Gare de Dourdan-la-Forêt
Dourdan-la-Forêt is a train station in Dourdan near Paris. It is served by Paris' express suburban rail system, the RER. List of stations of the Paris RER Gare de Dourdan-la-Forêt at Transilien, the official website of SNCF
Commuter rail called suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that operates between a city centre and middle to outer suburbs beyond 15 km and commuter towns or other locations that draw large numbers of commuters—people who travel on a daily basis. Trains operate following a schedule at speeds varying from 50 to 225 km/h. Distance charges or zone pricing may be used. Non-English names include Treno suburbano in Italian, Cercanías in Spanish, Rodalies in Catalan, Proastiakos in Greek, S-Bahn in German, Train de banlieue in French, Příměstský vlak or Esko in Czech, Elektrichka in Russian, Pociąg podmiejski in Polish and Pendeltåg in Swedish; the development of commuter rail services has become popular, with the increased public awareness of congestion, dependence on fossil fuels, other environmental issues, as well as the rising costs of owning and parking automobiles. Most commuter trains are built to main line rail standards, differing from light rail or rapid transit systems by: being larger providing more seating and less standing room, owing to the longer distances involved having a lower frequency of service having scheduled services serving lower-density suburban areas connecting suburbs to the city center sharing track or right-of-way with intercity or freight trains not grade separated being able to skip certain stations as an express service due to being driver controlled Compared to rapid transit, commuter/suburban rail has lower frequency, following a schedule rather than fixed intervals, fewer stations spaced further apart.
They serve lower density suburban areas, share right-of-way with intercity or freight trains. Some services operate only during peak hours and others uses fewer departures during off peak hours and weekends. Average speeds are high 50 km/h or higher; these higher speeds better serve the longer distances involved. Some services include express services which skip some stations in order to run faster and separate longer distance riders from short-distance ones; the general range of commuter trains' distance varies between 200 km. Sometimes long distances can be explained by. Distances between stations may vary, but are much longer than those of urban rail systems. In city centers the train either has a terminal station or passes through the city centre with notably fewer station stops than those of urban rail systems. Toilets are available on-board trains and in stations, their ability to coexist with freight or intercity services in the same right-of-way can drastically reduce system construction costs.
However they are built with dedicated tracks within that right-of-way to prevent delays where service densities have converged in the inner parts of the network. Most such trains run on the local standard gauge track; some systems may run on a broader gauge. Examples of narrow gauge systems are found in Japan, Malaysia, Switzerland, in the Brisbane and Perth systems in Australia, in some systems in Sweden, on the Genoa-Casella line in Italy; some countries and regions, including Finland, Pakistan, Russia and Sri Lanka, as well as San Francisco in the US and Melbourne and Adelaide in Australia, use broad gauge track. Metro rail or rapid transit covers a smaller inner-urban area ranging outwards to between 12 km to 20 km, has a higher train frequency and runs on separate tracks, whereas commuter rail shares tracks and the legal framework within mainline railway systems. However, the classification as a metro or rapid rail can be difficult as both may cover a metropolitan area run on separate tracks in the centre, feature purpose-built rolling stock.
The fact that the terminology is not standardised across countries further complicates matters. This distinction is most made when there are two systems such as New York's subway and the LIRR and Metro-North Railroad, Paris' Métro and RER along with Transilien, London's tube lines of the Underground and the Overground, Thameslink along with other commuter rail operators, Madrid's Metro and Cercanías, Barcelona's Metro and Rodalies, Tokyo's subway and the JR lines along with various owned and operated commuter rail systems. In Germany the S-Bahn is regarded as a train category of its own, exists in many large cities and in some other areas, but there are differing service and technical standards from city to city. Most S-Bahns behave like commuter rail with most trackage not separated from other trains, long lines with trains running between cities and suburbs rather than within a city; the distances between stations however, are short. In larger systems there is a high frequency metro-like central corridor in the city center where all the lines converge into.
Typical examples of large city S-Bahns include Frankfurt. S-Bahns do exist in some mid-size cities like Rostock and Magdeburg but behave more like typical commuter rail with lower frequencies and little exclusive trackage. In Berlin, the S-Bahn systems arguably fulfill all considerations of a true metro system (despite the existence of U-Ba
The Oise is a river of Belgium and France, flowing for 341 kilometres from its source in the Belgian province of Hainaut, south of Chimay. It crosses the border with France after about 20 kilometres, it flows into the Seine at a north-western suburb of Paris. Its main tributary is the Aisne, it gave its name to the French departments of Val-d'Oise. In France, the Oise flows through the following départements and towns: Aisne: Hirson, Chauny Oise: Noyon, Compiègne, Creil Val-d'Oise: Auvers-sur-Oise, Cergy, Jouy-le-Moutier Yvelines: Conflans-Sainte-Honorine Over the past few centuries, the Oise has played an important role as an inland shipping waterway connecting the Seine with the coastal regions of northern France and the Netherlands. With the projected construction of the Seine-Nord Europe Canal, a high-capacity water transport system in development, the Oise will be linked at Janville, north of Compiègne, with the high-capacity Canal Dunkerque-Escaut, east of Arleux; the Seine-Nord Europe Canal will replace the old Canal de Saint-Quentin and the current Canal du Nord, the capacity of, far below standard.
When the new Seine-Nord connection is complete, it will allow large vessels to transport goods from the Seine, thus Paris and its surrounding area, to the ports of Dunkerque and Rotterdam. Part of the overall project consists in upgrading the river Oise itself between Creil and Compiègne, a project called MAGEO, put out to public consultation in 2013; some bends need to be eased and bridges raised to provide the characteristics of the European Class Vb.https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Oise-upgrading-location.jpg Tributaries include Noirieu Divette Mas or Matz Aronde Brèche Thérain Gland Thon Serre Ailette Ru de Servais Aisne Automne Nonette Thève Canal latéral à l'Oise List of rivers of France List of canals in France River Oise and Canal latéral à l'Oise maps and information, on places and moorings on the canal, by the author of Inland Waterways of France, ImrayNavigation details for 80 French rivers and canals
Île-de-France tramway Line 11 Express
Tramway line T11 Express is a suburban tram-train line in France. The line is planned to be 28 kilometres long, from Sartrouville to Noisy-le-Sec, from the northwestern to the northeastern suburbs of Paris, it will have interchanges with existing SNCF Transilien train lines, metro, Réseau Express Régional lines A, B, C, D and E. There will be eight interchange stations; the project, granted approval in May 2008, was planned by Syndicat des transports d'Île-de-France but jointly managed by SNCF and Réseau Ferré de France. The parisian tramway line 11 will be built in two phases. First phase, from Epinay-sur-Seine to Le Bourget train/RER stations, opened on June 30, 2017, for a total travel time of 15 minutes, an average speed of around 50 km/h and sections allowing maximum speed of 100 km/h; the remaining sections of the route will open by 2023. The total line's overall cost is estimated to be around €1.5 billion. Grande Ceinture line Chemin de fer de Petite Ceinture Grande ceinture Ouest
In rail transport, track gauge or track gage is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a rail network must have running gear, compatible with the track gauge, in the earliest days of railways the selection of a proposed railway's gauge was a key issue; as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still used as a descriptor of a route or network. In some places there is a distinction between the nominal gauge and the actual gauge, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, this device is referred to as a track gauge; the terms structure gauge and loading gauge, both used, have little connection with track gauge. Both refer to two-dimensional cross-section profiles, surrounding the track and vehicles running on it; the structure gauge specifies the outline into which altered structures must not encroach.
The loading gauge is the corresponding envelope within which rail vehicles and their loads must be contained. If an exceptional load or a new type of vehicle is being assessed to run, it is required to conform to the route's loading gauge. Conformance ensures. In the earliest days of railways, single wagons were manhandled on timber rails always in connection with mineral extraction, within a mine or quarry leading from it. Guidance was not at first provided except by human muscle power, but a number of methods of guiding the wagons were employed; the spacing between the rails had to be compatible with that of the wagon wheels. The timber rails wore rapidly. In some localities, the plates were made L-shaped, with the vertical part of the L guiding the wheels; as the guidance of the wagons was improved, short strings of wagons could be connected and pulled by horses, the track could be extended from the immediate vicinity of the mine or quarry to a navigable waterway. The wagons were built to a consistent pattern and the track would be made to suit the wagons: the gauge was more critical.
The Penydarren Tramroad of 1802 in South Wales, a plateway, spaced these at 4 ft 4 in over the outside of the upstands. The Penydarren Tramroad carried the first journey by a locomotive, in 1804, it was successful for the locomotive, but unsuccessful for the track: the plates were not strong enough to carry its weight. A considerable progressive step was made. Edge rails required a close match between rail spacing and the configuration of the wheelsets, the importance of the gauge was reinforced. Railways were still seen as local concerns: there was no appreciation of a future connection to other lines, selection of the track gauge was still a pragmatic decision based on local requirements and prejudices, determined by existing local designs of vehicles. Thus, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway in the West of Scotland used 4 ft 6 in; the Arbroath and Forfar Railway opened in 1838 with a gauge of 5 ft 6 in, the Ulster Railway of 1839 used 6 ft 2 in Locomotives were being developed in the first decades of the 19th century.
His designs were so successful that they became the standard, when the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened in 1825, it used his locomotives, with the same gauge as the Killingworth line, 4 ft 8 in. The Stockton and Darlington line was immensely successful, when the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first intercity line, was built, it used the same gauge, it was hugely successful, the gauge, became the automatic choice: "standard gauge". The Liverpool and Manchester was followed by other trunk railways, with the Grand Junction Railway and the London and Birmingham Railway forming a huge critical mass of standard gauge; when Bristol promoters planned a line from London, they employed the innovative engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. He decided on a wider gauge, to give greater stability, the Great Western Railway adopted a gauge of 7 ft eased to 7 ft 1⁄4 in; this became known as broad gauge. The Great Western Railway was successful and was expanded and through friendly associated companies, widening the scope of broad gauge.
At the same time, other parts of Britain built railways to standard gauge, British technology was exported to European countries and parts of North America using standard gauge. Britain polarised into two areas: those that used standard gauge. In this context, standard gauge was referred to as "narrow gauge" to indicate the contrast; some smaller concerns selected other non-standard gauges: the Eastern Counties Railway adopted 5 ft. Most of them converted to standard gauge at an early date, but the GWR's broad gauge continued to grow; the larger railway companies wished to expand geographically, large areas were considered to be under their control. When a new
Pontoise is the train station serving the city of Pontoise and the surrounding suburbs. The station is a large building situated on Place Charles de Gaulle itself at the bottom end of Rue Thiers. Rue Thiers links Pontoise's Medieval centre to the railway; the station was opened to link Paris to Dieppe, it is parallel to the line with a long footbridge stretching over the lines to the Canrobert bus station. Trains no longer serve Dieppe but is well served by regional trains to Paris St-Lazare and Paris Nord. Pontoise Station is served by RER C which uses a new bridge built of the River Oise to increase capacity. List of stations of the Paris RER List of stations of the Paris Métro Pontoise station at Transilien, the official website of SNCF Pontoise station at "Gares & Connexions", the official website of SNCF
Épinay-sur-Seine is one of the two railway stations in the commune of Épinay-sur-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis department, France. The station opened in 1908 on what was called the Les Grésillons line, which in 1988 was incorporated into the North Branch of the RER C as part of the Vallée de Montmorency - Les Invalides connection project; the station was built by the Nord company in 1908 as part of the opening of the Les Grésillons line. It was designed by Clément Ligny in a regional style which combines decorative elements such as Montmorency marl, glazed brick, cut stone, ceramic friezes, wrought iron; the unusual vertical arrangement of the station is due to its having been a transfer point to the Grande Ceinture line, which had a stop there called the Grand Sentier. The Grande Ceinture crosses over the RER line passing next to one gable of the station; the station is served by trains on Branch C1 of the RER C. The station is set to become a significant interchange. In 2014, a stop on Île-de-France tramway Line 8 opened.
In the future, the station is to be served by the Tram Express Nord, on the former Grande Ceinture line. In 2004, the number of passengers per day was between 2,500 and 7,500. Gare d'Épinay-sur-Seine at Transilien, the official website of SNCF