RIM-7 Sea Sparrow is a U. S. ship-borne short-range anti-aircraft and anti-missile weapon system intended for defense against anti-ship missiles. The system was developed in the early 1960s from the AIM-7 Sparrow air-to-air missile as a lightweight "point-defense" weapon that could be retrofitted to existing ships as as possible in place of existing gun-based anti-aircraft weapons. In this incarnation it was a simple system, guided by a manually aimed radar illuminator. After its introduction, the system underwent significant development into an automated system similar to other US Navy missiles like the RIM-2 Terrier. Improvements made to the Sparrow for the air-to-air role led to similar improvements in the Sea Sparrow through the 1970s and 80s. After that point the air-to-air role passed to the AIM-120 AMRAAM and the Sea Sparrow underwent a series of upgrades for the naval role, it now resembles the AIM-7 only in general form. Fifty years after its development, the Sea Sparrow remains an important part of a layered air defense system, providing a short/medium-range component useful against sea-skimming missiles.
High-speed jet aircraft flying at low altitudes presented a serious threat to naval forces in the late 1950s. Approaching under the local horizon of the ships, the aircraft would appear at close ranges, giving the ships only seconds to respond before the aircraft dropped their payloads and withdrew; this gave the aircraft an enormous advantage over earlier weapons such as dive bombers or torpedo bombers, whose low speed allowed them to be attacked with some effectiveness by anti-aircraft guns. The advantage was so great that when the Royal Navy was faced by the threat of the new Soviet Sverdlov-class cruiser, they responded in a non-linear fashion by introducing the Blackburn Buccaneer aircraft to attack them. Further improving the capabilities of aircraft against ships were a variety of precision-guided weapons. Early designs were first used in World War II with manually controlled weapons such as the Fritz X, evolving into semi-autonomous cruise missiles, such as the Raduga KS-1 Komet, that relied on a combination of initial guidance from the launching aircraft and terminal guidance on the missile itself.
These systems allowed the aircraft to launch their attacks from outside the range of shipboard anti-aircraft weapons, in relative safety. Only the presence of defensive fighters operating at long ranges from the ships could provide cover against these attacks, by attacking the launch aircraft before they could close on the ships. US Navy doctrine stressed long-range air cover to counter both high-speed aircraft and missiles, development of newer short range defenses had been ignored. While the Navy was developing expensive long-range fighters like the Douglas F6D Missileer, most ships were left with older weapons Bofors 40 mm guns or Oerlikon 20 mm cannons. By the early 1960s their capability against modern aircraft and missiles was limited; the introduction of sea-skimming missiles increased the threat against these ships. Unlike the earlier generation of anti-ship missiles, sea-skimmers approached at low level, like an attack aircraft, hiding themselves until the last moment; the missiles were small and much harder to hit than an attacking aircraft.
While the older defenses might be considered a credible threat to a large aircraft at low altitude or a missile approaching at higher altitudes, against a sea-skimming missile they were useless. To counter this threat, ships needed new weapons able to attack these targets as soon as they appeared enough to give them a high first-attempt kill probability - there would be little time for a second attempt; the US Army faced a similar problem defending against attacks by high-speed jet-powered attack aircraft. In this case the local horizon was even more limited, blocked by trees and hills, engagement times could be measured in seconds, they concluded that a gun-based system was unusable in this role. Missiles, on the other hand, could progressively tune their approach while they were flying toward the target, their proximity fuses meant they only needed to get "close enough". In 1959 the Army started development of the MIM-46 Mauler, which mounted a new high-speed missile on top of the ubiquitous M113 Armored Personnel Carrier chassis, along with a medium-range search radar and a separate tracking and illumination radar.
In order to deal with the quick response times needed, the fire control system was semi-automatic. Since the missile would be operating close to the ground in cluttered environments, it used a combination of beam riding along the illumination radar and an infrared seeker in the nose, which allowed tracking as long as either the path in front or in rear of the missile remained free of obstructions; these same basic engagement parameters - high-speed and the associated fleeting sighting times - applied to sea-skimming aircraft and missiles as well. The Navy intended to adapt the Mauler to shipboard use by removing its search radar and wiri
Friedrich Torberg is the pen-name of Friedrich Kantor, an Austrian writer. He worked as a critic and journalist in Vienna and Prague until 1938, when his Jewish heritage compelled him to emigrate to France and after being invited by the New York PEN-Club as one of "Ten outstanding German Anti-Nazi-Writers" to the United States, where he worked as a scriptwriter in Hollywood and for Time magazine in New York City. In 1951 he returned to Vienna. Torberg is known best for his satirical writings in fiction and nonfiction, as well as his translations into German of the stories of Ephraim Kishon, which remain the standard German language version of Kishon's work. Julius-Empire Award Title of Professor City of Vienna Prize for Journalism Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany Austrian Cross of Honour for Science and Art, 1st class Gold Medal of the Austrian capital Vienna Richard Champion Medal Austrian Decoration for Science and Art Grand Austrian State Prize for Literature Naming of Torberggasse in Penzing Der Schüler Gerber hat absolviert.
… und glauben, es wäre die Liebe Süsskind von Trimberg. Roman. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1972, ISBN 3-10-079002-2 Die Tante Jolesch oder der Untergang des Abendlandes in Anekdoten, translated by Maria Poglitsch Bauer and Sonat Hart, Ariadne Press, 2008, ISBN 978-1-57241-149-4. Die Erben der Tante Jolesch Atze, Marcel. Die "Gefahren der Vielseitigkeit". Friedrich Torberg 1908–1979. Katalog zur gleichnamigen Ausstellung im Jüdischen Museum Wien. Vienna: Holzhausen. ISBN 978-3-85493-156-0. Http://www.forward.com/articles/13829/ Recordings with Friedrich Torberg in the Online Archive of the Österreichische Mediathek. Retrieved 29 July 2019
In the mid-1950s Jean Tinguely began production of a series of generative works titled Métamatics: machines that produced art works. With this series of works Tinguely not only problematised the introduction of the robotic machine as interface in our society, but questioned the role of the artist, the art work and the viewer. Metamechanics, in relation to art history, describes the kinetic sculpture machines of Jean Tinguely, it is applied to, may have its origins in, earlier work of the Dada art movement. Jean Tinguely created his Métamatic sculptures between 1955 and 1959; these sculptures are modelled in a way. The drawings they produce resemble, but mimic mid-century gestural abstraction; the abstract drawings are produced by means of a motor-driven arm that holds drawing implements of the viewer’s choosing against a piece of paper. The result is a random composition of dots in colours chosen by the user, his most famous Métamatic, no 17, was created for the 1959 Paris Biennale. This piece, driven by a small engine, served as a prototype for Tinguely’s large-scale, self-destructing pieces.
The Métamatics and their artistic output brought Tinguely a new level of fame and notoriety and helped launch his career outside Europe. Tinguely’s first major exhibition of these works took place in 1959 at Galerie Iris Clert in Paris, which included a competition for the best drawing made on a Métamatic, with a jury of well-known figures in avant-garde Parisian art circles at the time, including Hans Arp, Yves Klein and Pierre Restany. Four thousand Métamatic drawings were made and at least five to six thousand people attended the exhibition. Producers of the kind of gestural abstraction imitated by the Métamatics, such as Hans Hartung, attended; the success of this exhibition led to Tinguely’s first exhibition in the United States in 1960 at the Staempfli Gallery in New York, in which he presented five Métamatic sculptures. Tinguely's Métamatics were part of a wide range of artistic activities in the late 1950s and into the 1960s that questioned the role of the artist as genius, critiqued the excessive commercialisation of both art works and artists’ personalities as products, in some cases offered an alternative to the existing art structure.
Tinguely was working on ideas that were pertinent not only to himself but to a wider group of artists and writers and, as such, Tinguely's Métamatics were part of a broader post-war interest in redefining art. Metamatic Research Tinguely website