Arcadia 2001 is a second-generation 8-bit console released by Emerson Radio in May 1982, several months before the release of ColecoVision. It was discontinued only 18 months with a total of 35 games having been released. Emerson licensed the Arcadia 2001 to Bandai. Over 30 Arcadia 2001 clones exist; the unrelated Arcadia Corporation, manufacturer of the Atari 2600 Supercharger add-on, was sued by Emerson for trademark infringement. Arcadia Corporation changed its name to Starpath; the Arcadia is much smaller than its contemporary competitors and is powered by a standard 12-volt power supply so it can be used in a boat or a vehicle. It has two outputs headphone jacks on the back of the unit, on the far left and far right sides; the system came with two Intellivision-style controllers with a 12-button keypad and'fire' buttons on the sides. The direction pads have a removable joystick attachment. Most games came with BoPET overlays; the console itself had five buttons: power, reset and select. There are at least three different types of cartridge case styles and artwork, with variations on each.
Emerson-family cartridges come in two different lengths of black plastic cases. Main Processor: Signetics 2650 CPU RAM: 1 KB ROM: None Video display: 128 × 208 / 128 × 104, 8 Colours Video display controller: Signetics 2637 UVI @ 3.58 MHz, 3.55 MHz Sound: Single Channel "Beeper" + Single Channel "Noise" Hardware Sprites: 4 independent, single color Controllers: 2 × 2 way Keypads: 2 × 12 button In 1982, the Bandai Arcadia, a variant of the Emerson Arcadia 2001, was released in Japan by Bandai. There were four Japan-exclusive game releases developed by Bandai which were the only known Arcadia titles written by other companies than UA Ltd. Doraemon Dr. Slump Mobile Soldier Gundam Super Dimension Fortress Macross After seeing the Arcadia 2001 at the summer 1982 Consumer Electronics Show, Danny Goodman of Creative Computing Video & Arcade Games reported that its graphics were similar to the Atari 2600's, that "our overall impression of the game play was favorable for a system in this price range, though no cartridge stands out as being an exciting original creation".
He called the controller offering both Intellivision-like disc and joystick functionality "A great idea". Emerson planned to launch the console with 19 games; some Arcadia 2001 games are ports of lesser-known arcade games such as Route 16, Jump Bug, which were not available on other home systems. Emerson created many popular arcade titles including Pac-Man and Defender for the Arcadia, but never had them manufactured as Atari started to sue its competitor companies for releasing games to which it had exclusive-rights agreements. Early marketing showed popular arcade games, but they were released as clones. For instance, the Arcadia 2001 game Space Raiders is a clone of Defender, Breakaway is a clone of Breakout. Video Game Console Library entry on the Arcadia 2001 TheGameConsole.com entry on the Arcadia 2001 The Dot Eaters entry on the Arcadia 2001 www.old-computers.com Emerson Arcadia 2001 museum entry www.old-computers.com Article about Arcadia 2001 and clones Arcadia 2001 retrospective at IGN
A ROM cartridge referred to as a cartridge or cart, is a removable memory card containing ROM designed to be connected to a consumer electronics device such as a home computer, video game console and to a lesser extent, electronic musical instruments. ROM cartridges can be used to load software such as other application programs; the cartridge slot could be used for hardware additions, for example speech synthesis. Some cartridges had battery-backed static random-access memory, allowing a user to save data such as game progress or scores between uses. ROM cartridges allowed the user to load and access programs and data without the expense of a floppy drive, an expensive peripheral during the home computer era, without using slow and unreliable Compact Cassette tape. An advantage for the manufacturer was the relative security of the software in cartridge form, difficult for end users to replicate. However, cartridges were expensive to manufacture compared to making a floppy disk or CD-ROM; as disk drives became more common and software expanded beyond the practical limits of ROM size, cartridge slots disappeared from game consoles and personal computers.
Cartridges are still used today with handheld gaming consoles such as the Nintendo DS, Nintendo 3DS, PlayStation Vita, the tablet-like hybrid console Nintendo Switch. Due to its widespread usage for video gaming, ROM cartridges were colloquially referred to as a game cartridge. ROM cartridges were popularized by early home computers which featured a special bus port for the insertion of cartridges containing software in ROM. In most cases the designs were crude, with the entire address and data buses exposed by the port and attached via an edge connector; the Texas Instruments TI 59 family of programmable scientific calculators used interchangeable ROM cartridges that could be installed in a slot at the back of the calculator. The calculator came with a module that provides several standard mathematical functions including solution of simultaneous equations. Other modules were specialized for financial calculations, or other subject areas, a "games" module. Modules were not user-programmable.
The Hewlett-Packard HP-41C had expansion slots which could hold ROM memory as well as I/O expansion ports. Notable computers using cartridges in addition to magnetic media were the Commodore VIC-20 and 64, MSX standard, the Atari 8-bit family, the Texas Instruments TI-99/4A and the IBM PCjr; some arcade system boards, such as Capcom's CP System and SNK's Neo Geo used ROM cartridges. The modern take on game cartridges was invented by Jerry Lawson as part of the Fairchild Channel F home console in 1976; the cartridge approach gained more popularity with the Atari 2600 released the following year. From the late 1970s to mid-1990s, the majority of home video game systems were cartridge-based; as compact disc technology came to be used for data storage, most hardware companies moved from cartridges to CD-based game systems. Nintendo remained the lone hold-out. SNK still released games on the cartridge-based Neo Geo until 2004, with the final official release being Samurai Shodown V Special. Nintendo's handheld consoles, continued to use cartridges due to their faster loading times and minimal equipment for data reading being beneficial for playing video games in short, several-minute intervals.
ROM cartridges can not only additional hardware expansion as well. Examples include the Super FX coprocessor chip in some Super NES game paks, The SVP chip in the Sega Genesis Version Of Virtua Racing, voice and chess modules in the Magnavox Odyssey². Micro Machines 2 on the Genesis/Mega Drive used a custom "J-Cart" cartridge design by Codemasters which incorporated two additional gamepad ports; this allowed players to have up to four gamepads connected to the console without the need for an additional multi-controller adapter. The ROM cartridge slot principle continues in various mobile devices, thanks to the development of high density low-cost flash memory. For example, a GPS navigation device might allow user updates of maps by inserting a flash memory chip into an expansion slot. An E-book reader can store the text of several thousand books on a flash chip. Personal computers may allow the user to boot and install an operating system off a USB flash drive instead of CD ROM or floppy disks.
Digital cameras with flash drive slots allow users to exchange cards when full, allow rapid transfer of pictures to a computer or printer. Storing software on ROM cartridges has a number of advantages over other methods of storage like floppy disks and optical media; as the ROM cartridge is memory mapped into the system's normal address space, software stored in the ROM can be read like normal memory. Software run directly from ROM uses less RAM, leaving memory free for other processes. While the standard size of optical media dictates a minimum size for devices which can read disks, ROM cartridges can be manufactured in different sizes, allowing for smaller devices like handheld game systems. ROM cartridges can be damaged, but they are more robust and resistant to damage than optical media.
Fourth generation of video game consoles
In the history of computer and video games, the fourth generation of game consoles began on October 30, 1987 with the Japanese release of NEC Home Electronics' PC Engine. Although NEC released the first console of this era, sales were dominated by the rivalry between Nintendo's and Sega's consoles in North America: the Super Nintendo Entertainment System and the Sega Genesis. Handheld systems released during this time include the Nintendo Game Boy, released in 1989, the Sega Game Gear, first released in 1990. Nintendo was able to capitalize on its success in the previous, third generation, managed to win the largest worldwide market share in the fourth generation as well. Sega, was successful in this generation and began a new franchise, Sonic the Hedgehog, to compete with Nintendo's Super Mario series of games. Several other companies released consoles in this generation, but none of them were successful. There were other companies that started to take notice of the maturing video game industry and begin making plans to release consoles of their own in the future.
The emergence of fifth generation video game consoles, circa 1994, did not diminish the popularity of fourth generation consoles for a few years. In 1996, there was a major drop in sales of hardware from this generation and a dwindling number of software publishers supporting fourth generation systems, which together led to a drop in software sales in subsequent years; this generation ended with the discontinuation of the Neo Geo in 2004. Some features that distinguish fourth generation consoles from third generation consoles include: 16-bit microprocessors Multi-button game controllers with many buttons Parallax scrolling of multi-layer tilemap backgrounds Large sprites, 80–380 sprites on screen, though limited to a smaller number per scan line Elaborate colour, 64 to 4096 colours on screen, from palettes of 512 to 65,536 colours Stereo audio, with multiple channels and digital audio playback Advanced music synthesis Additionally, in specific cases, fourth generation hardware featured: Backgrounds with pseudo-3D scaling and rotation Sprites that can individually be scaled and rotated Flat-shaded 3D polygon graphics CD-ROM support via add-ons, allowing larger storage space and full motion video playback The PC Engine was the result of a collaboration between Hudson Soft and NEC and launched in Japan on October 30, 1987, under the name PC Engine.
It launched in North America on August 29, 1989. The PC Engine was quite successful in Japan due to titles available on the then-new CD-ROM format. NEC released a CD add-on in 1990 and by 1992 had released a combination TurboGrafx and CD-ROM system known as the TurboDuo. In the United States, NEC used Bonk, a head-banging caveman, as their mascot and featured him in most of the TurboGrafx advertising from 1990 to 1994; the platform was well received especially in larger markets, but failed to make inroads into the smaller metropolitan areas where NEC did not have as many store representatives or as focused in-store promotion. The TurboGrafx-16 failed to make a strong impact in North America; the TurboGrafx-16 and its CD combination system, the Turbo Duo, ceased manufacturing in North America by 1994, though a small amount of software continued to trickle out for the platform. The Mega Drive was released in Japan on October 29, 1988; the console was released in New York City and Los Angeles on August 14, 1989 under the name Sega Genesis, in the rest of North America that year.
It was launched in Australia on November 30, 1990 under its original name. Sega built their marketing campaign around their new mascot Sonic the Hedgehog, pushing the Genesis as the "cooler" alternative to Nintendo's console and inventing the term "Blast Processing" to suggest that the Genesis was capable of handling games with faster motion than the SNES, their advertising was directly adversarial, leading to commercials such as "Genesis does what Nintendon't" and the "'SEGA!' Scream". When the arcade game Mortal Kombat was ported for home release on the Genesis and Super Nintendo Entertainment System, Nintendo decided to censor the game's gore, but Sega kept the content in the game, via a code entered at the start screen. Sega's version of Mortal Kombat received more favorable reviews in the gaming press and outsold the SNES version three to one; this led to Congressional hearings to investigate the marketing of violent video games to children, to the creation of the Interactive Digital Software Association and the Entertainment Software Rating Board.
Sega concluded that the superior sales of their version of Mortal Kombat were outweighed by the resulting loss in consumer trust, cancelled the game's release in Spain to avoid further controversy. With the new ESRB rating system in place, Nintendo reconsidered its position for the release of Mortal Kombat II, this time became the preferred version among reviewers; the Toy Retail Sales Tracking Service reported that during the key shopping month of November 1994, 63% of all 16-bit video game consoles sold were Sega systems. The console still managed to sell 40 million units worldwide. By late 1995, Sega was supporting five different consoles and two add-ons, Sega Enterprises chose to discontinue the Mega Drive in Japan to concentrate on the new Sega Saturn. While this made perfect se
Baseball (1977 video game)
Baseball is a baseball video game released for the RCA Studio II by RCA in 1977
Fifth generation of video game consoles
The fifth-generation era refers to computer and video games, video game consoles, handheld gaming consoles dating from 1993 to 2002. For home consoles, the best-selling console was the PlayStation by a wide margin, followed by the Nintendo 64, the Sega Saturn; the PlayStation had a redesigned version, the PSOne, launched in July 2000. For handhelds, this era was characterized by significant fragmentation, because the first handheld of the generation, the Sega Nomad, had a lifespan of just two years, the Nintendo Virtual Boy had a lifespan of less than one. Both of them were discontinued; the Neo Geo Pocket was released in 1998, but was dropped by SNK in favor of the backwards-compatible Neo Geo Pocket Color just a year later. Nintendo's Game Boy Color was the winner in handhelds by a large margin. There were two updated versions of the original Game Boy: Game Boy Light and Game Boy Pocket; some features that distinguished fifth generation consoles from previous fourth generation consoles include: 3D polygon graphics with texture mapping 3D graphics capabilities – lighting, Gouraud shading, anti-aliasing and texture filtering Optical disc game storage, allowing much larger storage space than ROM cartridges CD quality audio recordings – PCM audio with 16-bit depth and 44.1 kHz sampling rate Wide adoption of full motion video, displaying pre-rendered computer animation or live action footage Analog controllers Display resolutions from 480i to 576i Color depth up to 16,777,216 colors This era is known for its pivotal role in the video game industry's leap from 2D to 3D computer graphics, as well as the shift from home console games being stored on ROM cartridges to optical discs.
The development of the Internet made it possible to store and download tape and ROM images of older games leading 7th generation consoles to make many older games available for purchase or download, such as popular games from this generation. There was considerable time overlap between this generation and the next, the sixth generation of consoles, which began with the launch of the Dreamcast in Japan on November 27, 1998; the fifth generation ended with the discontinuation of the PlayStation in late 2006, a year after the launch of the seventh generation. The 32-bit/64-bit era is most noted for the rise of 3D polygon games. While there were games prior that had used three-dimensional polygon environments, such as Virtua Racing and Virtua Fighter in the arcades and Star Fox on the Super NES, it was in this era that many game designers began to move traditionally 2D and pseudo-3D genres into 3D on video game consoles. Early efforts from then-industry leaders Sega and Nintendo saw the introduction of the 32X and Super FX, which provided rudimentary 3D capabilities to the 16-bit Genesis and Super NES.
Starting in 1996, 3D video games began to take off with releases such as Virtua Fighter 2 on the Saturn, Tomb Raider on the PlayStation and Saturn, Tekken 2 and Crash Bandicoot on the PlayStation, Super Mario 64 on the N64. Their 3D environments were marketed and they steered the industry's focus away from side-scrolling and rail-style titles, as well as opening doors to more complex games and genres. 3D became the main focus in this era as well as a slow decline of cartridges in favor of CDs, due to the ability to produce games less expensively and the media's high storage capabilities. After allowing Sony to develop a CD-based prototype console for them and a similar failed partnership with Philips, Nintendo decided to make the Nintendo 64 a cartridge-based system like its predecessors. Publicly, Nintendo defended this decision on the grounds that it would give games shorter load times than a compact disc. However, it had the dubious benefit of allowing Nintendo to charge higher licensing fees, as cartridge production was more expensive than CD production.
Many third-party developers like EA Sports viewed this as an underhanded attempt to raise more money for Nintendo and many of them became more reluctant to release games on the N64. Nintendo's decision to use a cartridge based system sparked a small scale war among gamers as to, better; the chief advantages of the CD-ROM format were larger storage capacity, allowing for a much greater amount of game content lower manufacturing costs, making them much less risky for game publishers, lower retail prices due to the reduced need to compensate for manufacturing costs. Its disadvantages compared to cartridge were considerable load times, their inability to load data "on the fly", making them reliant on the console RAM, the greater manufacturing costs of CD-ROM drives compared to cartridge slots, resulting in higher retail prices for CD-based consoles. A Nintendo magazine ad placed a Space Shuttle next to a snail and dared consumers to decide "which one was better"; every other contemporary system used the new CD-ROM technology.
Consequent to the storage and cost advantages of the CD-ROM format, many game developers shifted their support away from the Nintendo 64 to the PlayStation. One of the most influential game franchises to change consoles during this era was the Final Fantasy series, beginning with Final Fantasy VII, being developed for the N64 but due to storage capacity issues w
Seventh generation of video game consoles
In the history of video games, the seventh generation of home consoles began in late 2005 with the release of Microsoft's Xbox 360, continued with the release of Sony Computer Entertainment's PlayStation 3 and Nintendo's Wii the following year. Each new console introduced a new type of breakthrough in technology: the Xbox 360 could play games rendered natively at high-definition video resolutions; some Wii controllers could be moved about to control in-game actions, which enabled players to simulate real-world actions through movement during gameplay. By this generation, video game consoles had become an important part of the global IT infrastructure. Joining Nintendo in the motion market, Sony Computer Entertainment released the PlayStation Move in September 2010, which featured motion-sensing gaming similar to that of the Wii. In November Microsoft released Kinect. Kinect did not use controllers, instead making the players act as the "controllers". Having sold eight million units in its first 60 days on the market, Kinect claimed the Guinness World Record of being the "fastest selling consumer electronics device".
The seventh generation of handheld consoles began in November 2004 with the introduction of the Nintendo DS. The PlayStation Portable, came out in December; the NDS features a touch screen and built-in microphone, supports wireless standards. The PSP became the first handheld video game console to use an optical disc format as its primary storage media. Sony gave the PSP multimedia capability. Despite high sales numbers for both consoles, PSP sales have lagged behind those of the NDS. A crowdfunded console, the Ouya, received $8.5 million in preorders before launching in 2013. Post-launch sales were poor, the device was a commercial failure. Additionally, microconsoles like Nvidia Shield Console, Amazon Fire TV, MOJO, Razer Switchblade, GamePop, GameStick, more powerful PC-based Steam Machine consoles have attempted to compete in the video game console market; the seventh generation began to wind down when Nintendo began cutting back on Wii production in the early 2010s. Shortly afterwards, Sony announced they were discontinuing the production of the PSP worldwide that year.
Microsoft announced in 2016, that they would discontinue the Xbox 360. The following year, Sony announced. In 2017, the remaining Wii consoles were discontinued. In late 2018, the last game for the Wii, Just Dance 2019, was released ending the seventh generation; the eighth generation had began in early 2011, with the release of the Nintendo 3DS. Nintendo entered this generation with a new approach embodied by its Wii; the company planned to attract current hardcore and casual gamers, non-gamers, lapsed gamers by focusing on new gameplay experiences and new forms of interaction with games rather than cutting edge graphics and expensive technology. This approach was implemented in the portable market with the Nintendo DS. Nintendo expressed hope that the new control schemes it had implemented would render conventionally controlled consoles obsolete, leading to Nintendo capturing a large portion of the existing market as well; this strategy paid off, with demand for the Wii outstripping supply throughout 2007.
Since Nintendo profited on each console right from the start unlike its competitors, it achieved positive returns. With only a few exceptions, monthly worldwide sales for the Wii were higher than those of the Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3, eroding Microsoft's early lead and widening the gap between its market share and Sony's. In 2007, it was reported by the British newspaper Financial Times that the Wii's sales surpassed those of the Xbox 360, released one year and became the market leader in worldwide home console sales for the generation; as in previous generations, Nintendo provided support for its new console with first-party franchises like Mario, The Legend of Zelda and Pokémon. To appeal to casual and non-gamers, Nintendo developed a group of core Wii games, consisting of Wii Sports, Wii Play, Wii Fit, Wii Music, where players make use of the motion-sensing abilities of the console and its peripherals to simulate real world activities. Publishers such as Ubisoft, Electronic Arts and Majesco Entertainment continued to release exclusive titles for the console, but the Wii's strongest titles remained within its first-party line-up.
Analysts speculated that this would change in time as the Wii's growing popularity persuaded third-party publishers to focus on it. Goichi Suda, developer of No More Heroes for the Wii, noted that "only Nintendo titles are doing well" and that he "expected more games for hardcore gamers." Conversely, the PAL publisher of No More Heroes Rising Star Games were impressed with the game's sales. Goichi Suda retracted his comment, saying his "point was that No More Heroes, unlike a lot of Nintendo Wii titles available is the kind of product that will attract a different kind of consumer to the hardware."In early 2008, the NPD Group revealed sales data showing that, while the Wii's life-to-date attach rate was low, in December 2007, it reached 8.11—higher than the attach rates for the Xbox 360 and PlayStat
The RCA CDP1802, a 40-pin LSI integrated circuit chip, implemented using COSMAC architecture, is an 8-bit CMOS microprocessor introduced by RCA in early 1976, the company's first single-chip microprocessor. Within RCA in the early days, the 1801 and 1802 microprocessors were sometimes referred to as "the COSMAC". Hobbyists refer to it as "the 1802", it is being manufactured by Intersil Corporation as a high-reliability microprocessor. The 1802 has an architecture different from most other 8-bit microprocessors. In 1970 and 1971, Joseph Weisbecker developed a new 8-bit architecture computer system called FRED. Working on it at home, the RCA engineer hoped that FRED would become the basis of a personal computer sold by his company. RCA released Weisbecker's work as the COSMAC 1801R in early 1975, using its CMOS process. In 1976, a team led by Jerry Herzog integrated the two chips into one, the 1802. Successors to the 1802 are the CDP1804, CDP1805, CDP1806, which have an extended instruction set, other enhanced features, with some versions running at faster clock speeds, though not a significant speed difference.
Some features are lost, like the DMA auto-boot loader functionality. There are some minor pin function changes; the RCA 1802 has a static core CMOS design with no minimum clock frequency, so that it can be run at low speeds and low power, including a clock frequency of zero to suspend the microprocessor without affecting its operation. It has two separate 8-pin buses: an 8-bit bidirectional data bus and a time-multiplexed address bus, with the high-order and low-order 8-bits of the 16-bit address being accessed on alternate clock cycles; the 1802 has a single bit and testable output port, four input pins which are directly tested by branch instructions. Its I/O mode is flexible and programmable, it has a single-phase clock with an on-chip oscillator, its register set consists of sixteen 16-bit registers. The program counter can reside in any of these, is settable using the SEP Rn instruction, providing a simple way to implement multiple PCs, to perform subroutine calls.. Pointers and indirect addressing use the X register, or the 16 registers can be used as general purpose registers.
DMA In and Out and Interrupts use specific registers. In addition to "bulk silicon" C2L CMOS technology, the 1802 was available fabricated in Silicon on Sapphire semiconductor process technology, which gives it a degree of resistance to radiation and electrostatic discharge. Along with its extreme low-power abilities, this makes the chip well-suited in space and military applications; the radiation hardened 1802 version was manufactured at Sandia National Laboratories in agreement with RCA. The 1802 was used in many spacecraft and space science programs, experiments and modules such as the Galileo spacecraft, various Earth-orbiting satellites and satellites carrying amateur radio; the 1802 has been verified from NASA source documentation to have been used in the Hubble Space Telescope, the Magellan Venus probe and others. A number of early microcomputers were based on the 1802, including the COSMAC ELF, Netronics ELF II, Quest SuperELF, COSMAC VIP, Comx-35, Finnish Telmac 1800 and Oscom Nano, Yugoslav Pecom 32 and 64, the Cybervision systems sold through Montgomery Ward in the late 70s, as well as the RCA Studio II video game console.
The Edukit single board computer trainer system, similar to an expanded COSMAC Elf, was offered by Modus Systems Ltd. in Britain in the early 1980s. Infinite Incorporated produced an 1802-based, S-100 bus expandable console computer trainer in the late 1970s called the UC1800, available assembled or in kit form; as part of 1802 Retrocomputing hobbyist work, other computers have been built more including the Membership Card microcomputer kit that fits in an Altoids tin and the Spare Time Gizmos Elf 2000, among others. See Emulators and Simulators for other systems; the 1802 was used in scientific instruments and commercial products. Post-1980 Chrysler and associated model vehicles use the 1802 in their second-generation Electronic Lean-Burn System, with electronic spark control, one of the first on-board auto computer-based control systems; the 1802 was used in video arcade games in Spain. The first high-level language available for the 1802 was Forth, provided by Forth, Inc. in 1976. Other available programming languages, both interpreters and compilers, are CHIP-8, 8th, Tom Pittman's Tiny BASIC, C, various Assemblers and cross-assemblers, others.
Other specialty languages were used by federal agencies such as NASA and its installations, including Johnson Space Center, AMES, Langley and Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which included the HAL/S cross-compiler, STOIC, a Forth-like language, others. The 1802 chip and computers using the microprocessor have been emulated and simulated in hardware and/or software by hobbyists. One design is in VHDL for an FPGA. A bus-accurate, full speed COSMAC Elf clone was created without a CDP1802 microprocessor chip or CDP1861 video chip using PIC microcontrollers. An online simulator of the COSMAC E