Rabanus Maurus

Rabanus Maurus Magnentius known as Hrabanus or Rhabanus, was a Frankish Benedictine monk, poet and military writer who became archbishop of Mainz in East Francia. He was the author of the encyclopaedia De rerum naturis, he wrote treatises on education and grammar and commentaries on the Bible. He was one of the most prominent teachers and writers of the Carolingian age, was called "Praeceptor Germaniae," or "the teacher of Germany." In the most recent edition of the Roman Martyrology, his feast is given as 4 February and he is qualified as a Saint. Rabanus was born of noble parents in Mainz; the date of his birth remains uncertain, but in 801 he was ordained a deacon at Benedictine Abbey of Fulda in Hesse, where he had been sent to school and had become a monk. At the insistence of Ratgar, his abbot, he went together with Haimo to complete his studies at Tours. There he studied under Alcuin, who in recognition of his diligence and purity gave him the surname of Maurus, after the favourite disciple of Benedict, Saint Maurus.

Returning to Fulda, in 803 he was entrusted with the principal charge of the abbey school, which under his direction became one of the most preeminent centers of scholarship and book production in Europe, sent forth such pupils as Walafrid Strabo, Servatus Lupus of Ferrières, Otfrid of Weissenburg. It was at this period that he compiled his excerpt from the grammar of Priscian, a popular textbook during the Middle Ages. According to Alban Butler's Lives of the Saints, Rabanus drank no wine. In 814 Rabanus was ordained a priest. Shortly afterwards on account of disagreement with Abbot Ratgar, he withdrew for a time from Fulda; this banishment has long been understood to have occasioned a pilgrimage to Palestine, based on an allusion in his commentary on Joshua. However, the passage in question is taken from Origen's Homily xiv In Librum Jesu Nave. Hence, it was not Rabanus, who visited Palestine. Rabanus returned to Fulda in 817 on the election of a new abbot, at Eigil's death in 822, Rabanus himself became abbot.

He handled this position efficiently and but in 842 he resigned so as to have greater leisure for study and prayer, retiring to the neighbouring monastery of St Petersberg. In 847 Rabanus was constrained to return to public life when he was elected to succeed Otgar as Archbishop of Mainz, he died at Winkel on the Rhine in 856. Rabanus composed a number of hymns, the most famous of, the Veni Creator Spiritus; this is a hymn to the Holy Spirit sung at Pentecost and at ordinations. It is known in English through many translations, including Come, Holy Ghost, our souls inspire. Veni Creator Spiritus was used by Gustav Mahler as the first chorale of his eighth symphony. Another of Rabanus' hymns, the fair glory of the holy angels, sung for the commemoration of Saint Michael and All Angels, to include the archangels Gabriel and Raphael, is found in English translation in The Hymnal 1982, was harmonized by Ralph Vaughan Williams. Rabanus' works, many of which as of 1911 remained unpublished, comprise commentaries on scripture.

In De institutione clericorum he brought into prominence the views of Augustine and Gregory the Great as to the training, requisite for a right discharge of the clerical function. One of his most popular and enduring works is a spectacular collection of poems centered on the cross, called De laudibus sanctae crucis or In honorem sanctae crucis, a set of sophisticated poems that present the cross in word and image in numbers. Among the others may be mentioned the De universo libri xxii. sive etymologiarum opus, a kind of dictionary or encyclopedia dependent upon Isidore of Seville's Etymologies, designed as a help towards the typological and mystical interpretation of Scripture, the De sacris ordinibus, the De disciplina ecclesiastica and the Martyrologium. All of them are characterized by erudition. In the annals of German philology a special interest attaches to the Glossaria Latino-Theodisca. A commentary, Super Porphyrium, printed by Cousin in 1836 among the Ouvrages inédits d'Abélard, assigned both by that editor and by Haurau to Hrabantis Maurus, is now believed to have been the work of a disciple.

In 2006 Germans marked the 1150th anniversary of his death in Mainz and in Fulda. Highlights of the celebrations included the display of Codex Vaticanus Reginensis latinus 124, an rare loan by the Vatican to Mainz of a spectacular manuscript containing De laudibus sanctae crucis; the anniversary saw the publication of no fewer than three book-length studies of Maurus and his work. The first nominally complete edition of the works of Hrabanus Maurus was that of Georges Colvener; the Opera omnia form vols. cvii–cxii of Migne's Patrologiae cursus completus. The De universo is the subject of Compendium der Naturwissenschaften an der Schule zu Fulda im IX. Jahrhundert. Recent critical editions are available of some of his works: De sermonum proprietate sive Opus de universo, edited by Priscilla Throop, 2. Vols. Charlotte, V


A torte (from German Torte (German pronunciation: is a rich multilayered, cake, filled with whipped cream, mousses, jams, or fruits. Ordinarily, the cooled torte is garnished. Tortes are baked in a springform pan. Sponge cake is a common base, but a torte's cake layers may instead be made with little to no flour, using ingredients such as ground nuts or breadcrumbs; the best-known of the typical tortes include the Austrian Sachertorte and Linzertorte, the German Schwarzwälder Kirschtorte, the many-layered Hungarian Dobos torte. But other well-known European confections are tortes, such as the French Gâteau St. Honoré. In Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Russia cakes are called tortes without differentiating between cake and torte. In Polish, as an example, the word torte is translated into Polish as tort, but tort can be translated as layer cake or cream cake. Birthday cake is tort wedding cake is tort weselny; the diminutive of tort, torcik is translated as gateau. An element common to some tortes is sweet icing When the cake is layered, a thick covering of icing is placed between the layers, there is always icing on the tops and sides of the torte.

An example is the whiskey cake. A number of European tortes do not have layers. Some, for instance German-style "Käsesahnetorte", are unbaked. Torta - Official Website

Lee Garbett

Lee Garbett is a British comic book artist born in the West Midlands. He has worked on British comics; as of February 2011, he is working freelance after a period of exclusivity with DC Comics. He created the 4-issue mini-series Dark Mists with Annika Eade, which follows a group of Geisha blackmailed into becoming assassins. After AP Comics folded the title was reprinted by Markosia. Lee left the series after issue No. 3 and moved to 2000 AD, most notably on the series London Falling, co-created with Simon Spurrier. He worked on a Judge Dredd strip for the Judge Dredd Megazine, he moved to US publisher, DC Comics and their Wildstorm imprint. There he first worked on The Highwaymen before working with Keith Giffen on Midnighter and the DC/Wildstorm Universe crossover Dreamwar, he is providing the art for the two-part Batman story which follows the Batman R. I. P. Storyline and links into Final Crisis. Lee drew the first arc on DC comics The Outsiders, entitled "The Deep," as well as the new Batgirl title, relaunched in August 2009 following Battle for the Cowl.

He provided pencils for the sixth and final issue of Grant Morrison'sThe Return of Bruce Wayne limited series. Draw Comic Book Action, an instructional book detailing Garbett's methods for drawing comic book action scenes, was published in 2010. In 2011, he drew a three-part crossover for Marvel titled "Identity Wars", which took place across the Spider-Man and Deadpool annuals. Dark Mists Tharg's Future Shocks: "Doom-Dream of Destiny!" London Falling The Highwaymen Judge Dredd: "Shadowkill" Midnighter #16–20 Dreamwar (pencils, with writer Keith Giffen and inks by Trevor Scott, 6-issue limited series, DC/Wildstorm, June–November 2008, tpb, 144 pages, April 2009, ISBN 1-4012-2203-X Batman #682–683 "Christmas With the Beetles" The Outsiders #15–18, 20 Batgirl #1–7, 9–12, 14 Batman: The Return of Bruce Wayne No. 6 Draw Comic Book Action "Can't Get the Service" "Identity Wars": The Amazing Spider-Man Annual No. 38 "Loki: Agent of Asgard", 2014 “Lucifer” written by Holly Black and Richard Kadrey “Skyward” written by Joe Henderson Image Comics Nominated for Eisner Award 2018 winner Skyward has been picked up by Sony for Film adaptation.

Boom Comics: Main cover and variant comic covers.