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Rabigh

Rābigh is an ancient Hejazi town on the Red Sea coast of the Arabian Peninsula, now within the province of Makkah in Saudi Arabia. It is located 17 kilometres northwest of Masjid Mīqāt Al-Juḥfah. According to Islamic historical sources, in April 623 CE, the Prophet Muhammad sent Ubaydah ibn al-Harith with a party of sixty armed Muhajirun to the baṭn of Rabigh, they expected to intercept a Qurayshi caravan, returning from Syria under the protection of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb and 200 armed riders. The Muslim party travelled as far as the wells at Thanyat al-Murra, where Ubaydah ibn al-Harith shot an arrow at the Quraysh; this is known as the first arrow of Islam. Despite this surprise attack, "they did not unsheath a sword or approach one another," and the Muslims returned empty-handed; the hadith of the pond of Khumm narrates that Muhammad is reported to have pronounced Ali ibn Abi Talib as the Mawla of those for whom Muhammad was the Mawla. Shi'ite Muslims take and claim this hadith as an announcement and investiture of Ali bin Abi Talib as the first caliph or successor after the Prophet's death and they celebrate this announcement each year as Eid al-Ghadeer.

Many Sunnis accept that the Prophet did declare Ali as the Mawla, however they refuse to believe that this meant succession to the Prophet. During a part of the sermon, he raised Ali's arm and asked the people, "Who has more priority over you than yourself?" They responded, "Allah and his messenger." Muhammad said: Behold! Whosoever I am his Mawla, this Ali is his Mawla. O Allah! Stay firm in supporting those who stay firm in following him, be hostile to those who are hostile to him, help those who help him, forsake those who forsake him. O people! This Ali is my brother, the executor of my, the container of my knowledge, my successor over my nation, over the interpretation the Book of Allah, the mighty and the majestic, the true inviter to its, he is the one who acts according to what pleases Him, fights His enemies, causes to adhere to His obedience, advises against His disobedience. He is the successor of the Messenger of Allah, the commander of the believers, the guiding Imam, the killer of the oath breakers, the transgressors, the apostates.

I speak by the authority of Allah. The word with me shall not be changed; the event has been documented in Sunni sources. After the sermon, Abu Bakr and Uthman are all said to have given their allegiance to Ali documented in the sources of both Islamic denominations. Rabigh is connected by Highway 60 to Thuwal. Rabigh Wings Aviation Academy Sarat Mountains Hijaz Mountains Rabigh city website

1880 in Wales

This article is about the particular significance of the year 1880 to Wales and its people. Prince of Wales – Albert Edward Princess of Wales – Alexandra Archdruid of the National Eisteddfod of WalesClwydfardd 25 February – The Resurgam, an early mechanically-powered submarine, sinks off Rhyl. 10 March – Six miners are killed in an accident at the Bedwellty Colliery, Tredegar. 29 April – At the United Kingdom general election, Wales elects 28 Liberal MPs. David Davies, Llandinam, is returned unopposed as member for Cardigan. 17 June – The rebuilt Holyhead railway station and inner harbour are opened by the Prince of Wales. 15 July – 120 miners are killed in an accident at the Risca Colliery. 3 August – Nine miners are killed in an accident at the Bersham Colliery in Wrexham. 10 December – 101 miners are killed in an accident at the Penygraig Colliery, Rhondda. Beriah Gwynfe Evans' Owain Glyndwr, one of the first full-length plays in the Welsh language, is first performed at Llanberis. National Eisteddfod of Wales held at Caernarfon Chair – W. B.

Joseph, "Athrilyth" Crown – Ellis Roberts Sir William Boyd DawkinsEarly Man in Britain and his place in the Tertiary Period Amy Dillwyn – The Rebecca Rioter Joseph Parry – Emmanuel Football – The Druids of Rhiwabon win the Welsh Cup for the first time. Rugby union – Cwmbran RFC and Crumlin RFC are founded. YachtingPenarth Yacht Club is founded as Penarth Boat Club. 31 January – Phil Hopkins, Wales international rugby player 12 February – William Joseph Rhys, writer 17 March – Harry Grindell Matthews, inventor 8 April – Thomas Thomas, boxing champion 19 April – Jack Jenkins, Wales international rugby player 30 April – George Maitland Lloyd Davies, pacifist 9 May – Thomas Scott-Ellis, 8th Baron Howard de Walden, patron of the arts 11 May – David Davies, 1st Baron Davies, politician 22 May Dr Teddy Morgan, Wales international rugby player Robert John Rowlands and poet 31 May – Edward Tegla Davies, author 22 June – Rhys Gabe, rugby player 2 September – Isaac Daniel Hooson, poet 15 September – William Charles Williams, VC recipient 20 September – Ernie Jenkins, Wales international rugby player 6 January – John Thomas and author, 71 12 February – John Whitehead Greaves, slate mine proprietor, 72 2 March – Charles Meredith, Tasmanian politician, 68 12 April – Thomas Joseph Brown, Roman Catholic bishop, 81 23 April – Robert Thomas and writer, 70 10 May – David Charles II, hymn-writer, 76?

21 August – Evan Mathew Richards, politician, 68 30 August – Mordecai Jones, industrialist, 67 9 September – William Watkin Edward Wynne and antiquarian, 78

Beatrix Havergal

Beatrix Havergal was an English horticulturist. In 1932 Beatrix Havergal founded Waterperry School of Horticulture, a residential horticultural college for women; when she retired as principal in 1971, Waterperry School of Horticulture closed, though there remain gardens and a nursery there. Grace Beatrix Helen Havergal was born at Roydon Manor House in 1901, the second of three children born to the Revd. Clement Havergal and his wife Eveline, she was the great-niece of composer Frances Ridley Havergal. The children had a peaceful upbringing despite the fact that their parents' relationship was strained. In 1902, the family moved to Inkberrow near Redditch to Paris where the Rev. Mr. Havergal was assistant chaplain to the British embassy for two years. After a brief period spent at Bagthorpe in c. 1905, he became rector of Brent Eleigh in Norfolk. Havergal, together with her elder sister Frances, attended St Katherine's boarding school in Walmer after 1912, but after her parents divorced in 1914, she and her siblings moved with their mother to Bedford, where they lived at number 13 Sidney Road, the children attended Bedford High School.

Havergal began working in horticulture after leaving school in 1916, taking on local gardening jobs under the auspices of the Women's War Agricultural Committee. Soon after, her father rejoined the family, their finances improved sufficiently to allow Havergal to consider training, she chose to pursue horticulture over music. She subsequently attended the Thatcham Fruit and Flower Farm near Newbury, wherefrom she graduated in 1920, obtaining the Royal Horticultural Society's certificate with honours, her first challenge was to design and create a garden at Cold Ash, where the high quality of her work brought her to the attention of Miss Willis, the headmistress of the nearby Downe House boarding school. Willis invited Havergal to become an offer which she accepted, she created six tennis courts at Downe House, which became known as the Havergal Courts. Havergal was inspired by Willis to gravitate towards education. Whilst at Downe House, she met the school's housetaker, Avice Sanders, with whom she would remain partnered for the rest of the latter's life.

In 1927, they moved to a cottage in the grounds of Pusey House and first began to teach students. With less than £250 at the outset, the school supplemented its income by growing produce, sold at Swindon Market; the courses combined theory and practical instruction with high standards of efficiency. This training, ensured that Havergal's reputation grew substantially. After Beatrix’s death Roald Dahl wrote to Quentin Blake describing how Blake’s drawing of the character of Miss Trunchball from his children’s novel ‘Matilda’ should be based on Havergal’s stature and dress sense. A copy of this letter is held at the Roald Dahl Museum and Story Centre in Great Missenden, Buckinghamshire; the photo Dahl was describing is there, having been found in his filling cabinet in his writing shed. Dahl and Havergal are to have known one another due to their love of horticulture. In 1932, the school moved to Waterperry House, a small manor house in Waterperry, rented from Magdalene College. Havergal and Sanders purchased it in 1948.

All students paid their own fees until 1958, when scholarships were granted by some county councils following recognition by the Board of Education. Havergal's diploma was accepted by the Institute of Parks Administration as one equal to those issued by Kew and Edinburgh. In 1962, it became an appropriate qualification for associate membership of the institute. Havergal was awarded an MBE in 1960 and the Royal Horticultural Society Veitch Memorial Medal and Victoria Medal of Honour in 1965. For many years Havergal won gold medal for her exhibit of Royal Sovereign strawberries at Chelsea Flower Show. Avice Sanders died in 1970. In 1971, with her health waning, Havergal sold the estate, she lived from on in a cottage in the grounds. She died at Woolton Hill, in 1980, whilst visiting her brother, she was buried in the churchyard of St Mary's Church in Waterperry on 14 April. Portraits of Beatrix Havergal at the National Portrait Gallery, London