Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour, North Harbour and the Lane Cove and Parramatta Rivers, is the ria or natural harbour of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The harbour is an inlet of the Tasman Sea and it is the location of the Sydney Opera House and Sydney Harbour Bridge. The location of the first European settlement in Australia, Port Jackson has continued to play a key role in the history and development of Sydney. Many recreational events are based on or around the harbour itself particularly the Sydney New Years Eve celebrations, the waterways of Port Jackson are managed by the Roads & Maritime Services. Sydney Harbour National Park protects a number of islands and foreshore areas, swimming spots, bushwalking tracks, the land around Port Jackson was occupied at the time of the European arrival and colonisation by the Eora clans, including the Gadigal and Wangal. The Gadigal occupied the land stretching along the side of Port Jackson from what is now South Head.
The Cammeragal lived on the side of the harbour. The area along the banks of the Parramatta River to Rose Hill belonged to the Wangal. The Eora occupied Port Jackson, south to the Georges River, the first recorded European discovery of Sydney Harbour, was by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770 - Cook named the inlet after Sir George Jackson. His ships log notation states at noon we were. about 2 or 3 miles from the land, eighteen years later, on 21 January 1788, after arriving at Botany Bay, Governor Arthur Phillip took a longboat and two cutters up the coast to examine Cooks Port Jackson. Phillip first stayed over night at Camp Cove, moved down the harbour, landing at Sydney Cove, Phillip returned to Sydney Cove in HM Armed Tender Supply on 26 January 1788, where he established the first colony in Australia, to become the city of Sydney. From 1938, seaplanes landed in Sydney Harbour on Rose Bay, in 1942, to protect Sydney Harbour from a submarine attack, the Sydney Harbour anti-submarine boom net was constructed.
It spanned the harbour from Green Point, Watsons Bay to the battery at Georges Head, on the night of 31 May 1942, three Japanese midget submarines entered the harbour, one of which became entangled in the western end of the boom nets central section. Unable to free their submarine, the crew detonated charges, killing themselves in the process, a second midget submarine came to grief in Taylors Bay, the two crew committing suicide. The third submarine fired two torpedoes at USS Chicago before leaving the harbour, in November 2006, this submarine was found off Sydneys Northern Beaches. The anti-submarine boom net was demolished soon after World War II, and all that remains are the foundations of the old boom net winch house, the Australian War Memorial has on display a composite of the two midget submarines salvaged from Sydney Harbour. The conning tower of one of the submarines is on display at the RAN Heritage Centre, Garden Island. Fort Denison is a former site and defensive facility occupying a small island located north-east of the Royal Botanic Gardens in Sydney Harbour
The English Channel, called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France, and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. It is about 560 km long and varies in width from 240 km at its widest to 33.3 km in the Strait of Dover and it is the smallest of the shallow seas around the continental shelf of Europe, covering an area of some 75,000 km2. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the English Channel as follows, a line joining Isle Vierge to Lands End. The southwestern limit of the North Sea, the IHO defines the southwestern limit of the North Sea as a line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point. The Walde Lighthouse is 6 km east of Calais, and Leathercoat Point is at the end of St Margarets Bay. The Strait of Dover, at the Channels eastern end, is its narrowest point and it is relatively shallow, with an average depth of about 120 m at its widest part, reducing to a depth of about 45 m between Dover and Calais.
Eastwards from there the adjoining North Sea reduces to about 26 m in the Broad Fourteens where it lies over the watershed of the land bridge between East Anglia and the Low Countries. It reaches a depth of 180 m in the submerged valley of Hurds Deep,48 km west-northwest of Guernsey. The eastern region along the French coast between Cherbourg and the mouth of the Seine river at Le Havre is frequently referred to as the Bay of the Seine. There are several islands in the Channel, the most notable being the Isle of Wight off the English coast. The coastline, particularly on the French shore, is indented, several small islands close to the coastline, including Chausey. The Cotentin Peninsula in France juts out into the Channel, whilst on the English side there is a parallel channel known as the Solent between the Isle of Wight and the mainland. The Celtic Sea is to the west of the Channel, the time difference of about six hours between high water at the eastern and western limits of the Channel is indicative of the tidal range being amplified further by resonance.
It was never defined as a border and the names were more or less descriptive. It was not considered as the property of a nation, before the development of the modern nations, British scholars very often referred to it as Gaulish and the French one as British or English. The name English Channel has been used since the early 18th century. In modern Dutch, however, it is known as Het Kanaal, later, it has been known as the British Channel or the British Sea having been called the Oceanus Britannicus by the 2nd-century geographer Ptolemy. The same name is used on an Italian map of about 1450, the Anglo-Saxon texts often call it Sūð-sǣ as opposed to Norð-sǣ
Length between perpendiculars
When there is no sternpost, the centerline axis of the rudder stock is used as the aft end of the length between perpendiculars. Measuring to the stern post or rudder stock was believed to give an idea of the ships carrying capacity, as it excluded the small. On some types of vessels this is, for all practical purposes, in a ship with raked stems, naturally that length changes as the draught of the ship changes, therefore it is measured from a defined loaded condition. Keever, John M. American Merchant Seamans Manual, Edward A. McEwen, William A
Ellerman Lines was a UK cargo and passenger shipping company that operated from the late nineteenth century and into the twentieth century. It was founded in the late 19th century, and continued to expand by acquiring smaller shipping lines until it became one of the largest shipping firms in the World. Setbacks occurred through heavy losses to its merchant fleet in the First, the company suffered from competition and modernising trends in the shipping industry that occurred in the second half of the 20th century. Its shipping assets were sold off to larger companies until the name was dropped in 2004. The company was incorporated in 1892, by the businessmen John Ellerman, Christopher Furness and Henry OHagan, who bought the assets of the Liverpool based shipping firm Frederick Leyland and Co Ltd. The company started with a capital of £800,000 to buy the fleet of 22 vessels from the executors of Frederick Leyland. Ellerman was initially the director, and Furness the chairman. The company expanded in 1900 by acquiring 20 ships from the West India, the firm was reorganised as Frederick Leyland, and operated with a capital of £2,800,000.
In 1901 the company was bought by J. P. Morgans International Marine Mercantile Company, but Ellerman remained as chairman, and he acquired the Papayanni Steamship Company and eight of its ships. He used these assets to form the London and Ocean Shipping Company, the London and Ocean Shipping Company went on to buy 50 percent of George Smith and Sons City Line, and 50 percent of the Hall Line Ltd in 1903. Its capital was increased, and the name was changed to Ellerman Lines. The company had its offices in Liverpool and Glasgow, with a subsidiary office in London. In 1904–05 the company bought McGregor, Gow and Co of Liverpool, in 1908 the company bought Bucknall Steamship Lines who operated on numerous routes between the United Kingdom, South Africa, the near East and North America. The Ellerman group of companies now occupied a position in the Mediterranean. By 1914, the Ellerman group controlled four subsidiary companies, Ellerman City Line and Bucknall Company and Papayanni Lines, and Hall Line.
Ellerman continued to operate a service with its remaining ships. The Wilson operation was renamed Ellermans Wilson Line and traded as an entity with its own distinctive livery of red funnel with a black top. This was a complete contrast to the funnels with a black top
For P&O Cruises, the cruise line spun off and now owned by Carnival, see P&O Cruises. For P&O Nedlloyd, the shipping company, which is now part of Maersk Line. P&O was a British shipping and logistics company dating from the early 19th century, formerly a public company, it was sold to DP World in March 2006 for £3.9 billion. DP World currently operate three P&O branded businesses, P&O Ferries, P&O Maritime and P&O Heritage, P&O Cruises was spun off from P&O in 2000, and is now owned and operated by Carnival Corporation & plc. The former shipping business, P&O Nedlloyd, was bought by and is now part of Maersk Line, the company flag colours are directly connected with the Peninsular flags, the white and blue represent the Portuguese flag in 1837, and the yellow and red the Spanish flag. In 1837, the business won a contract from the British Admiralty to deliver mail to the Iberian Peninsula, in 1847, shortly after the Opium War, P&O entered the opium trade, shipping 642,000 chests of Bengal and Malwa opium in the next eleven years.
They faced stiff competition from the incumbent shippers and the Apcar Line, as the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company was incorporated in 1840 by a Royal Charter its name therefore included neither Plc nor Limited. Mail contracts were the basis of P&Os prosperity until the Second World War, in 1914, it took over the British India Steam Navigation Company, which was the largest British shipping line, owning 131 steamers. In 1918, it gained a controlling interest in the Orient Line, further acquisitions followed and the fleet reached a peak of almost 500 ships in the mid-1920s. In 1920, the company established a bank, P&O Bank. Until 1934 it operated liners from Key West, Florida to Havana, eighty-five of the companys ships were sunk in the First World War and 179 in the Second World War. After 1945, the market declined to India but boomed to Australia with the advent of paid-passages for literate & healthy European immigrants known as Ten Pound Poms. P&O built 15 large passenger liners, including SS Himalaya, SS Chusan, SS Arcadia, by 1968 over 1 million immigrants had arrived—many via P&O—and Australia ended the program. P&O entered the market and began to sell and scrap many of these liners.
It concentrated mainly on cargo ships and it entered the tanker trade in 1959 and the roll-on roll-off ferry business in the mid-1960s. P&O and Orient Line were formally merged in 1960 to form P&O-Orient Lines, in 1964, Orcades and Oronsay were transferred to the P&O fleet. The name Orient Line was dropped altogether in 1966 when Orsova, in 1969 British and Commonwealth Shipping, Furness Withy, P&O and The Ocean Steamship Company established Overseas Containers Limited to exploit containerisation. By the early 1980s it had converted all of its dry cargo liner routes to operations and in 1986 it bought out the remaining OCL partners
Marine steam engine
A marine steam engine is a steam engine that is used to power a ship or boat. Reciprocating steam engines were replaced in marine applications during the 20th century by steam turbines. The first commercially successful engine was developed by Thomas Newcomen in 1712. The steam engine improvements brought forth by James Watt in the half of the 18th century greatly improved steam engine efficiency. In 1807, the American Robert Fulton built the worlds first commercially successful steamboat, simply known as the North River Steamboat, following Fultons success, steamboat technology developed rapidly on both sides of the Atlantic. The first successful transatlantic crossing by a steamship occurred in 1819 when Savannah sailed from Savannah, Georgia to Liverpool, the first steamship to make regular transatlantic crossings was the sidewheel steamer Great Western in 1838. As the 19th century progressed, marine engines and steamship technology developed alongside each other. A wide variety of reciprocating steam engines were developed over the course of the 19th century.
The two main methods of classifying such engines are by connection mechanism and cylinder technology, most early marine engines had the same cylinder technology but a number of different methods of supplying power to the crankshaft were in use. Thus, early engines are classified mostly according to their connection mechanism. Some common connection mechanisms were side-lever, walking beam, steam engines can be classified according to their cylinder technology. One can therefore sometimes find examples of engines which were classified under both methods, such as the walking beam. Over time, as most engines became direct-acting but cylinder technologies were growing more complex, Some of the more commonly encountered types of marine steam engine are listed in the following sections. Note that not all of these terms may have been used exclusively in relation to marine applications, the side-lever engine was the first type of steam engine to be widely adopted for marine use in Europe. The side-lever was an adaptation of the earliest form of steam engine and these levers extended, on the cylinder side, to each side of the bottom of the vertical engine cylinder. A piston rod, connected vertically to the piston, extended out of the top of the cylinder and this rod attached to a horizontal crosshead which, at each end, was connected to vertical rods.
These rods connected down to the levers on each side of the cylinder and this formed the connection of the levers to the piston on the cylinder side of the engine. The other side of the levers were connected to each other with a horizontal crosstail and this crosstail in turn connected to and operated a single connecting rod, which turned the crankshaft
Ice Boat No. 3
3, commonly known as Ice Boat No.3 or just No. 3, was a municipal sidewheel icebreaker built in 1873 to assist in keeping Philadelphias waterways free of ice during the winter months, the vessel was used for occasional excursions and other duties through the rest of the year. During the Spanish–American War, Ice Boat No.3 was briefly commissioned into the U. S. Navy as the patrol vessel USS Arctic. Ice Boat No.3 was sunk in a collision with an obstruction in February 1905. In the early 1870s, the City of Philadelphia decided that its two existing icebreakers were not sufficient to keep Philadelphias waterways free of ice, and that a third would be required. Accordingly, the council ordered a new vessel from the established iron shipbuilding firm of Wood, Dialogue & Co. of Camden. The new boat, an iron-hulled sidewheel icebreaker named City Ice Boat No,3, cost $245,000 and was launched at Kaighns Point, New Jersey, on 5 November 1873. City Ice Boat No.3 had a length of 201 feet 6 inches, a beam of 33 feet 5 inches and she had a gross register tonnage of 637.2 tons and a displacement of 1,537 tons.
Photos taken during the naval service indicate that she was a double-ender. Her powerplant—a steam engine of the horizontal direct-acting type—was rated at a horsepower of 500. It is not known what icebreaking features were incorporated into her design and she was the largest of the citys three icebreakers, the only one with an electric generating plant and electric lighting, and throughout her career was considered the best of the three. 3s trial trip was scheduled for 31 January 1874, with Philadelphias city council members invited to attend. Almost immediately thereafter, the ice boat entered service in the vicinity of New Castle, the following winter, No.3 was again in service off New Castle, towing a bark bound for Bremen and another for Yokohama in early March. On 4 February 1881, Ice Boat No and that same day, the ice boat conducted a search for the abandoned bark Arundel, which was eventually located five miles offshore in a dangerous position. Fast in the ice and with great difficulty towed the vessel to the Breakwater harbor, the ice boat took aboard the crew of Arundel and resumed tow of the vessel, returning it to the port of Philadelphia on 8 February.
Because the Arundel had been abandoned by its crew, the crew of Ice Boat No.3 sued for salvage, the sum of $2,500 eventually being granted to them by the U. S. District Court. On 10 January 1891, Ice Boat No.3 was scheduled to tow the school ship Saratoga to sea from the port of Philadelphia, on January 20,1893, Ice Boat No. Some weeks later, on the night of 7 February, Ice Boat No, in July 1896, the navy organized training exercises for the Pennsylvania Naval Militia to be held aboard USS Indiana, which was anchored off the Delaware Breakwater for the purpose
SS Persia (1900)
SS Persia was a P&O passenger liner, built in 1900 by Caird & Company, Greenock, Scotland. It was torpedoed and sunk without warning on 30 December 1915, Persia was sunk off Crete, while the passengers were having lunch, on 30 December 1915, by German World War I U-Boat ace Max Valentiner. Persia sank in five to ten minutes, killing 343 of the 519 aboard, one reason for the large number of casualties, was that only four of the lifeboats were successfully launched. In this case the Persia was a British ship presenting itself openly to another belligerent, the U-Boat fired a torpedo and made no provision for any survivors. This action took place under Germany’s policy of unrestricted warfare, but broke the Imperial German Navy’s own restriction on attacking passenger liners. At the time of sinking, Persia was carrying a quantity of gold. Among the passengers to survive were Walter E. Smith, a British Member of Parliament, Colonel Charles Clive Bigham, son of Lord Mersey and his secretary Eleanor Thornton, who was the model for the Rolls-Royce Spirit of Ecstasy mascot by Charles Sykes, died.
The survivors on the four lifeboats were picked up during the night after the sinking by the minesweeper HMS Mallow. Only 15 of the women on board survived, among them British actress Ann Codrington, Ann lost her mother, Mrs. Helen Codrington. Sixty-seven crewmen from the Portuguese colony of Goa perished, the sinking was front page news on many British newspapers, including the Daily Mirror and the Daily Sketch. The wreck of Persia was located off Crete in 2003 at a depth of 10,000 feet, the salvage attempt met with limited success, retrieving artifacts and portions of the ship, and some jewels from the bullion room. Some of the gems have since been made into commemorative jewelery, treasure hunting The Persias fateful voyage, Indy Almroth-Wright, BBC
Fremantle Harbour is Western Australias largest and busiest general cargo port and an important historical site. The inner harbour handles a large volume of sea containers, vehicle imports and livestock exports, cruise shipping and naval visits, the Inner Harbour includes northern and southern wharves named North Quay and Victoria Quay respectively. All of this area is managed by the Fremantle Port Authority, the first steamship to enter the port was HMS Driver on 4 December 1845. Fremantle shipping was served by the Long Jetty that extended into the open sea, cargo was offloaded onto the jetty and taken down Cliff Street in Fremantles West End. It was loaded onto barges that sailed up the river on the sea breeze. Later it was transported by rail, sailors disliked the Long Jetty, in 1892 Captain D. B. Shaw of the American barque Saranac described it as terrible and fought against putting the vessel alongside jetty to discharge. No place to put a vessel, all the ships have to lay and discharge at the wharf or pay lighterage.
It is blowing a gale from the SW. and takes all our time to hold her and she had done considerable damage to herself. It is certainly the worst place I or anyone else ever saw, no place to send a ship of this size. Any man who would come or send a ship a second time is a damned ass, British marine engineer John Coode advised John Forrest an outer harbour near Rous Head, or one that would stretch south from Arthurs Head, could be built. Coode ruled out building a port in the mouth as he believed it would continually silt up due to lateral sand drift. By 1891 Forrest was examining another proposal, a facility at Owen Anchorage south of Fremantle. But by Charles Yelverton OConnor had been appointed the Colonys Engineer-in-Chief, the first stage of the harbour works began with a ceremony in which the Governors wife, Lady Robinson, tilted the first truck load of rubble for the North Mole. Blasting and dredging the rocky bar created a channel, dredging deepened the river basin, land was reclaimed so quays and warehouses could be built.
The inner harbour was opened on 4 May 1897 when the steamer Sultan drawing just one foot of water with Lady Forrest at the wheel was the first ship to enter the partly built port. As the port neared completion, Forrest lobbied the British to have Fremantle as the port of call for the Mail Packets and New South Wales fought for the retention of Albany as the Mail Packet port, as they were fearful they would lose business. Forrest threatened Western Australia may stay out of the federation of Australian colonies unless they agreed
Russian battleship Borodino
Borodino was the lead ship of her class of pre-dreadnought battleships built for the Imperial Russian Navy although she was the second ship of her class to be completed. Named after the 1812 Battle of Borodino, the ship was completed after the beginning of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, Borodino was assigned to the Second Pacific Squadron sent to the Far East a few months after her completion to break the Japanese blockade of Port Arthur. The Japanese captured the port while the squadron was in transit, the ship was sunk during the Battle of Tsushima on 27 May 1905 due to explosions set off by a Japanese shell hitting a 6-inch magazine. There was only one survivor from her crew of 855 officers, Borodino was 389 feet 5 inches long at the waterline and 397 feet long overall, with a beam of 76 feet 1 inch and a draft of 29 feet 2 inches,38 inches more than designed. Her normal displacement was 14,091 long tons, over 500 long tons more than her designed displacement of 13,516 long tons and her intended crew consisted of 28 officers and 754 enlisted men, although she usually carried 826–46 crewmen in service.
The ship was powered by two four-cylinder vertical triple-expansion steam engines, each driving one three-bladed propeller, using steam generated by 20 Belleville boilers. Unlike her sisters, the engines and boilers were built by the Franco-Russian Works and the boilers provided steam to the engines at a pressure of 19 standard atmospheres. The engines were rated at 16,300 indicated horsepower and designed to reach a top speed of 18 knots and they produced, only 15,012 ihp on her builders sea trials on 23 August 1904 and gave an average speed of 16.2 knots. At full load she carried 1,350 long tons of coal that provided her a range of 2,590 nautical miles at a speed of 10 knots, Borodinos 40-caliber 12-inch guns were mounted in two twin-turrets, one each fore and aft. They had a rate of fire of one round per 90 seconds. Sixty rounds per gun were carried, the twelve 45-caliber 6-inch guns were mounted in six electrically powered twin-gun turrets carried on the upper deck. They had a rate of fire of approximately three rounds per minute and were provided with 180 rounds per gun.
Four of the twenty 75-millimeter guns used against torpedo boats were mounted in casemates just below the main gun turret. Each gun had 300 rounds available, the ship mounted twenty 47-millimeter Hotchkiss guns for anti-torpedo boat defense. Borodino carried four 15-inch torpedo tubes, one each above water in the bow and in the stern, the ships waterline armor belt consisted of Krupp armor and was 5. 7–7.64 inches thick. The armor of her gun turrets had a thickness of 10 in. The 1. 5-inch armored lower deck curved downwards to her double bottom, construction began on Borodino, named after the Battle of Borodino in 1812, on 26 May 1899 at the New Admiralty Shipyard in Saint Petersburg. The ship was laid down on 23 May 1900 in the presence of Tsar Nicholas II and she was completed in August 1904 at the cost of 14,573,000 rubles
The Delhi Durbar, meaning Court of Delhi, was a mass assembly at Coronation Park, India, to mark the succession of an Emperor or Empress of India. Also known as the Imperial Durbar, it was three times, in 1877,1903, and 1911, at the height of the British Empire. The 1911 Durbar was the only one attended by the sovereign, the term was derived from common Mughal term durbar. The 1877 Durbar was largely an official event and not a popular occasion with mass participation like durbars in 1903 and 1911 and it was attended by the 1st Earl of Lytton—Viceroy of India, maharajas and intellectuals. This was the culmination of transfer of control of much of India from the British East India Company to The Crown and it was at this glittering durbar that a man in homespun spotless white khadi rose to read a citation on behalf of the Pune Sarvajanik Sabha. Ganesh Vasudeo Joshi put forth a demand couched in polite language. With this demand, it can be said that the campaign for a free India was formally launched, the durbar would be seen as controversial because it directed funds away from the Great Famine of 1876–78.
The durbar was held to celebrate the succession of Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark as Emperor, the two full weeks of festivities were devised in meticulous detail by Lord Curzon, Viceroy of India. It was a display of pomp and split second timing. Neither the earlier Delhi Durbar of 1877, nor the Durbar held there in 1911, souvenir guide books were sold and maps of the camping ground distributed. A special Delhi Durbar Medal was struck, firework displays, the assembly awaiting them displayed possibly the greatest collection of jewels to be seen in one place. Each of the Indian princes was adorned with the most spectacular of his gems from the collections of centuries, on the first day, the Curzons entered the area of festivities, together with the maharajahs, riding on elephants, some with huge gold candelabras stuck on their tusks. The durbar ceremony itself fell on New Years Day and was followed by days of polo and other sports, balls, military reviews, the world’s press dispatched their best journalists and photographers to cover proceedings.
The popularity of movie footage of the event, shown in cinemas throughout India, is often credited with having launched the country’s early film industry. The India Post issued a set of two commemorative souvenir sheets with special cancellation struck on 1 January 1903 -12 noon, a sought after item for the stamp collectors today. Practically every ruling prince and nobleman in India, plus thousands of landed gentry and other persons of note, the official ceremonies lasted from 7 December to 16 December, with the Durbar itself occurring on Tuesday,12 December.05 ounces. His action was interpreted at the time as a sign of dissent to British rule, the royal couple ascended to the domed royal pavilion, where the King-Emperor announced the move of Indias capital from Calcutta to Delhi. Then on 14 December the King-Emperor presided over a parade of 50,000 troops
A naval trawler is a vessel built along the lines of a fishing trawler but fitted out for naval purposes. Naval trawlers were used during the First and Second World Wars. Fishing trawlers were particularly suited for many naval requirements because they were robust boats designed to work heavy trawls in all types of weather and had large clear working decks, one could create a mine sweeper simply by replacing the trawl with a mine sweep. Adding depth charge racks on the deck, ASDIC below, armed trawlers were used to defend fishing groups from enemy aircraft or submarines. The smallest civilian trawlers were converted to danlayers, in the aftermath of the First World War, the Belgian Corps de Marine purchased several British war surplus naval trawlers. They were operational during the Battle of Belgium and one of them, A4, as with Portugal, the RN had a number of trawler-type warships on order from Brazilian shipyards. With the declaration of war by Brazil against Germany in 1942 these vessels were transferred to the Brazilian Navy for anti-submarine, the French navy made use of trawlers requisitioned from civilian use during wartime.
In the Second World War 480 trawler type vessels were in service as auxiliary mine-sweepers, during the Second World War the Kriegsmarine operated trawlers as Vorpostenboot and as weather ships, the Lauenburg was an example. It used a number of Kriegsfischkutter, trawlers built specifically to be easily converted to naval uses such as anti-submarine warfare. The trawlers were used for coastal patrols and mine-sweeping duties. As the Second World War progressed, Japan commandeered a number of fishing vessels for use as picket boats, to augment these, and to replace losses, the Imperial Japanese Navy ordered a group of 280 picket boats, built on trawler lines but to Navy specifications. This was the No.1 class auxiliary patrol boat, though eventually only 27 were completed, during World War II the Royal New Zealand Navy operated 35 minesweepers, including 20 purpose-built naval trawlers,5 converted fishing trawlers and 10 converted merchant vessels. Norway had a fishing and whaling fleet industry.
For the Second World War the Royal Norwegian Navy made use of six converted whalers and 22 other fishing vessels as minesweepers, the Royal Norwegian Navy made use of a captured German naval trawler, taken as prize in April 1940 and put into service as HNoMS Honningsvåg. After the occupation of Norway the Free Norwegian forces made use of fishing vessels for their clandestine Shetland bus operations in support of the Norwegian resistance. Though Portugal was neutral throughout the Second World War, a number of steel and these Portuguese-class naval trawlers were delivered in 1942, but further construction was halted after protests from Nazi Germany. Later, as Portugal became more involved with the western allies. During the First World War, the Royal Navy operated 627 Admiralty Trawlers which had been purpose-built, purchased from foreign countries, a further 1,456 trawlers were hired and operated, together with many other kinds of small vessel, by the Auxiliary Patrol