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RTV-G-4 Bumper

The RTV-G-4 Bumper was a sounding rocket built by the United States. It was a combination of the German V-2 rocket and the WAC Corporal sounding rocket and was used to study problems pertaining to two-stage high-speed rockets. Eight rockets were launched during the Bumper program between May 13, 1948, to July 29, 1950. While the first six flights were conducted at the White Sands Missile Range, the seventh launch, Bumper 8 on July 24, 1950, was the first rocket launched from Cape Canaveral; the Bumper program was conceived in July 1946 by Colonel Holger N. Toftoy, it was inaugurated on June 20, 1947, to: Investigate launching techniques for a two-stage missile and separation of the two stages at high velocity. Conduct limited investigation of high-speed high-altitude phenomena. Attain record-setting altitudes. Overall responsibility for the Bumper program was given to the General Electric Company and was included in the Hermes project; the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was assigned to perform the theoretical investigations required, design the second stage, create the basic design of the separation system.

The Douglas Aircraft Company was assigned to fabricate the second stage, do detailed design and fabrication of the special V-2 rocket parts required. Six Bumper launches, as well as other V-2 test launches, were from White Sands Proving Grounds. In 1949, the Joint Long Range Proving Ground was established at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on the east coast of Florida; the July 24, 1950, Bumper 8 launch was the first of hundreds of launches from "the Cape"

Challenge International du Nord

The Challenge international du Nord was an annual football tournament featuring clubs from Northern France and Belgium as they could not play in the French Championship. Teams from Switzerland and England were invited to play, it was hosted in the Lille area between 1914 in different formats. The tournament format changed over the years being played between a French group of teams and a Belgium group, with the semi-finals being played between a French and a Belgian team. From 1905, the tournament was opened to clubs from the Netherlands, Prinses Wilhelmina en 1905 and GVC Wageningen. From Switzerland, BSC Old Boys and Grasshoppers. Between 1909 and 1914, the tournament was played between French clubs and amateur clubs from England. With the exception of Le Havre AC in 1900, the clubs from Belgium won trophies between 1898 and 1908. Royale Union Saint-Gilloise being the most successful reaching four finals in five years and winning three of them. RSSSF et archives Pages de Foot Olivier Chovaux, 50 ans de football dans le Pas-de-Calais, Artois Presses Université, 2001 RSSSF Challenge international du Nord

Faustina the Younger

Annia Galeria Faustina Minor, Faustina Minor or Faustina the Younger was a daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius and Roman Empress Faustina the Elder. She was a Roman Empress and wife to her maternal cousin Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius, she was held in high esteem by soldiers and her own husband and was given divine honours after her death. Faustina, named after her mother, was second daughter, she was raised in Rome. Her great uncle, the emperor Hadrian, had arranged with her father for Faustina to marry Lucius Verus. On 25 February 138, she and Verus were betrothed. Verus' father was his intended heir. Faustina’s father ended the engagement between his daughter and Verus and arranged for Faustina's betrothal to her maternal cousin, Marcus Aurelius. In April or May 145, Faustina and Marcus Aurelius were married, as had been planned since 138. Since Aurelius was, by adoption, Antoninus Pius' son, under Roman law he was marrying his sister. Little is known of the ceremony, but it is said to have been "noteworthy".

Coins were issued with the heads of the couple, Antoninus, as Pontifex Maximus, would have officiated. Marcus makes no apparent reference to the marriage in his surviving letters, only sparing references to Faustina. Faustina was given the title of Augusta on 1 December 147 after the birth of her first child, Domitia Faustina; when Antoninus died on 7 March 161, Marcus and Lucius Verus ascended to the throne and became co-rulers. Faustina became empress. Not much has survived from the Roman sources regarding Faustina's life, but what is available does not give a good report. Cassius Dio and the unreliable Augustan History accuse Faustina of ordering deaths by poison and execution; the Augustan History mentions adultery with sailors and men of rank. Faustina accompanied her husband on various military campaigns and enjoyed the love and reverence of Roman soldiers. Aurelius gave her the title of Mater Castrorum or ‘Mother of the Camp’, she attempted to make her home out of an army camp. Between 170–175, she was in the north, in 175, she accompanied Aurelius to the east.

That same year, 175, Aurelius's general Avidius Cassius was proclaimed Roman emperor after the erroneous news of Marcus's death. She wanted someone who would act as a counter-weight to the claims of Tiberius Claudius Pompeianus, in a strong position to take the office of Princeps in the event of Marcus’s death; the evidence, including Marcus's own Meditations, supports the idea that Marcus was indeed quite ill, but by the time Marcus recovered, Cassius was fully acclaimed by the Egyptian legions of II Traiana Fortis and XXII Deiotariana."After a dream of empire lasting three months and six days", Cassius was murdered by a centurion. Egypt recognized Marcus as emperor again by 28 July 175. Faustina died after an accident, at the military camp in Halala. Aurelius buried her in the Mausoleum of Hadrian in Rome, she was deified: her statue was placed in the Temple of Venus in Rome and a temple was dedicated to her in her honor. Halala’s name was changed to Faustinopolis and Aurelius opened charity schools for orphan girls called Puellae Faustinianae or'Girls of Faustina'.

The Baths of Faustina in Miletus are named after her. In their thirty years of marriage, Faustina bore Marcus Aurelius thirteen children: Annia Aurelia Galeria Faustina Gemellus Lucillae, twin brother of Lucilla Annia Aurelia Galeria Lucilla, twin sister of Gemellus, married her father's co-ruler Lucius Verus Titus Aelius Antoninus Titus Aelius Aurelius Hadrianus Domitia Faustina Annia Aurelia Fadilla Annia Cornificia Faustina Minor Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus, twin brother of Commodus Lucius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus, twin brother of Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus emperor Marcus Annius Verus Caesar Vibia Aurelia Sabina Birley, Anthony R.. Marcus Aurelius: A Biography. ISBN 0415171253. Birley, Anthony. Marcus Aurelius: A Biography. Roman Imperial Biographies. London and New York: Taylor & Francis e-Library. ISBN 978-0-415-17125-0. Levick, Barbara. Faustina I and II: Imperial Women of the Golden Age. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-537941-9. Minaud, Gérard. "Ch. 8, La vie de Faustine, femme de Marc-Aurèle".

Les vies de 12 femmes d'empereur romain - Intrigues & Voluptés. Paris: L’Harmattan. Pp. 189–210. Priwitzer, Stefan. Faustina minor – Ehefrau eines Idealkaiser