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RMS Republic (1903)

RMS Republic was a steam-powered ocean liner built in 1903 by Harland and Wolff in Belfast, lost at sea in a collision in 1909 while sailing for the White Star Line. The ship was equipped with a new Marconi wireless telegraphy transmitter, issued a CQD distress call, resulting in the saving of around 1,500 lives. Known as the "Millionaires' Ship" because of the number of wealthy Americans who traveled by her, she was described as a "palatial liner" and was the flagship of White Star Line's Boston service; this was the first important marine rescue made possible by radio, brought worldwide attention to this new technology. The ship was built in Belfast, Ireland for the International Mercantile Marine's Dominion Line and was named Columbus, she was launched on 26 February 1903 and made her maiden voyage in October 1903 from Liverpool to Boston. After two voyages with the Dominion Line, along with three other Dominion liners: New England and Mayflower, were sold to the White Star Line for use on their new service between Liverpool and Boston.

Columbus was renamed Republic, the second ship under White Star livery to hold the name, while her three fellow former Dominion liners were renamed Romanic and Cretic respectively. Republic made her first crossing under White Star from Liverpool to Boston on 17 December 1903, arriving in Boston 27 December. In January 1903, she made her first crossing from Boston to the Mediterranean via Gibraltar, making calls at Sao Miguel in the Azores, followed by the Italian ports of Naples and Genoa, ending at Alexandria, a voyage which took up to three weeks to complete one-way. In November 1904, she inaugurated White Star's Mediterranean–New York service. White Star intended this route for two purposes: first, they sought to establish a market for cruising opportunities for wealthy American passengers, as her spacious and luxurious accommodations in first and second class attracted scores of wealthy vacationers, thus earning her the nickname "The Millionaire's Ship". Second, more predominantly on her westbound crossings, White Star sought to tap into the massive Italian immigrant trade.

Republic, with a third class capacity of 2,000, proved to be immensely profitable on this route, as when she sailed for the United States on any given trip, third class was booked to capacity, sometimes beyond. A vast majority of Italian immigrants who sailed by White Star boarded Republic and the other ships at Naples, along with smaller groups of Greeks, Slavs and Syrians. White Star's placement of Sao Miguel on their Mediterranean services opened them up to traffic from Portuguese immigrants as well. Over the next four years, Republic spent the winter and spring months running on White Star's Mediterranean–New York service alongside the Cretic, while during the summer and fall months she sailed on the Liverpool–Boston route together with Cymric and Arabic. In early morning of 23 January 1909, while sailing from New York City to Gibraltar and Mediterranean ports with 742 passengers and crew and Captain William Inman Sealby in command, Republic entered a thick fog off the island of Nantucket, Massachusetts.

Amongst the passengers were plenty of illustrious people such as Mrs. Sophie Mansfield Curtis, wife of George Munson Curtis, Mrs. Mary Harriman Severance, wife of Cordenio A. Severance, Professor John M. Coulter with wife and children, General Brayton Ives, St. Louis millionaire Samuel Cupples, historian Alice Morse Earle, Mildred Montague, Countess Pasolini. Travelling in first class were Mr. Leonard L. McMurray, who, in 1915, would survive the sinking of the Cunard liner Lusitania, Mrs. Bessie Armstead Davis, daughter-in-law of senator Henry G. Davis of West Virginia with two children. Taking standard precautions and maintaining her speed, the steamer signaled her presence in the outbound shipping traffic lane by whistle. At 5:47 a.m. another whistle was heard and Republic's engines were ordered to full reverse, the helm put "hard-a-port". Out of the fog, the Lloyd Italiano liner SS Florida appeared and hit Republic amidships on her portside, at about a right angle. Two passengers asleep in their cabins on Republic were killed when Florida's bow sliced into her, liquor wholesale manager Eugene Lynch's wife Mary and banker William J. Mooney.

Eugene Lynch was critically injured and died as a result of his injuries at Long Island College Hospital, Brooklyn, 26 January. On Florida, three crewmen were killed when the bow was crushed back to a collision bulkhead. Six people died in total; the engine and boiler rooms on Republic began to flood, the ship listed. Captain Sealby led the crew in calmly organizing the passengers on deck for evacuation. Republic was equipped with the new Marconi wireless telegraph system, became the first ship in history to issue a CQD distress signal, sent by John R. Binns. Florida came about to rescue Republic's complement, the U. S. Revenue Cutter Service cutter Gresham responded to the distress signal as well. Passengers were distributed between the two ships, with Florida taking the bulk of them, but with 900 Italian immigrants on board, this left the ship dangerously overloaded; the White Star liner Baltic, commanded by Captain J. B. Ranson responded to the CQD call, but due to the persistent fog, it was not until the evening that Baltic was able to locate the drifting Republic.

Once on-scene, the rescued passengers were transferred from Florida to Baltic. Because of the damage to Florida, that ship's immigrant passengers were transferred to Baltic, but a riot near

Channel Islands Witch Trials

The Channel Islands Witch Trials were a series of witch trials in the Channel Islands of Jersey and Guernsey between 1562 and 1661. The Reformation saw the separation of the Church of England from Rome under Henry VIII, beginning in 1529 and completed in 1537. In France John Calvin began publishing his thoughts in 1536 resulting in his fleeing the country, going first to Geneva Strasbourg, where Calvinism became a significant religion with Switzerland, the Netherlands and John David Jarvis in Guernsey adopting the religion in preference to the Roman Catholic Church from which they broke away; this led to persecution by Catholics of non-believers and the fleeing of members of the Reformed Church of France, the Huguenots, some of which found refuge in the Channel Islands. The Islands had retained Roman Catholic Priests due to the island churches being responsible to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Coutances as a result of a shortage of French speaking Protestant priests and due to Mary, a Roman Catholic, being on the throne in England from 1553 to 1558.

During this period a number of Protestants fled the islands, Thomas Bertran, a Jersey Minister fleeing in 1556, a Guernsey merchant Guillaume de Beauvoir becoming a Dean of the English Church in Geneva in 1556, where John Knox and Christopher Goodman were the pastors. The influential English language Geneva Bible was first printed in that city in 1557. In Geneva John Calvin had people arrested and executed. Suspected witches were tortured and burnt by Protestant leaders, though more they were banished from the city. In 1556 during the Marian persecutions under Mary I, the persecution of Protestants for their beliefs, three women Guillemine Gilbert and Perotine Massey were sisters, their mother, Catherine Cauchés were tried for theft, for which they were found not guilty, however Perotine Massey was the wife of a Calvinist minister and all three were found guilty of holding religious views that were contrary to those required by the church authorities and burnt at the stake, Perotine giving birth to a baby boy in the flames.

They became known as the Guernsey Martyrs. The death of Mary I and the arrival of Elizabeth I of England coincided with the arrival of the Huguenots in the islands, with them came a number of French speaking priests of the Protestant Calvinist faith; the Bishop of Coutances lost his influence with the appointment of the Bishop of Winchester over the island churches, so ending all Catholic influence in the islands. The Bailiff, Hellier Gosselin and the Roman Catholic élite of the island were subjected to a series of commissions and investigations encompassing not only the circumstances of the execution of the women, but embezzlement. Hellier Gosselin was dismissed from his post in 1562 but along with the Jurats managed to obtain a pardon from Queen Elizabeth; the French Wars of Religion from 1562 to 1598 increased the number of Protestant refugees arriving in the islands. Calvinism is a strict form of Protestantism and the islands found their churches being changed with the removal of paintings and religious symbols such as statues, decorated altars and fonts and the removal of crosses.

By using the Ecclesiastical courts in the islands they enforced compulsory attendance at church twice every Sunday, bans of gambling and dancing and many other restrictions on Sundays, upon pain of flogging, locking in stocks, imprisonment in the town cages or in castle dungeons. Between 1550 and 1650 at least 100 people were accused of witchcraft in Guernsey. Torture was used to force a confession to practicing witchcraft, after which the convicted were flogged, hanged, strangled or burnt at the stake. George Reginald Balleine wrote about Witch Trials in Jersey, naming "the Witches' Rock at St. Clement", however his work is questioned as being naive about torture and resulting confessions. Confessions in Guernsey showed the devil appearing as a cat, a dog, a hare, a rat, a weasel, or a goat and as a masked man in daylight. Ann of St Brelade in 1562 was the first witch trial in Jersey. Paquette Le Vesconte, from Jersey, arrested for witchcraft and banished from the island and still using "diabolical devices and spells", was rearrested and "confessed that she had entered into partnership with the Devil, by his help perpetrated innumerable crimes and homicides".

Jean Morant in Jersey, confessed to "a contract with the Devil.. by mark and pact.. by means of which he had committed infinite mischiefs and homicides". Symon Vaudin in Jersey, confessed that he "had at divers times help familiar intercourse and talks with the Devil, who appeared as a cat and as a crow". Marie Tougis in Jersey, confessed "that she had caused the death of a child and bewitched a woman". Peronelle Chevallier, wife of Robert Falla, was condemned to be "strangled at the post at the place of execution and there be burnt and her body consumed and reduced to ash and all her goods and property confiscated into the hands of our sovereign lady the Queen" Elizabeth I, in Jersey in 1597. Elizabeth Grandin from Jersey was arrested for witchcraft but released with a warning "not to gad about the island". Marie de Callais, from Calais Lane, St Martin in Guernsey was convicted of witchcraft, one of several in the coven at Le Châté Rocquôine and burnt at the stake on 17 October 1617. Two of her family were banished.

Mary Blanche, of a good family who lived in the area Les Blanches in St Martin, was condemned as a witch by the Bailiff, Amice de Carteret and died in October 1622. Thomas Tougis, Jouane Tougis, his daughter, Michelle Chivret wife of Pierre Osmont were accused in 1622 of "long practised the

Ace of Spades: Bad Destiny

Ace of Spades: Bad Destiny is a 2012 Montenegrin drama film directed by Draško Đurović. The film was selected as the Montenegrin entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 86th Academy Awards, It is the first time Montenegro have submitted a film for the Best Foreign Language Oscar, but it was not nominated. Predrag Bjelac Danilo Celebic Rastko Jankovic Vojislav Krivokapic Michael Madsen Milica Milsa Miro Nikolic Momcilo Otasevic Marta Picuric Momo Picuric Branimir Popovic Jelena Simic Branka Stanic Slavko Klikovac List of submissions to the 86th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film List of Montenegrin submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Ace of Spades: Bad Destiny on IMDb Ace of Spades: Bad Destiny at Rotten Tomatoes