A dorsal fin is a fin located on the back of most marine and freshwater vertebrates such as fishes and the ichthyosaur. Most species have only one dorsal fin. Wildlife biologists use the distinctive nicks and wear patterns which develop on the dorsal fins of large cetaceans to identify individuals in the field; the bony or cartilaginous bones that support the base of the dorsal fin in fish are called pterygiophores. The main purpose of the dorsal fin is to stabilize the animal against rolling and to assist in sudden turns; some species have further adapted their dorsal fins to other uses. The sunfish uses the dorsal fin for propulsion. In anglerfish, the anterior of the dorsal fin is modified into a biological equivalent to a fishing pole and a lure known as illicium or esca. Many catfish can lock the leading ray of the dorsal fin in an extended position to discourage predation or to wedge themselves into a crevice; some animals have developed dorsal fins with protective functions, such as spines or venom.
For example, both the spiny dogfish and the Port Jackson shark have spines in their dorsal fins which are capable of secreting venom. Billfish have prominent dorsal fins. Like tuna and other scombroids, billfish streamline themselves by retracting their dorsal fins into a groove in their body when they swim; the shape, size and colour of the dorsal fin varies with the type of billfish, can be a simple way to identify a billfish species. For example, the white marlin has a dorsal fin with a curved front edge and is covered with black spots; the huge dorsal fin, or sail, of the sailfish is kept retracted most of the time. Sailfish raise them if they want to herd a school of small fish, after periods of high activity to cool down. A dorsal fin is classified as a medial, unpaired fin, located on the midline of the backs of some aquatic vertebrates. In development of the embryo in teleost fish, the dorsal fin arises from sections of the skin that form a caudal fin fold; the larval development and formation of the skeleton that support the median fins in adults result in pterygiophores.
The skeletal elements of the pterygiophore includes radials. The basals are located at the base of the dorsal fin, are closest to the body; the radials extend outward from the body to support the rest of the fin. These elements serve as attachment sites for epaxial muscles; the muscles contract and pull against the basals of the pterygiophores along one side of the body, which helps the fish move through water by providing greater stability. In these types of fish, the fins are made of 2 main components; the first component is the dermal fin rays known as lepidotrichia, the endoskeletal base with associated muscles for movement is the second. Fish fin Submarine sail Vertical stabilizer
Chimaeras are cartilaginous fish in the order Chimaeriformes, known informally as ghost sharks, rat fish, spookfish or rabbit fish. At one time a "diverse and abundant" group, their closest living relatives are sharks, though their last common ancestor with sharks lived nearly 400 million years ago. Today, they are confined to deep water. Chimaeras live in temperate ocean floors down to 2,600 m deep, with few occurring at depths shallower than 200 m. Exceptions include the members of the genus Callorhinchus, the rabbit fish and the spotted ratfish, which locally or periodically can be found at shallow depths; these are among the few species from the Chimaera order kept in public aquaria. They have soft bodies, with a bulky head and a single gill-opening, they grow up to 150 cm in length. In many species, the snout is modified into an elongated sensory organ. Like other members of the class Chondrichthyes, chimaera skeletons are constructed of cartilage, their skin is smooth and covered by placoid scales, their color can range from black to brownish gray.
For defense, most chimaeras have a venomous spine in front of the dorsal fin. Chimaeras resemble sharks in some ways: they employ claspers for internal fertilization of females and they lay eggs with leathery cases, they use electroreception to find their prey. However, unlike sharks, male chimaeras have retractable sexual appendages on the forehead and in front of the pelvic fins; the females lay eggs in leathery egg cases. They differ from sharks in that their upper jaws are fused with their skulls and they have separate anal and urogenital openings, they lack sharks' many sharp and replaceable teeth, having instead just three pairs of large permanent grinding tooth plates. They have gill covers or opercula like bony fishes. In some classifications, the chimaeras are included in the class Chondrichthyes of cartilaginous fishes. Chimaeras have some characteristics of bony fishes. A renewed effort to explore deep water and to undertake taxonomic analysis of specimens in museum collections led to a boom during the first decade of the 21st century in the number of new species identified.
They are 50 extant species in six genera and four families are described. James, Long & Didier, 2009 Hydrolagus mirabilis Collett, 1904 Hydrolagus mitsukurii Jordan & Snyder, 1904 Hydrolagus novaezealandiae Fowler, 1911 Hydrolagus ogilbyi Waite, 1898 Hydrolagus pallidus Hardy & Stehmann, 1990 Hydrolagus purpurescens Gilbert, 1905 Hydrolagus trolli Didier & Séret, 2002 Hydrolagus waitei Fowler, 1907 Family Rhinochimaeridae Garman, 1901 Genus Harriotta Goode & Bean, 1895 Harriotta haeckeli Karrer, 1972 Harriotta raleighana Goode & Bean, 1895 Genus Neoharriotta Bigelow & Schroeder, 1950 Neoharriotta carri Bullis & J. S. Carpenter, 1966 Neoharriotta pinnata Schnakenbeck, 1931 Neoharriotta pumila Didier & Stehmann, 1996 Genus Rhinochimaera Garman, 1901 Rhinochimaera africana Compagno, Stehmann & Ebert
Actinopterygii, or the ray-finned fishes, constitute a class or subclass of the bony fishes. The ray-finned fishes are so called because their fins are webs of skin supported by bony or horny spines, as opposed to the fleshy, lobed fins that characterize the class Sarcopterygii; these actinopterygian fin rays attach directly to the proximal or basal skeletal elements, the radials, which represent the link or connection between these fins and the internal skeleton. Numerically, actinopterygians are the dominant class of vertebrates, comprising nearly 99% of the over 30,000 species of fish, they are ubiquitous throughout freshwater and marine environments from the deep sea to the highest mountain streams. Extant species can range in size from Paedocypris, at 8 mm, to the massive ocean sunfish, at 2,300 kg, the long-bodied oarfish, at 11 m. Ray-finned fishes occur in many variant forms; the main features of a typical ray-finned fish are shown in the adjacent diagram. In nearly all ray-finned fish, the sexes are separate, in most species the females spawn eggs that are fertilized externally with the male inseminating the eggs after they are laid.
Development proceeds with a free-swimming larval stage. However other patterns of ontogeny exist, with one of the commonest being sequential hermaphroditism. In most cases this involves protogyny, fish starting life as females and converting to males at some stage, triggered by some internal or external factor. Protandry, where a fish converts from male to female, is much less common than protogyny. Most families use external rather than internal fertilization. Of the oviparous teleosts, most do not provide parental care. Viviparity, ovoviviparity, or some form of parental care for eggs, whether by the male, the female, or both parents is seen in a significant fraction of the 422 teleost families. Viviparity is rare and is found in about 6% of teleost species. Male territoriality "preadapts" a species for evolving male parental care. There are a few examples of fish; the mangrove rivulus is an amphibious, simultaneous hermaphrodite, producing both eggs and spawn and having internal fertilisation.
This mode of reproduction may be related to the fish's habit of spending long periods out of water in the mangrove forests it inhabits. Males are produced at temperatures below 19 °C and can fertilise eggs that are spawned by the female; this maintains genetic variability in a species, otherwise inbred. The earliest known fossil actinopterygiian is Andreolepis hedei. Remains have been found in Russia and Estonia. Actinopterygians are divided into the subclasses Neopterygii; the Neopterygii, in turn, are divided into the infraclasses Teleostei. During the Mesozoic and Cenozoic the teleosts in particular diversified and as a result, 96% of all known fish species are teleosts; the cladogram shows the major groups of actinopterygians and their relationship to the terrestrial vertebrates that evolved from a related group of fish. Approximate dates are from al.. 2012. The polypterids are the sister lineage of all other actinopterygians, the Acipenseriformes are the sister lineage of Neopterygii, Holostei are the sister lineage of teleosts.
The Elopomorpha appears to be the most basic teleosts. The listing below follows Phylogenetic Classification of Bony Fishes with notes when this differs from Nelson, ITIS and FishBase and extinct groups from Van der Laan 2016. Order †? Asarotiformes Schaeffer 1968 Order †? Discordichthyiformes Minikh 1998 Order †? Paphosisciformes Grogan & Lund 2015 Order †? Scanilepiformes Selezneya 1985 Order †Cheirolepidiformes Kazantseva-Selezneva 1977 Order †Paramblypteriformes Heyler 1969 Order †Rhadinichthyiformes Order †Palaeonisciformes Hay 1902 Order †Tarrasiiformes sensu Lund & Poplin 2002 Order †Ptycholepiformes Andrews et al. 1967 Order †Redfieldiiformes Berg 1940 Order †Haplolepidiformes Westoll 1944 Order †Aeduelliformes Heyler 1969 Order †Platysomiformes Aldinger 1937 Order †Dorypteriformes Cope 1871 Order †Eurynotiformes Sallan & Coates 2013 Subclass Cladistii Pander 1860 Order †Guildayichthyiformes Lund 2000 Order Polypteriformes Bleeker 1859 Clade Actinopteri Cope 1972 s.s. Order †Elonichthyiformes Kazantseva-Selezneva 1977 Order †Phanerorhynchiformes Order †Saurichthyiformes Berg 1937 Subclass Chondrostei Order †Birgeriiformes Jin 2001 Order †Chondrosteiformes Order Acipenseriformes Berg 1940 Subclass Neopterygii Regan 1923 sensu Xu & Wu 2012 Order †Pholidopleuriformes Berg 1937 Order †Peltopleuriformes Lehman 1966 Order †Perleidiformes Berg 1937 Order †Luganoiiformes Lehman 1958 Order †Pycnodontiformes Berg 1937 Infraclass Holostei Muller 1844 Division Halecomorpha Cope 1872 sensu Grande & Bemis 1998 Order †Parasemionotiformes Lehman 1966 Order †Ionoscopiformes Grande & Bemis 1998 Order Amiiformes Huxley 1861 sensu Grande & Bemis 1998 Division Ginglymodi Cope 1871 Order †Dapediiformes Thies & Waschkewitz 2015 Order †Semionotiformes Arambourg & Bertin 1958 Order Lepisosteiformes Hay 1929 Clade Teleosteomorpha Arratia 2000 sensu Arratia 2013 Order †Prohaleciteiformes Arratia 2017 Division Aspidorhynchei Nelson, Grand & Wilson 2016 Order †Aspidorhynchiformes Bleeker 1859 Order †Pachycormiformes Berg 1937 Infraclass Teleostei Müller 1844 sensu Arratia 2013 Order †?
Araripichthyiformes Order †? Ligulelliiformes Taverne 2011 Order †? Tselfatiiformes Nelson 1994 Order †Pholidophori
The foxface rabbitfish is a species of fish found at reefs and lagoons in the tropical Western Pacific. It is sometimes still placed in the obsolete genus Lo. Other common names are foxface or foxface lo, but these properly refer to any of the rabbitfish species once separated in Lo, e.g. the related bicolored foxface. It is seen in the marine aquarium trade; the blotched foxface differs from S. vulpinus in possessing a large black spot below the aft dorsal fin. It is sympatric and not phylogenetically distinct, though these two might be evolved species, they are more just color morphs and ought to be united under the scientific name S. vulpinus. Siganus vulpinus is omnivorous, eating algae and zooplankton. From time-to-time, if hungry, it may nip at corals, such as Zoantharia. Though not an obligate herbivore, the foxface rabbitfish does require algae in its diet. In captivity, it can be coaxed into eating a combination of mysis shrimp, sheets of dried seaweed, marine flake food containing algae.
It is popular with aquarists due to its appetite for feather caulerpas, macroalgae that overgrow the rockwork in home aquaria. S. vulpinus is skilled at removing this alga and will clear an aquarium of it within a matter of days. FishBase: Siganus vulpinus - Foxface. Version of 2008-JAN-14. Retrieved 2008-AUG-31. Kuriiwa, Kaoru. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 45: 69–80. Doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.04.018
Bagoóng is a Philippine condiment or made of either fermented fish or krill with salt. The fermentation process produces fish sauce known as patís; the preparation of bagoóng can vary regionally in the Philippines. Bagoóng is made from a variety of fish species, including the following: Anchovies - known as dilis, bolinaw, or gurayan Round scads - known as galunggóng or tamodios Bonnetmouths - known as terong Ponyfish - known as sapsáp Rabbitfish - known as padas Bar-eyed gobies - known as ipon Herrings - Clupeoides lila Silver perch - known as ayungin Bagoóng made from fish is encompassed by the term bagoóng isdâ in Luzon and northern parts of the Visayas, they can be distinguished further by the type of fish they are made of. Those made from anchovies are known as bagoong monamon or bagoong dilis and those from bonnetmouths as bagoong terong. In the southern Visayas and Mindanao, fish bagoong made from anchovies is known as guinamos. Larger fermented. Bagoong can be made from krill; this type of bagoong is known as bagoong alamang.
It is called uyap or alamang in the southern Philippines, aramang in Ilocos and parts of Northern Luzon, ginamos or dayok in western Visayas. In rarer instances, it can be made from oysters and fish and shrimp roe. A kind of bagoong made in the town of Balayan, Batangas is known as bagoong Balayan. Bagoong isda is prepared by mixing salt and fish by volume; the salt and fish are mixed uniformly by hand. The mixture is kept inside large earthen fermentation jars, it is covered, to keep flies away, left to ferment for 30–90 days with occasional stirring to make sure the salt is spread evenly. The mixture can expand during the process; the preparation of bagoong alamang is similar, with krill cleaned and washed in weak brine solution. As in fish bagoong, the shrimp are mixed with salt in a 25% salt to 75% shrimp ratio by weight; the products of the fermentation process are pale gray to white in color. To obtain the characteristic red or pink color of some bagoong, a kind of food coloring known as angkak is added.
Angkak is made from rice inoculated with a species of red mold. High quality salt with little mineral impurities are preferred. High metallic content in the salt used can result in darker colors to the resulting bagoong and a less agreeable undertaste. Oversalting and undersalting has a significant impact on the rate and quality of fermentation due to their effects on the bacteria involved in the process; some manufacturers sell the resulting mixture as fish paste. Patís or fish sauce is a byproduct of the fermentation process, it is a clear, yellowish liquid that floats above the fermented mixture, has sharp salty or cheese-like flavor. Sauces similar to patís include nước mắm in Vietnam, nam pha in Laos, hom ha in China, nam pla in Thailand, shitsuru in Japan and saeu chot in Korea, as well as the garum of ancient Greece and the Roman empire. To obtain patís, fermentation is longer taking six months to a year. During the longer fermentation processes, the fish or shrimp constituents disintegrate further, producing a clear yellowish liquid on top of the mixture due to hydrolysis.
This is the patis, it can be harvested. It is drained and bottled separately, while the residue is turned into bagoong. If the residual solids are not moist enough, brine is added; the rate of fermentation can vary depending on the pH levels of the temperature. Exposure to sunlight can reduce the amount of time required to two months. Over the centuries, western unfamiliarity with bagoong has given it a reputation as an "exotic" dish, portrayed in a positive or negative light depending on the point of view of the writer. For example, one early description was Spanish colonial official Antonio de Morga, whose book Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas included a description of bagoong as "fish which... has started to rot and stink." This prompted preeminent Philippine nationalist Jose Rizal to denounce the descriptions in his 1890 annotation, saying: This is another preoccupation of the Spaniards who, like any other nation, treat food to which they are not accustomed or is unknown to them with disgust....
This fish that Morga mentions, that cannot be good until it begins to rot, is bagoong and those who have eaten it and tasted it know that it neither is nor should be rotten. Bagoong monamon Bagoong terong Balao-balao Binagoongan Burong isda Fish sauce Garum List of fermented foods List of fish sauces Shrimp paste Taba ng talangka Bagoong: Good for the brain Filipino American, Fred Cordova, Filipinos: Forgotten Asian Americans Philippines Deep Sea Fishing and Refrigeration Foods Used by Filipinos in Hawaii, Bulletin 98 - Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, 1946
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage or marine algae, for the main component of its diet. As a result of their plant diet, herbivorous animals have mouthparts adapted to rasping or grinding. Horses and other herbivores have wide flat teeth that are adapted to grinding grass, tree bark, other tough plant material. A large percentage of herbivores have mutualistic gut flora that help them digest plant matter, more difficult to digest than animal prey; this flora is made up of cellulose-digesting bacteria. Herbivore is the anglicized form of a modern Latin coinage, cited in Charles Lyell's 1830 Principles of Geology. Richard Owen employed the anglicized term in an 1854 work on fossil skeletons. Herbivora is derived from the Latin herba meaning a small plant or herb, vora, from vorare, to eat or devour. Herbivory is a form of consumption in which an organism principally eats autotrophs such as plants and photosynthesizing bacteria.
More organisms that feed on autotrophs in general are known as primary consumers. Herbivory is limited to animals that eat plants. Fungi and protists that feed on living plants are termed plant pathogens, while fungi and microbes that feed on dead plants are described as saprotrophs. Flowering plants that obtain nutrition from other living plants are termed parasitic plants. There is, however, no single exclusive and definitive ecological classification of consumption patterns. In zoology, an herbivore is an animal, adapted to eat plant matter. Our understanding of herbivory in geological time comes from three sources: fossilized plants, which may preserve evidence of defence, or herbivory-related damage. Although herbivory was long thought to be a Mesozoic phenomenon, fossils have shown that within less than 20 million years after the first land plants evolved, plants were being consumed by arthropods. Insects fed on the spores of early Devonian plants, the Rhynie chert provides evidence that organisms fed on plants using a "pierce and suck" technique.
During the next 75 million years, plants evolved a range of more complex organs, such as roots and seeds. There is no evidence of any organism being fed upon until the middle-late Mississippian, 330.9 million years ago. There was a gap of 50 to 100 million years between the time each organ evolved and the time organisms evolved to feed upon them. Further than their arthropod status, the identity of these early herbivores is uncertain. Hole feeding and skeletonisation are recorded in the early Permian, with surface fluid feeding evolving by the end of that period. Herbivory among four-limbed terrestrial vertebrates, the tetrapods developed in the Late Carboniferous. Early tetrapods were large amphibious piscivores. While amphibians continued to feed on fish and insects, some reptiles began exploring two new food types and plants; the entire dinosaur order ornithischia was composed with herbivores dinosaurs. Carnivory was a natural transition from insectivory for medium and large tetrapods, requiring minimal adaptation.
In contrast, a complex set of adaptations was necessary for feeding on fibrous plant materials. Arthropods evolved herbivory in four phases, changing their approach to it in response to changing plant communities. Tetrapod herbivores made their first appearance in the fossil record of their jaws near the Permio-Carboniferous boundary 300 million years ago; the earliest evidence of their herbivory has been attributed to dental occlusion, the process in which teeth from the upper jaw come in contact with teeth in the lower jaw is present. The evolution of dental occlusion led to a drastic increase in plant food processing and provides evidence about feeding strategies based on tooth wear patterns. Examination of phylogenetic frameworks of tooth and jaw morphologes has revealed that dental occlusion developed independently in several lineages tetrapod herbivores; this suggests that evolution and spread occurred within various lineages. Herbivores form an important link in the food chain because they consume plants in order to digest the carbohydrates photosynthetically produced by a plant.
Carnivores in turn consume herbivores for the same reason, while omnivores can obtain their nutrients from either plants or animals. Due to a herbivore's ability to survive on tough and fibrous plant matter, they are termed the primary consumers in the food cycle. Herbivory and omnivory can be regarded as special cases of Consumer-Resource Systems. Herbivores come in all sizes in the animal kingdom, they include aquatic and non-aquatic vertebrates. They can be large, like an elephant. Many herbivores found living in close proximity to humans, such as rodents, cows and camels. Two herbivore feeding strategies are browsing. For a terrestrial mammal to be called a grazer, at least 90% of the forage has to be grass, for a browser at least 90% tree leaves and/or twigs. An intermediate feeding strategy is called "mixed-feeding". In their daily need to take up energy from forage, herbivores of different body mass may be selective in choosing their food. "Selective" means that herbivores may choose their forage source depending on, e.g. season or food avail
Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha. Oryctolagus cuniculus includes the European rabbit species and its descendants, the world's 305 breeds of domestic rabbit. Sylvilagus includes 13 wild rabbit species, among them the 7 types of cottontail; the European rabbit, introduced on every continent except Antarctica, is familiar throughout the world as a wild prey animal and as a domesticated form of livestock and pet. With its widespread effect on ecologies and cultures, the rabbit is, in many areas of the world, a part of daily life—as food, clothing, a companion, as a source of artistic inspiration. Male rabbits are called bucks. An older term for an adult rabbit is coney. Another term for a young rabbit is bunny, though this term is applied informally to rabbits especially domestic ones. More the term kit or kitten has been used to refer to a young rabbit. A group of rabbits is known as a nest. A group of baby rabbits produced from a single mating is referred to as a litter, a group of domestic rabbits living together is sometimes called a herd.
Rabbits and hares were classified in the order Rodentia until 1912, when they were moved into a new order, Lagomorpha. Below are some of the species of the rabbit. Order Lagomorpha Family Leporidae Hares are precocial, born mature and mobile with hair and good vision, while rabbits are altricial, born hairless and blind, requiring closer care. Hares live a solitary life in a simple nest above the ground, while most rabbits live in social groups underground in burrows or warrens. Hares are larger than rabbits, with ears that are more elongated, with hind legs that are larger and longer. Hares have not been domesticated, while descendants of the European rabbit are bred as livestock and kept as pets. Rabbits have long been domesticated. Beginning in the Middle Ages, the European rabbit has been kept as livestock, starting in ancient Rome. Selective breeding has generated a wide variety of rabbit breeds, many of which are kept as pets; some strains of rabbit have been bred as research subjects. As livestock, rabbits are bred for their fur.
The earliest breeds were important sources of meat, so became larger than wild rabbits, but domestic rabbits in modern times range in size from dwarf to giant. Rabbit fur, prized for its softness, can be found in a broad range of coat colors and patterns, as well as lengths; the Angora rabbit breed, for example, was developed for its long, silky fur, hand-spun into yarn. Other domestic rabbit breeds have been developed for the commercial fur trade, including the Rex, which has a short plush coat; because the rabbit's epiglottis is engaged over the soft palate except when swallowing, the rabbit is an obligate nasal breather. Rabbits have two sets of one behind the other; this way they can be distinguished from rodents, with which they are confused. Carl Linnaeus grouped rabbits and rodents under the class Glires. However, recent DNA analysis and the discovery of a common ancestor has supported the view that they do share a common lineage, thus rabbits and rodents are now referred to together as members of the superorder Glires.
Since speed and agility are a rabbit's main defenses against predators, rabbits have large hind leg bones and well developed musculature. Though plantigrade at rest, rabbits are on their toes while running, assuming a more digitigrade form. Rabbits use their strong claws for defense; each front foot has four toes plus a dewclaw. Each hind foot has four toes. Most wild rabbits have full, egg-shaped bodies; the soft coat of the wild rabbit is agouti in coloration. The tail of the rabbit is dark on white below. Cottontails have white on the top of their tails; as a result of the position of the eyes in its skull, the rabbit has a field of vision that encompasses nearly 360 degrees, with just a small blind spot at the bridge of the nose. The anatomy of rabbits' hind limbs are structurally similar to that of other land mammals and contribute to their specialized form of locomotion; the Bones of the hind limbs consist of long bones as well as short bones. These bones are created through endochondral ossification during development.
Like most land mammals, the round head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum of the ox coxae. The femur articulates with the tibia, but not the fibula, fused to the tibia; the tibia and fibula articulate with the tarsals of the pes called the foot. The hind limbs of the rabbit are longer than the front limbs; this allows them to produce their hopping form of locomotion. Longer hind limbs are more capable of producing faster speeds. Hares, which have longer legs than cottontail rabbits, are able to move faster. Rabbits stay just on their toes; the hind feet have four long toes that allow for this and are webbed to prevent them from spreading when hopping. Rabbits do not have paw