as the "State Seminary." Construction began in 1822 at what is now called Seminary Square Park near the intersection of Second Street and College Avenue. The first professor was Baynard Rush Hall, a Presbyterian minister who taught all of the classes in 1825–27.
In the first year, he taught twelve students and was paid $250. Hall was a classicist who focused on Greek and Latin and believed that the study of classical philosophy and languages formed the basis of the best education; the first class graduated in 1830. From 1820 to 1889 a legal-political battle was fought between IU and Vincennes University as to, the legitimate state university. In 1829, Andrew Wylie became the first president, serving until his death in 1851; the school's name was changed to "Indiana College" in 1829, to "Indiana University" in 1839. Wylie and David Maxwell, president of the board of trustees, were devout Presbyterians, they spoke of the nonsectarian status of the school but hired fellow Presbyterians. Presidents and professors were expected to set a moral example for their charges. After six ministers in a row, the first non-clergyman to become president was the young biology professor David Starr Jordan, in 1885. Jordan followed Baptist theologian Lemuel Moss, who resigned after a scandal broke regarding his involvement with a female professor.
Jordan improved the university's finances and public image, doubled its enrollment, instituted an elective system along the lines of his alma mater, Cornell University. Jordan became president of Stanford University in June 1891. Growth of the college was slow. In 1851, IU had seven professors. IU admitted its first woman student, Sarah Parke Morrison, in 1867, making IU the fourth public university to admit women on an equal basis with men. Morrison went on to become the first female professor at IU in 1873. Mathematician Joseph Swain was IU's first Hoosier-born president, 1893 to 1902, he established Kirkwood Hall in 1894. He began construction for Science Hall in 1901. During his presidency, student enrollment increased from 524 to 1,285. In 1883, IU awarded its first Ph. D. and played its first intercollegiate sport, prefiguring the school's future status as a major research institution and a power in collegiate athletics. But another incident that year was of more immediate concern: the original campus in Seminary Square burned to the ground.
The college was rebuilt between 1884 and 1908 at the far eastern edge of Bloomington. One challenge was that Bloomington's limited water supply was inadequate for its population of 12,000 and could not handle university expansion; the University commissioned a study. In 1902, IU enrolled 1203 undergraduates. There were 82 graduate students including ten from out-of-state; the curriculum emphasized the classics, as befitted a gentleman, stood in contrast to the service-oriented curriculum at Purdue, which presented itself as of direct benefit to farmers and businessmen. The first extension office of IU was opened in Indianapolis in 1916. In 1920/1921 the School of Music and the School of Commerce and Finance (what becam
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t