A floppy disk known as a floppy, diskette, or disk, is a type of disk storage composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a rectangular plastic enclosure lined with fabric that removes dust particles. Floppy disks are written by a floppy disk drive. Floppy disks as 8-inch media and in 5 1⁄4-inch and 3 1⁄2 inch sizes, were a ubiquitous form of data storage and exchange from the mid-1970s into the first years of the 21st century. By 2006 computers were manufactured with installed floppy disk drives; these formats are handled by older equipment. The prevalence of floppy disks in late-twentieth century culture was such that many electronic and software programs still use the floppy disks as save icons. While floppy disk drives still have some limited uses with legacy industrial computer equipment, they have been superseded by data storage methods with much greater capacity, such as USB flash drives, flash storage cards, portable external hard disk drives, optical discs, cloud storage and storage available through computer networks.
The first commercial floppy disks, developed in the late 1960s, were 8 inches in diameter. These disks and associated drives were produced and improved upon by IBM and other companies such as Memorex, Shugart Associates, Burroughs Corporation; the term "floppy disk" appeared in print as early as 1970, although IBM announced its first media as the "Type 1 Diskette" in 1973, the industry continued to use the terms "floppy disk" or "floppy". In 1976, Shugart Associates introduced the 5 1⁄4-inch FDD. By 1978 there were more than 10 manufacturers producing such FDDs. There were competing floppy disk formats, with hard- and soft-sector versions and encoding schemes such as FM, MFM, M2FM and GCR; the 5 1⁄4-inch format displaced the 8-inch one for most applications, the hard-sectored disk format disappeared. The most common capacity of the 5 1⁄4-inch format in DOS-based PCs was 360 KB, for the DSDD format using MFM encoding. In 1984 IBM introduced with its PC-AT model the 1.2 MB dual-sided 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk, but it never became popular.
IBM started using the 720 KB double-density 3 1⁄2-inch microfloppy disk on its Convertible laptop computer in 1986 and the 1.44 MB high-density version with the PS/2 line in 1987. These disk drives could be added to older PC models. In 1988 IBM introduced a drive for 2.88 MB "DSED" diskettes in its top-of-the-line PS/2 models, but this was a commercial failure. Throughout the early 1980s, limitations of the 5 1⁄4-inch format became clear. Designed to be more practical than the 8-inch format, it was itself too large. A number of solutions were developed, with drives at 2-, 2 1⁄2-, 3-, 3 1⁄4-, 3 1⁄2- and 4-inches offered by various companies, they all shared a number of advantages over the old format, including a rigid case with a sliding metal shutter over the head slot, which helped protect the delicate magnetic medium from dust and damage, a sliding write protection tab, far more convenient than the adhesive tabs used with earlier disks. The large market share of the well-established 5 1⁄4-inch format made it difficult for these diverse mutually-incompatible new formats to gain significant market share.
A variant on the Sony design, introduced in 1982 by a large number of manufacturers, was rapidly adopted. The term floppy disk persisted though style floppy disks have a rigid case around an internal floppy disk. By the end of the 1980s, 5 1⁄4-inch disks had been superseded by 3 1⁄2-inch disks. During this time, PCs came equipped with drives of both sizes. By the mid-1990s, 5 1⁄4-inch drives had disappeared, as the 3 1⁄2-inch disk became the predominant floppy disk; the advantages of the 3 1⁄2-inch disk were its higher capacity, its smaller size, its rigid case which provided better protection from dirt and other environmental risks. If a person touches the exposed disk surface of a 5 1⁄4-inch disk through the drive hole, fingerprints may foul the disk—and the disk drive head if the disk is subsequently loaded into a drive—and it is easily possible to damage a disk of this type by folding or creasing it rendering it at least unreadable; however due to its simpler construction the 5 1⁄4-inch disk unit price was lower throughout its history in the range of a third to a half that of a 3 1⁄2-inch disk.
Floppy disks became commonplace during the 1980s and 1990s in their use with personal computers to distribute software, transfer data, create backups. Before hard disks became affordable to the general population, floppy disks were used to store a computer's operating system. Most home computers from that period have an elementary OS and BASIC stored in ROM, with the option of loading a more advanced operating system from a floppy disk. By the early 1990s, the increasing software size meant large packages like Windows or Adobe Photoshop required a dozen disks or more. In 1996, there were an estimated five billion standard floppy disks in use. Distribution of larger packages was replaced by CD-ROMs, DVDs and online distribution. An
Neo Geo is a family of video game hardware developed by SNK. On the market from 1990 to 2004, the brand originated with the release of an arcade system, the Neo Geo MVS and its home console counterpart, the Neo Geo AES. Both the arcade system and console were powerful for the time and the AES allows for perfect compatibility of games released for the MVS. However, the high price point for both the AES console and its games prevented it from directly competing with its contemporaries, the Sega Genesis, Super NES, TurboGrafx-16. However, the MVS arcade became successful in stores in Japan and North America. Years SNK released the Neo Geo CD, a more cost effective console with games released on compact discs; the console was met with limited success, due in part to its slow CD-ROM drive. In an attempt to compete with popular 3D games, SNK released the Hyper Neo Geo 64 arcade system in 1997 as the successor to its aging MVS; the system did not fare well and only a few games were released for it. A planned home console based on the hardware was never released.
SNK extended the brand by releasing two handheld consoles, the Neo Geo Pocket, Neo Geo Pocket Color, which competed with Nintendo's Game Boy. Soon after their release, SNK encountered various legal and financial issues - however the original Neo Geo MVS and AES continued getting new games under new ownership until being discontinued in 2004, ending the brand. Regardless of the failure of Neo Geo hardware, games for the original MVS and AES have been well received; the system spawned several long-running and critically acclaimed series 2D fighters, including Fatal Fury, Art of Fighting, Samurai Shodown and The King of Fighters, as well as popular games in other genres such as the Metal Slug and Baseball Stars series. In December 2012, SNK Playmore released a handheld console based on the original AES, the Neo Geo X; as of March 1997, the Neo Geo had sold 980,000 units worldwide. The Neo Geo Pocket Color has been given praise for multiple innovations, a substantial library, despite its short life.
SNK debuted new hardware. "This year, SNK celebrates 40th anniversary," the company said in a tweet. "It is with gratitude towards the fans who have supported SNK's titles, including The King of Fighters, Fatal Fury, Samurai Shodown and Metal Slug, that we introduce a new game machine that compiles the popular titles of Neo Geo! Please look forward to it The Future Is Now!" SNK's first two products using the Neo Geo name are an arcade system called the Neo Geo Multi Video System and a companion console called the Advanced Entertainment System, both released in 1990. The MVS offers arcade operators the ability to put up to six different arcade games into a single cabinet, a key economic consideration for operators with limited floorspace, it comes in many different cabinets but consists of an add on board that can be linked to a standard JAMMA system. The Advanced Entertainment System known just as the Neo Geo, is the first video game console in the family; the hardware features comparatively colorful 2D graphics.
The hardware was in part designed by Alpha Denshi. The home system was only available for rent to commercial establishments, such as hotel chains and restaurants, other venues; when customer response indicated that some gamers were willing to buy a US$650 console, SNK expanded sales and marketing into the home console market. The Neo Geo console was launched on 31 January 1990 in Osaka, Japan; the AES is identical to its arcade counterpart, the MVS, so arcade games released for the home market are nearly identical conversions. The Neo Geo CD, released in 1994, was an upgrade from the original AES; this console uses CDs instead of ROM cartridges like the AES. The unit's 1X CD-ROM drive was slow, making loading times long with the system loading up to 56 Mbits of data between loads. Neo Geo CD game prices were low at US$50, in contrast to Neo Geo AES game cartridges which cost as much as US$300; the system could play Audio CDs. All three versions of the system have no region-lock; the Neo Geo CD was bundled with a control pad instead of a joystick like the AES.
However, the original AES joystick can be used with all 3 Neo Geo CD models, instead of the included control pads. The Hyper Neo Geo 64 is SNK's second and final arcade system board in the Neo Geo family, released in 1997; the Hyper Neo Geo 64 was conceived as SNK's 3D debut into the fifth generation video game consoles. It provided the hardware basis for a home system that would replace their aging Neo Geo AES—one that SNK hoped would be capable of competing with fifth generation video game consoles. In 1999, the Hyper Neo Geo 64 was discontinued, with only seven games released for it in two years; the Neo Geo Pocket was SNK's first handheld in the Neo Geo family. Featuring a monochrome display, it was released in late 1998 within the Japan and Hong Kong market. Lower than expected sales resulted in its discontinuation in 1999, whereupon it was succeeded by the Neo Geo Pocket Color, which had a color screen; this time it was released in the North American and European markets. About two million units were sold worldwide.
The system was discontinued in 2000 in Europe and North America but continued to sell in Japan until 2001. In December 2012, Tommo released a new Neo Geo handheld in North America and Europe, licensed by SNK Playmore, it is an open-source-based handheld like the Dingoo, but
The Nintendo DS, or DS, is a dual-screen handheld game console developed and released by Nintendo. The device released globally across 2004 and 2005; the DS, short for "Developers' System" or "Dual Screen", introduced distinctive new features to handheld gaming: two LCD screens working in tandem, a built-in microphone, support for wireless connectivity. Both screens are encompassed within a clamshell design similar to the Game Boy Advance SP; the Nintendo DS features the ability for multiple DS consoles to directly interact with each other over Wi-Fi within a short range without the need to connect to an existing wireless network. Alternatively, they could interact online using the now-defunct Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection service, its main competitor was Sony's PlayStation Portable during the seventh generation of video game consoles. It was likened to the Nintendo 64 from the 1990s, which led to several N64 ports such as Super Mario 64 DS and Diddy Kong Racing DS, among others. Prior to its release, the Nintendo DS was marketed as an experimental, "third pillar" in Nintendo's console lineup, meant to complement the Game Boy Advance and GameCube.
However, backward compatibility with Game Boy Advance titles and strong sales established it as the successor to the Game Boy series. On March 2, 2006, Nintendo launched the Nintendo DS Lite, a slimmer and lighter redesign of the original Nintendo DS with brighter screens. On November 1, 2008, Nintendo released the Nintendo DSi, another redesign with several hardware improvements and new features. All Nintendo DS models combined have sold 154.02 million units, making it the best selling handheld game console to date, the second best selling video game console of all time behind Sony's PlayStation 2. The Nintendo DS line was succeeded by the Nintendo 3DS family in 2011, which maintains backward compatibility with nearly all Nintendo DS software. Development on the Nintendo DS began around mid-2002, following an original idea from former Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi about a dual-screened console. On November 13, 2003, Nintendo announced that it would be releasing a new game product in 2004.
The company did not provide many details, but stated it would not succeed the Game Boy Advance or GameCube. On January 20, 2004, the console was announced under the codename "Nintendo DS". Nintendo released only a few details at that time, saying that the console would have two separate, 3-inch TFT LCD display panels, separate processors, up to 1 gigabit of semiconductor memory. Nintendo president Satoru Iwata said, "We have developed Nintendo DS based upon a different concept from existing game devices in order to provide players with a unique entertainment experience for the 21st century." He expressed optimism that the DS would help put Nintendo back at the forefront of innovation and move away from the conservative image, described about the company in years past. In March 2004, a document containing most of the console's technical specifications was leaked revealing its internal development name, "Nitro". In May 2004, the console was shown in prototype form at E3 2004, still under the name "Nintendo DS".
On July 28, 2004, Nintendo revealed a new design, described as "sleeker and more elegant" than the one shown at E3 and announced Nintendo DS as the device's official name. Following lukewarm GameCube sales, Hiroshi Yamauchi stressed the importance of its success to the company's future, making a statement which can be translated from Japanese as, "If the DS succeeds, we will rise to heaven, but if it fails we will sink to hell." President Iwata referred to Nintendo DS as "Nintendo's first hardware launch in support of the basic strategy'Gaming Population Expansion'" because the touch-based device "allows users to play intuitively". On September 20, 2004, Nintendo announced that the Nintendo DS would be released in North America on November 21, 2004 for US$149.99. It was set to release on December 2004 in Japan; the console was released in North America with a midnight launch event at Universal CityWalk EB Games in Los Angeles, California. The console was launched in Japan compared to the North America launch.
Regarding the European launch, Nintendo President Satoru Iwata said this: Europe is an important market for Nintendo, we are pleased we can offer such a short period of time between the US and European launch. We believe that the Nintendo DS will change the way people play video games and our mission remains to expand the game play experience. Nintendo DS caters for the needs of all gamers whether for more dedicated gamers who want the real challenge they expect, or the more casual gamers who want quick, pick up and play fun; the Nintendo DS was launched in North America for US$149.99 on November 21, 2004. Well over three million preorders were taken in North Japan. Nintendo planned to deliver one million units combined at the North American and Japanese launches. Nintendo slated 300,000 units for the U. S. debut. In 2005, the manufacturer suggested retail price for the Nintendo DS was dropped to US$129.99. Both launches proved to be successful, but Nintendo chose to release the DS in North America prior to Japan, a first for a hardware laun
BIOS is non-volatile firmware used to perform hardware initialization during the booting process, to provide runtime services for operating systems and programs. The BIOS firmware comes pre-installed on a personal computer's system board, it is the first software to run when powered on; the name originates from the Basic Input/Output System used in the CP/M operating system in 1975. The BIOS proprietary to the IBM PC has been reverse engineered by companies looking to create compatible systems; the interface of that original system serves as a de facto standard. The BIOS in modern PCs initializes and tests the system hardware components, loads a boot loader from a mass memory device which initializes an operating system. In the era of DOS, the BIOS provided a hardware abstraction layer for the keyboard and other input/output devices that standardized an interface to application programs and the operating system. More recent operating systems do not use the BIOS after loading, instead accessing the hardware components directly.
Most BIOS implementations are designed to work with a particular computer or motherboard model, by interfacing with various devices that make up the complementary system chipset. BIOS firmware was stored in a ROM chip on the PC motherboard. In modern computer systems, the BIOS contents are stored on flash memory so it can be rewritten without removing the chip from the motherboard; this allows easy, end-user updates to the BIOS firmware so new features can be added or bugs can be fixed, but it creates a possibility for the computer to become infected with BIOS rootkits. Furthermore, a BIOS upgrade that fails can brick the motherboard permanently, unless the system includes some form of backup for this case. Unified Extensible Firmware Interface is a successor to the legacy PC BIOS, aiming to address its technical shortcomings; the term BIOS was created by Gary Kildall and first appeared in the CP/M operating system in 1975, describing the machine-specific part of CP/M loaded during boot time that interfaces directly with the hardware.
Versions of MS-DOS, PC DOS or DR-DOS contain a file called variously "IO. SYS", "IBMBIO. COM", "IBMBIO. SYS", or "DRBIOS. SYS". Together with the underlying hardware-specific but operating system-independent "System BIOS", which resides in ROM, it represents the analogue to the "CP/M BIOS". With the introduction of PS/2 machines, IBM divided the System BIOS into real- and protected-mode portions; the real-mode portion was meant to provide backward compatibility with existing operating systems such as DOS, therefore was named "CBIOS", whereas the "ABIOS" provided new interfaces suited for multitasking operating systems such as OS/2. The BIOS of the original IBM PC and XT had no interactive user interface. Error codes or messages were displayed on the screen, or coded series of sounds were generated to signal errors when the power-on self-test had not proceeded to the point of initializing a video display adapter. Options on the IBM PC and XT were set by switches and jumpers on the main board and on expansion cards.
Starting around the mid-1990s, it became typical for the BIOS ROM to include a "BIOS configuration utility" or "BIOS setup utility", accessed at system power-up by a particular key sequence. This program allowed the user to set system configuration options, of the type set using DIP switches, through an interactive menu system controlled through the keyboard. In the interim period, IBM-compatible PCs—including the IBM AT—held configuration settings in battery-backed RAM and used a bootable configuration program on disk, not in the ROM, to set the configuration options contained in this memory; the disk was supplied with the computer, if it was lost the system settings could not be changed. The same applied in general to computers with an EISA bus, for which the configuration program was called an EISA Configuration Utility. A modern Wintel-compatible computer provides a setup routine unchanged in nature from the ROM-resident BIOS setup utilities of the late 1990s; when errors occur at boot time, a modern BIOS displays user-friendly error messages presented as pop-up boxes in a TUI style, offers to enter the BIOS setup utility or to ignore the error and proceed if possible.
Instead of battery-backed RAM, the modern Wintel machine may store the BIOS configuration settings in flash ROM the same flash ROM that holds the BIOS itself. Early Intel processors started at physical address 000FFFF0h. Systems with processors provide logic to start running the BIOS from the system ROM. If the system has just been powered up or the reset button was pressed, the full power-on self-test is run. If Ctrl+Alt+Delete was pressed, a special flag value stored in nonvolatile BIOS memory tested by the BIOS allows bypass of the lengthy POST and memory detection; the POST identifies, initializes system devices such as the CPU, RAM, interrupt and DMA controllers and other parts of the chipset, video display card, hard disk drive, optical disc drive and other basic hardware. Early IBM PCs had a routine in the POST that would download a program into RAM through the keyboard port and run it; this featur
TI-59 / TI-58
The TI-59 is an early programmable calculator, manufactured by Texas Instruments from 1977. It is the successor to the TI SR-52, quadrupling the number of "program steps" of storage, adding "ROM Program Modules". Just like the SR-52, it has a magnetic card reader for external storage. One quarter of the memory is stored on each side of one card; the TI-58, TI-58C, are cut down versions of the TI-59, lacking the magnetic card reader and having half the memory, but otherwise identical. Although the TI-58C uses a different chip than the TI-58, the technical data remain identical; the "C" in a TI model name indicates that the calculator has a constant memory allowing retention of programs and data when turned off. These calculators use a parenthesized infix calculation system called "Algebraic Operating System", compared to the postfix RPN system used by other scientific calculators, the operator enters calculations just as they are written on paper, using up to nine levels of parenthesis; the calculator can be powered from an external adapter or from internal NiCd rechargeable battery pack.
The red LED display shows 10 decimal digits of precision. Programming simple problems with the TI-59 or TI-58 is a straightforward process. In programming mode, the TI-59 records key presses. Alphabetical keys provide easy access to up to ten entry points, it is possible to activate any of the programs in the pre-programmed memory module, run one like any user-written program. Programs written by the user can use programs in the module as subroutines; the module's programs run directly from ROM, so they leave the calculator's memory free for the user. However, exploiting the computer-like capabilities of the TI-59 is a different matter. Although the TI-59 is Turing-complete, supporting straight-line programming, conditions and indirect access to memory registers, although it supports limited alphanumeric output on the printer only, writing sophisticated routines is a matter of planning machine language and using a coding pad. A large degree of sharing occurred in the TI-58 community. At least one game, Darth Vader's Force Battle, appeared as a type-in program.
Here is a sample program that computes the factorial of an integer number from 2 to 69. For 5!, you'll type 5 A and get the result, 120. Unlike the SR-52, the TI-59 or TI-58 don't have the factorial function built-in, but do support it through the software module, delivered with the calculator. Op-code Comment LBL A You'll call the program with the A key STO 01 stores the value in register 1 1 starts with 1 LBL B label for the loop * multiply RCL 01 by n DSZ 1 B decrements n and back to B until n=0 = end of loop, the machine has calculated 1*n**...2*1=n! INV SBR end of procedure Here is the same program written for TI Compiler: #reg 01 counter #label A factorial LBL factorial STO counter 1 FOR counter * @counter LOOP = RTN #end In comparison to its contemporary main competitor, Hewlett-Packard HP-67, the TI-59 has about twice the memory; the partition between program steps and memories is adjustable in increments of 80 program steps/10 memories, as many as 960 program steps or as many as 100 memories can be configured.
The TI-59 was the first programmable pocket calculator where the manufacturer provided a system for sharing memory between data registers and program storage. The memory is only about twice as large as in the SR-52, but more flexible, thus the possible number of program steps was four times as high. Contents of this memory are lost; the TI-58 supports up to 480 program steps or 60 memories. It competed with the HP-34C; the TI-58 and TI-59 calculators have variable length instructions. Some keypresses are merged into one programming step, so that instructions from one to eleven keypresses are stored in one to six programming steps; the HP-67 always stores one instruction in one programming step, efficient for some used instructions but limits the number of possible instructions. The TI-59 can store programs and data on small magnetic cards when the calculator is turned off and reloaded when needed. Click below for a video of the card reader in action; the video shows the dual use of the magnetic card as a program documentation menu.
Notes can be handwritten by the programmer on the top side of the magnetic card. Once read by the cardreader, the card can be stored, as shown, in a slot between the top of the keyboard and the display, thus providing a notation indicating both the name of the program loaded and the purpose of each of the five label buttons A-E and their secondary functions A'-E' within the loaded program; the TI-58 does not have a magnetic card reader. The TI-59 and TI-58 were the first hand-held calculators to utilize removable ROM program modules; the Master Library Module ROM was included with the TI-59 and TI-58, contains several useful pre-programmed routines and a game. Additional modules - for such applications as real estate, statistics and aviation - were sold separately; the programs in the modules used the user-defined keys heavily. To make the programs easier to use, plastic cards with the same size as the magnetic cards, but just printed to label the user-defined keys, can be inserted
Fairchild Channel F
The Fairchild Channel F, F for Fun, is a home video game console released by Fairchild Semiconductor in November 1976 across North America at the retail price of $169.95. It was released in Japan in October the following year, it has the distinction of being the first programmable ROM cartridge–based video game console, the first console to use a microprocessor. It was named Video Entertainment System, or VES, but when Atari released its VCS the next year, Fairchild changed the name for its machine, although they continued to use the old name alongside it. By 1977, the Fairchild Channel F had sold 250,000 units, trailing behind sales of the VCS; the Channel F electronics were designed by Jerry Lawson using the Fairchild F8 CPU, the first public outing of this processor. The F8 was complex compared to the typical integrated circuits of the day and had more inputs and outputs than other contemporary chips; because chip packaging was not available with enough pins, the F8 was instead fabricated as a pair of chips that had to be used together to form a complete CPU. Lawson worked with Nick Talesfore and Ron Smith.
As manager of Industrial Design, Talesfore was responsible for the design of the hand controllers and video game cartridges. Smith was responsible for the mechanical engineering of the video controllers. All worked for Wilf Corigan, head of Fairchild Semiconductor, a division of Fairchild Camera & Instrument; the graphics are quite basic by modern standards. The Channel F is only able to use one plane of graphics and one of four background colors per line, only three plot colors to choose from that turned into white if the background is set to black, at a resolution of 128 × 64, with 102 × 58 pixels visible and help from only 64 bytes of system RAM, half the amount of the Atari 2600; the F8 processor at the heart of the console is able to produce enough AI to allow for player versus computer matches, a first in console history. All previous machines required a human opponent. Tic-Tac-Toe on Videocart 1 had this feature, it was only for one player against the machine. One feature unique to this console is the'hold' button, which allow the player to freeze the game, change the time or change the speed of the game.
The functions printed on the console is how they work in the built-in games and some of the original games, all buttons are controlled by the programming and can be used for anything the programmer decides. The hold function is not universal. In the original unit, sound is played through an internal speaker, rather than the TV set. However, the System II passed sound to the television through the RF modulator; the controllers are a joystick without a base. It could be used as both a joystick and paddle, not only could it be pushed down to operate as a fire button it could be pulled up as well; the model 1 unit contained a small compartment for storing the controllers. The System II featured detachable controllers and had two holders at the back to wind the cable around and to store the controller in. Zircon offered a special control which featured an action button on the front of the joystick, it was marketed by Zircon as "Channel F Jet-Stick" in a letter sent out to registered owners before Christmas 1982.
Despite the failure of the Channel F, the joystick's design was so popular—Creative Computing called it "outstanding"— that Zircon released an Atari joystick port-compatible version, the Video Command Joystick, first released without the extra fire button. Before that, only the downwards plunge motion was acted as the fire button. Twenty-seven cartridges, termed'Videocarts', were released to consumers in the United States during the ownership of Fairchild and Zircon, the first twenty-one of which were released by Fairchild. Several of these cartridges were capable of playing more than one game and were priced at $19.95. The Videocarts were yellow and the size and overall texture of an 8 track cartridge, they featured colorful label artwork. The earlier artwork was created by nationally known artist Tom Kamifuji and art directed by Nick Talesfore; the console contained two built-in games and Hockey, which were both advanced Pong clones. In Hockey, the reflecting bar could be changed to diagonals by twisting the controller and could move all over the playing field.
Tennis was much like the original Pong. A sales brochure from 1978 listed'Keyboard Videocarts' for sale; the three shown were K-1 Casino Poker, K-2 Space Odyssey, K-3 Pro-Football. These were intended to use the Keyboard accessory. All further brochures, released after Zircon took over Fairchild, never listed this accessory nor anything called a Keyboard Videocart. There was one additional cartridge released numbered Videocart-51 and titled'Demo 1'; this Videocart was shown in a single sales brochure released shortly after Zircon acquired the company. It was never listed for sale after this single brochure, used in the winter of 1979. Names according to the cartridge, not the packaging. Carts listed but never released: Keyboard Videocart-1: Casino Poker Keyboard Videocart-2: Space Odyssey Keyboard Videocart-3: Pro-FootballOfficial carts that exist: Democart 2German SABA released a few compatible carts different from the original carts, translation in Videocart 1 Tic-Tac-Toe to German words, Videocart 3 released with different abbreviations, Videocart 18 changed graphics and German word list and the SABA 20, a ch
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an important part of the entertainment industry, whether they are a form of art is a matter of dispute; the electronic systems used to play video games are called platforms. Video games are developed and released for one or several platforms and may not be available on others. Specialized platforms such as arcade games, which present the game in a large coin-operated chassis, were common in the 1980s in video arcades, but declined in popularity as other, more affordable platforms became available; these include dedicated devices such as video game consoles, as well as general-purpose computers like a laptop, desktop or handheld computing devices. The input device used for games, the game controller, varies across platforms. Common controllers include gamepads, mouse devices, the touchscreens of mobile devices, or a person's body, using a Kinect sensor.
Players view the game on a display device such as a television or computer monitor or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are game sound effects and voice actor lines which come from loudspeakers or headphones; some games in the 2000s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets. In the 2010s, the commercial importance of the video game industry is increasing; the emerging Asian markets and mobile games on smartphones in particular are driving the growth of the industry. As of 2015, video games generated sales of US$74 billion annually worldwide, were the third-largest segment in the U. S. entertainment market, behind broadcast and cable TV. Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats; the earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, issued on 14 December 1948, as U. S.
Patent 2455992. Inspired by radar display technology, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen. Other early examples include: The Nimrod computer at the 1951 Festival of Britain; each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim, OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court, Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceships battle each other. In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game, it used a black-and-white television for its display, the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green. Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it used a standard television.
These were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong. The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, spawning the video game industry. A flood of Pong clones led to the video game crash of 1977, which came to an end with the mainstream success of Taito's 1978 shooter game Space Invaders, marking the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games and inspiring dozens of manufacturers to enter the market; the game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores. The game became the subject of numerous articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines, establishing video gaming as a growing mainstream hobby. Space Invaders was soon licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales; this helped Atari recover from their earlier losses, in turn the Atari VCS revived the home video game market during the second generation of consoles, up until the North American video game crash of 1983.
The home video game industry was revitalized shortly afterwards by the widespread success of the Nintendo Entertainment System, which marked a shift in the dominance of the video game industry from the United States to Japan during the third generation of consoles. A number of video game developers emerged in Britain in the early 1980s; the term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic components or computer hardware which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate. The term "system" is commonly used; the distinctions below are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. In addition to laptop/desktop computers and mobile devices, there are other devices which have the ability to play games but are not video game machines, such as PDAs and graphing calculators. In common use a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a personal computer conne