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A rabbi is a spiritual leader or religious teacher in Judaism. One becomes a rabbi by being ordained by another rabbi, following a course of study of Jewish texts such as the Talmud; the basic form of the rabbi developed in the Pharisaic and Talmudic era, when learned teachers assembled to codify Judaism's written and oral laws. The title "rabbi" was first used in the first century CE. In more recent centuries, the duties of a rabbi became influenced by the duties of the Protestant Christian minister, hence the title "pulpit rabbis", in 19th-century Germany and the United States rabbinic activities including sermons, pastoral counseling, representing the community to the outside, all increased in importance. Within the various Jewish denominations there are different requirements for rabbinic ordination, differences in opinion regarding, recognized as a rabbi. For example, Orthodox Judaism does not ordain women as rabbis. Non-Orthodox movements have chosen to do so for what they view as halakhic reasons as well as ethical reasons.

The Hebrew word רב rav, which means "great one" or "master", is the original Hebrew form of the title. The form of the title in English and many other languages derives from the possessive form in Hebrew of rav: רַבִּי rabbi, meaning "My Master", the way a student would address a master of Torah; the word Rav in turn derives from the Semitic root ר-ב-ב, which in biblical Aramaic means "great" in many senses, including "revered", but appears as a prefix in construct forms. Although the usage rabbim "many" "the majority, the multitude" occurs for the assembly of the community in the Dead Sea scrolls, there is no evidence to support an association with the title "Rabbi." The root is cognate to Arabic ربّ rabb, meaning "lord". As a sign of great respect, some great rabbis are called "The Rav". Sephardic and Yemenite Jews pronounce this word רִבִּי ribbī. Other variants are rəvī and, in Yiddish, rebbə; the word could be compared to the Syriac word ܪܒܝ rabi. In ancient Hebrew, "Rabbi" was a proper term of address while speaking to a superior, in the second person, similar to a vocative case.

While speaking about a superior, in the third person one could say rabbo. The term evolved into a formal title for members of the Patriarchate. Thus, the title gained an irregular plural form: רַבָּנִים rabbanim, not רַבָּי rabbay. A rabbi is not an occupation found in the Hebrew Bible, ancient generations did not employ related titles such as Rabban, Rabbi, or Rav to describe either the Babylonian sages or the sages in Israel. For example, Hillel I and Shammai (the religious leaders of the early first century, had no rabbinic title prefixed to their names; the titles "Rabban" and "Rabbi" are first mentioned in Jewish literature in the Mishnah. The term was first used for Rabban Gamaliel the elder, Rabban Simeon his son, Rabban Johanan ben Zakkai, all of whom were patriarchs or presidents of the Sanhedrin in the first century; the title "Rabbi" occurs in the books of Matthew and John in the New Testament, where it is used in reference to "Scribes and Pharisees" as well as to Jesus. According to some, the title "rabbi" or "rabban" was first used after 70 CE to refer to Yochanan ben Zakkai and his students, references in rabbinic texts and the New Testament to rabbis earlier in the 1st century are anachronisms or retroactive honorifics.

Other scholars believe that the term "rabbi" was a well-known informal title by the beginning of the first century CE, thus that the Jewish and Christian references to rabbis reflect the titles in fact used in this period. The governments of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah were based on a system that included the Jewish kings, the Jewish prophets, the legal authority of the high court of Jerusalem, the Great Sanhedrin, the ritual authority of the priesthood. Members of the Sanhedrin had to receive their ordination in an uninterrupted line of transmission from Moses, yet rather than being referred to as rabbis they were called priests or scribes, like Ezra, called in the Bible "Ezra, the priest, the scribe, a scribe of the words of God's commandments and of His statutes unto Israel." "Rabbi" as a religious title does not appear in the Hebrew Bible. All of the above personalities would have been expected to be steeped in the wisdom of the Torah and the commandments, which would have made them "rabbis" in the modern sense of the word.

This is illustrated by a 2000-year-old teaching in the Mishnah, which observed about King David, One who learns from their companion a single chapter, a single halakha, a single verse, a single Torah statement, or a single letter, must treat them with honor. For so we find with David King of Israel, who learned nothing from Ahitophel except two things, yet called him his teacher, his guide, his intimate, as it is said:'You are a man of my measure, my guide, my intimate'. One can derive from this the following: If David King of Israel who learned nothing from Ahitophel except for two things, called him his teacher, his guide, his intimate, one who learns from their companion a single chapter, a single halakha, a single verse, a single statement, or a single letter, how much more must they treat them with honor, and honor is due only for Torah

Fausto Cuocolo

Fausto Cuocolo was an Italian jurist and politician. Cuocolo was amongst the most important Italian constitutionalist and one of the "fathers" of the Italian regionalism; when he was a student at Liceo Classico Giuseppe Mazzini in Genoa, he was involved in the fight against the Nazi-Fascismus. He got a degree in Law in Genova at age of 22 and in Political Science two years also with the highest mark and Laude for both, he became a member of European JEF in Paris. In 1960 Cuocolo became Professor of Constitutional Law and in 1967 he published "La legge cornice nel rapporto tra Stato e Regione", one of the most important books for the Italian regionalism; the most important amongst his books however is Istituzioni di diritto pubblico, a common book in the Italian Law Schools. In 1970 Cuocolo was appointed Director of Political Science Faculty in Genova. Since the 50s Cuocolo made intense efforts in targeting the Italian Constitution in the direction of Regionalismus through many essayes and monographies.

Prof. Cuocolo was involved in the Statuto of the Regione Liguria, since before the birth of the region itself as a new public body. Furthermore, Cuocolo was involved in several prominent positions in the Italian public administration, in Liguria and at the national level: e.g. he worked as a Law consultant for Italian Prime Ministers as Francesco Cossiga and others, for the Council of Europe. The May 31, 1979 Prof. Cuocolo was attacked by the Brigate Rosse in his University during an exam: this was the first attack of the Brigate Rosse in a University. In 1981 a second attempt of attack was foiled on time by the Italian police. Cuocolo was appointed Chief of Fondazione Carige and of Banca Carige. However, he left the position in 2003 after having criticized some activities of the Bank. Cuocolo wrote more than 160 paper plus 19 monographies. Amongst them: Il rinvio presidenziale nella formazione delle leggi, Giuffrè, 1955. Il progetto di revisione costituzionale, Giuffrè, 1997. About Prof. Fausto Cuocolo heritage in Law was published the book: A.

A. V. V. Studi in onore del Cuocolo Fausto, Giuffrè, 2005. ISBN 978-88-14-11548-6. Cavaliere di gran croce dell'Ordine al merito della Repubblica italiana - nastrino per uniforme ordinaria Grande ufficiale dell'Ordine al merito della Repubblica italiana - nastrino per uniforme ordinaria

Magnetic Island

Magnetic Island is an island 8 kilometres offshore from the city of Townsville, Australia. This 52 km2 mountainous island in Cleveland Bay has become a suburb of Townsville, with 2,335 permanent residents; the island is accessible from Townsville Breakwater to Nelly Bay Harbour by ferry. There is a large 27 km2 National Park and bird sanctuary and walking tracks can be taken between the populated bays and to a number of tourist destinations such as the World War II forts; the island has long become established as a holiday destination with many hotels and several resorts in operation to cater for all levels of service. The public facilities and infrastructure on the island are managed by the Townsville City Council; the island is part of the electoral district of Townsville in the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. The island is part of the Federal seat of Herbert, represented by Phillip Thompson. In 2009 as part of the Q150 celebrations, the Magnetic Island was announced as one of the Q150 Icons of Queensland for its role as a "Natural attraction".

The wreckage of SS City of Adelaide is located off the shore of Cockle Bay, the island and is a popular tourist attraction. The name of the island came about because of the apparent "magnetic" effect it had on the ship's compass of Captain Cook as he passed the island when sailing up the east coast of Australia in 1770. People have since explored the general area of Magnetic Island with various instruments to discover what might have caused the effect that Cook reported, but nothing has been discovered; the island's mysterious magnetic effect is the basis for the 2015 speculative fiction novel A Tango with the Dragon. Local names for the island are "Maggie Isle", "Maggie Island", or "The Island"; the island is a haven for wildlife. 54% of the island is Magnetic Island National Park, located on the steep hilly interior and rugged north-western side. The highest point on the island is Mount Cook reaching 497 m above sea level. Magnetic Island is famous for its angling opportunities. Fish around the island include: blue marlin, black marlin, mackerel, giant trevally, coral trout, mahi-mahi, red emperor and sea perch.

As of 2013, there are over 800 koalas estimated to be present on the island. The areas of the island that are not covered by the conservation area are open for development subject to local authority approval; as of 2018 the island is undergoing an economic boom. Yunbenun, as Magnetic Island was known by the island's traditional inhabitants, had a transient population of Australian Aborigines well before European exploration of the area, they were known to have seasonal camps at a number of bays, travelled between the island and mainland using canoes. A number of Aboriginal burial sites are said to exist on the island, but have so far not been identified. Aboriginal middens and cave drawings can still be found in a number of bays around Magnetic Island. Folklore of the local Wulguru tribe recounts a long association with the island and annual migrations to the mainland to avoid expeditions of head-hunters from Papua New Guinea and the Torres Strait, which used the northern trade winds to travel south along the Queensland coast.

This head-hunting nearly ceased following the arrival of missionaries, led by Samuel MacFarlane to the Torres Straits in 1871. The first European accounts of the island come from Captain James Cook who, in 1770, while navigating the Australian coast, called the island Magnetical Island, as a magnetic pull interfering with his vessel's compass appeared to emanate from the island. J. M. Black, funded by Robert Towns, founded the township of Townsville on the mainland nearby; as Townsville developed though the mid-19th century, Magnetic Island became a valuable location for the gathering of hoop pine and granite, the latter of, used in the reclamation of land for the Port of Townsville, for construction of Townsville's Customs House. Picnic Bay was named after its popularity as a picnic spot for European tourists from the mainland during the 19th century, before Magnetic Island was first inhabited by Europeans. In the mid-19th century the island became a popular location for the collection of stone and coral needed for development on the mainland.

In 1875, the island was set aside as a quarantine station although it took another ten years for the proper facilities to be set up at West Point. In November 1884 the Queensland Government accepted a tender from Leisner and Sparre to construct the quarantine station for £3645, it was only after the tender was accepted that the site on West Point on the north-west was chosen. By 1890 a resort had been started in Picnic Bay. In 1898 Robert Hayles Sr was so impressed by the potential of Magnetic Island he sold his other interests to build a resort on the island. Hayles was responsible for much of the development of Magnetic Island through tourism. In 1901 he started a regular ferry service to the island with his ship the Bee. Twelve months this ship was wrecked on the rocks at Nobby Head, Picnic Bay, the Phoenix was built by Hayles' sons to replace the vessel; the Hayles company remained operating services to Magnetic Island with a large number of different vessels until 1988. Magnetic Island became an important defensive position during World War II because of its proximity to Townsville, an important military base, its views over Cleveland Bay, a significant anchorage and assembly point for large fleets and convoys operating in the south Pacific.

As such, the Magnetic Battery, an artillery battery and observation post, was built in the hinterland of Florence and Arthur Bays. Picnic Bay became a popular defenc

Skipping Christmas

Skipping Christmas is a comedy novel by John Grisham. It was published by Doubleday on November 6, 2001 and reached #1 on The New York Times Best-Seller List on December 9 that year; the book was adapted for the film Christmas with the Kranks by screenwriter Chris Columbus, recorded by actor Dennis Boutsikaris, released as a 4-CD audiobook by Random House Audio Publishing Group in October 2006. The story focuses on how Luther and Nora Krank try to avoid the frenzy traditionally experienced during the Christmas holiday. On the Sunday after Thanksgiving, the two take their daughter Blair to the airport, where she departs for a year-long Peace Corps assignment in a remote area of Africa. Seeing all of the busy traveling at the airport, Luther starts to develop an personal antipathy for normal Christmas traditions knowing that Blair will not be with them for Christmas this year. To make matters worse, Luther is told by Nora to stop by a packed grocery store on a rainy day, causing him to get soaked, only to realize when getting back in the car that he forgot the white chocolate on the shopping list, forcing Nora to go inside to get it herself.

Nora bemoans the fact that the upcoming Christmas will be the first time they have been separated as a family, prompting her husband to calculate how much they spent celebrating the holidays the previous year. When he realizes they have little to show for the $6,100 they invested in decorations and entertaining, he decides to skip all the hubbub at home and surprise Nora by booking a 10-day Caribbean cruise aboard the Island Princess. Nora at first is skeptical but accepts the idea on one condition – that they still donate $600 to the church and Children's Hospital. At first Luther refuses, but when Nora refuses to consider the cruise otherwise, he agrees, they begin to plan the trip, it doesn't take long for Nora to adjust to the idea of no Christmas shopping or Christmas tree, not hosting their annual Christmas Eve party. To the couple's amazement, their neighbors on Hemlock Street object to their decision to boycott the holiday, because the Kranks' decision not to decorate their home will jeopardize the block's chances at winning the coveted prize for best decorated block in the neighborhood.

Vic Frohmeyer, the unelected "top man" of the neighborhood, leads the townspeople in taunting Luther and Nora about Christmas celebrations by extending a perimeter of people around their lawn, asking a group of Christmas carolers to sing carols on the Kranks' lawn, calling to demand that they decorate their house for Christmas, picketing with signs, et cetera. Luther stops the protest by freezing his sidewalk to prevent the carolers from singing there; the charities are upset with the couple: the local Boy Scout troop is dismayed when the Kranks refuse to support them by purchasing a tree, the police are angered when they decline to buy a calendar, the fruitcake salesmen are shocked to learn the Kranks will not be buying a fruitcake this year, the stationer is upset when he loses their annual order of engraved greeting cards. A newspaper gets in the act by asking Luther's #1 rival, Walt Scheel, to film the Kranks' house for the story. Luther and Nora find themselves the objects of derision and anxiously await their departure on Christmas Day.

Without warning, Blair calls on Christmas Eve to announce she's at Miami International Airport, en route home with her Peruvian fiancé to surprise her parents. She's anxious to introduce Enrique to her family's holiday traditions, when she asks if they're having their usual party that night, a panicking Nora says, "Yes", much to Luther's dismay. Comic chaos ensues as the couple finds themselves trying to decorate the house and coordinate a party with mere hours to spare before their daughter and future son-in-law arrive; because the Boy Scouts have sold out of Christmas trees, Luther arranges to borrow the tree of a neighbor, leaving for the holidays. He and Vic Frohmeyer's son Spike try to transport it across the street, but the neighbors notice and mistakenly think Luther is stealing it, so they phone the police, resulting in Luther's escaping arrest. Luther attempts to set up a Frosty the Snowman decoration on his roof but fails, after a series of events ends up hanging by his leg. Scheel reluctantly calls 9-1-1, Luther is rescued.

The Kranks admit their dilemma and are rescued by everyone they've alienated, with the neighbors pulling together and providing the Christmas celebration Blair is expecting. Blair calls. After keeping Blair and Enrique busy so the party can get started, Luther decides to celebrate Christmas, he gives the cruise package to Walt Scheel, having a bad Christmas because his wife has an illness which has a 90% probability of being terminal. Publishers Weekly observed, "For all its clever curmudgeonly edge and minor charms, no way does this Christmas yarn from Grisham rank with A Christmas Carol, as the publisher claims. Nor does it rank with Grisham's own best work; the premise is terrific, as you'd expect from Grisham... But as clever as this setup is, its elaboration is ho-hum. There's a good reason why nearly all classic Christmas tales rely on an element of fantasy, literarily at least, Christmas is a time of miracles. Grisham sticks to the mundane and his story lacks magic for that... The misanthropy in this short novel makes a good antidote to the more cloying Christmas tales, the book is fun to read.

To compare it to Dickens, however, is...humbug."Bruce Fretts of Entertainment Weekly graded the book C+ and commented, "Even at 177 minipages, Skipping Christmas feels padded... Despite a few nicely observed details... Grisham trades in stale fruitca

Alexander Gerashchenko

Alexander Viktorovich Gerashchenko, known as the "Solikamsk Shooter", is a Russian serial killer. He committed murders to obtain the weapons of the victims. Gerashchenko served in the special unit of the Marine Corps, was given the military specialty of "diver scout". After demobilization, Gerashchenko got a job as a firefighter, by 2006 was an assistant to the chief of the 16th fire station. Gerashchenko did not drink alcohol, coffee or tea, did not smoke, eat meat or use a mobile phone, but did do sports, read classical literature and teach foreign languages. By his own admission, he dreamed of permanently settling in Spain; the first murder committed was on July 13, 1998, when Gerashchenko killed a conscripted soldier guarding the "Ural" plant. He shot him with a small rifle. Gerashchenko stole an AK-47 with a spare magazine. Soon afterwards Gerashchenko made an attempt to attack the Interdistrict Department of private security at the Office of Internal Affairs of Solikamsk, but he was found in time hiding in some bushes.

However, he managed to flee, fell off the radar for two years. The next victims were a security guard of the Universal City Base, killed in 2000, another security officer of the Solikamsk Magnesium Plant OJSC, killed on the night of August 5 to 6, 2001. Both of them were killed by single shots through the windows. After committing the last murder, Gerashchenko tried to enter the territory of the magnesium plant, but an employee opened fire on him and he was fled. In the summer of 2003, Gerashchenko attacked the "Ural" plant again, he shot an employee, took away his service weapon, disappeared into the forest. On September 19, 2004, he made a third attack on the "Ural" plant, his fifth victim was an employee. Gerashchenko stole its holster and six rounds. On the afternoon of June 7, 2005, Gerashchenko shot a senior sergeant of the militia from the sub-department security unit with an assault rifle, stole his Makarov service pistol with a full magazine; the badly wounded policeman was found by passers-by and an ambulance was called, but the doctors could not save him.

The seventh victim was a young woman whom he killed in December 2005 in front of her 4-year-old daughter. As it turned out, he had undivided feelings for her. Passers-by chased him. On the way, he threw off his outer clothing and mask, disappeared after the incident. On the night of December 25 to 26, 2006, Gerashchenko tried to enter a store. Vigilant citizens called the militsiya, two officers soon arrived; when they entered the store, Gerashchenko opened fire on them. As it turned out, Gerashchenko made an attempt to break into the store in order to entice the police, but could not steal a weapon, as he was overwhelmed during the shootout, had to surrender; the trails left behind were purely coincidental. A fire once broke out in Solikamsk, after it was extinguished, an AK-47 and pieces of a fireman's belt were discovered. On the site of the last murder, Gerashchenko had lost a LED light; the seller in a Salikamsk store, in which such lights were sold, said that they had been supplied by his acting fireman, who, in turn, claimed that he received them from Gerashchenko.

Gerashchenko, sensing the increased interest of law enforcement agencies, decided to flee abroad. He wrote a report on his dismissal from the service, but failed to deceive the militiamen, was detained on the outskirts of Solikamsk. During the search, false documents, money and maps of European countries were found in Gerashchenko's possession, he acted calmly agreeing to cooperate with the investigation. Gerashchenko revealed all the weapons caches and confessed to committing seven murders in eight years, he explained his motives saying "I was not going to sell weapons, I had no personal advantage"... Relatives and colleagues of Gerashchenko were surprised that he was the "Solikamsk Shooter"; the case was considered for several months in the Perm Regional Court. On November 7, 2008, the court sentenced Gerashchenko to life imprisonment with serving a sentence in a special regime colony; the Supreme Court of Russia upheld the verdict without change. Alexander Gerashchenko is serving his sentence in the White Swan prison.

Outside the law - "The Perm Beast", 2008. Honest detective - "At the bottom", 2009. Criminal chronicles - "The Deadly Collection", 2012. Invisible battle - "Collector", 2013. Documentary film "The Deadly Collection" from the series "Criminal Chronicles"

1988 Atlanta Journal 500

The 1988 Atlanta Journal 500 was a NASCAR Winston Cup Series racing event that took place on November 20, 1988, at Atlanta International Raceway. The most dominant drivers in the NASCAR Winston Cup Series during the 1980s were Bill Elliott, Darrell Waltrip, Terry Labonte, Bobby Allison, Dale Earnhardt. Atlanta International Raceway is one of ten current intermediate track to hold NASCAR races. However, at the time, only Charlotte and Darlington were built; the layout at Atlanta International Speedway at the time was a four-turn traditional oval track, 1.54 miles long. The track's turns are banked at twenty-four degrees, while the front stretch, the location of the finish line, the back stretch are banked at five. One of the drivers who failed to qualify for this race was Bobby Coyle. Bill Elliott would earn his only NASCAR Winston Cup championship here despite not finishing in the top ten. However, Elliott placed in the other races of the 1988 season with six wins, 15 finishes in the top five, 10 finishes in the top ten.

The race took fifty-two minutes. There was an unusually high attrition rate during this race, it would be contributed to the fact that the speedway was repaved since the previous race in the spring. Rusty Wallace was mad that Bill Elliott was running conservative since he only had to finish 18th to clinch the title. Rusty did everything that he could do, led the most laps, rode all around the track coasting his way into consistent finishes. Elliott could've been more conservative than he over half the field blew motors or wrecked. Mike Alexander would finish third in this event. Seventy-two thousand fans would see an average speed of 129.024 miles per hour while Wallace qualified for the pole position with a speed of 179.499 miles per hour - the equivalent of 30.525 seconds. Tommy Ellis would finish last after encountering a transmission problem on lap 2 out of 328. Nine cautions slowed the race for 55 laps. Cale Yarborough's last event went out with a respectable 10th as he would return as an owner of the Phillips #66.

NASCAR champion Benny Parsons and Brad Noffsinger would compete in their final Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series race here. Parsons would finish in 34th place; this was the last race for Piedmont Airlines as a NASCAR Cup series sponsor, ending the company's partnership with the sport that began in 1981 and picked up momentum during a two-year stay at Richard Childress's team before joining Billy Hagen's team in 1984 for an extended run that began with Terry Laborite taking their car to a championship. The Piedmont brand was in the process of being phased out at the time as USAir had bought the company was rebranding the regional airline as part of its USAir Express operations. Sterling Marlin brought the white-and-blue #44 Oldsmobile home with a top-15 run in its last race before the famous eighties entry was grounded for good. Hoss Ellington, Mike Curb, Harry Ranier would end their respective careers as NASCAR owners after this race; the drivers would earn $387,785 in total race winnings. Section reference: Start of race: Rusty Wallace started out the race with the pole position Lap 7: Caution due to Dale Jarrett's accident, ended on lap 12 Lap 26: Mandatory competition caution handed out by NASCAR officials, ended on lap 29 Lap 55: Caution due to debris, ended on lap 59 Lap 86: Caution due to Richard Petty's accident, ended on lap 92 Lap 108: Caution due to oil on the track, ended on lap 111 Lap 140: Caution due to Benny Parsons' accident, ended on lap 146 Lap 170: Caution due to oil on the track, ended on lap 174 Lap 209: Caution due to Harry Gant's accident, green flag racing resumed on lap 216 Lap 252: Caution due to Alan Kulwicki's accident, ended on lap 260 Lap 267: Kyle Petty managed to blow his engine Lap 272: Larry Pearson managed to blow his engine Lap 276: Mark Martin managed to blow his engine Finish: Rusty Wallace was declared the winner of the event