The Fabian Society is a British socialist organisation whose purpose is to advance the principles of democratic socialism via gradualist and reformist effort in democracies, rather than by revolutionary overthrow. As one of the founding organisations of the Labour Representation Committee in 1900, as an important influence upon the Labour Party which grew from it, the Fabian Society has had a powerful influence on British politics. Other members of the Fabian Society have included political leaders from countries part of the British Empire, such as Jawaharlal Nehru, who adopted Fabian principles as part of their own political ideologies; the Fabian Society founded the London School of Economics and Political Science in 1895. Today, the society functions as a think tank and is one of 21 socialist societies affiliated with the Labour Party. Similar societies exist in Canada, in Sicily and in New Zealand; the Fabian Society was founded on 4 January 1884 in London as an offshoot of a society founded a year earlier called The Fellowship of the New Life.
Early Fellowship members included the visionary Victorian elite, among them poets Edward Carpenter and John Davidson, sexologist Havelock Ellis, early socialist Edward R. Pease, they wanted to transform society by setting an example of clean simplified living for others to follow. Some members wanted to become politically involved to aid society's transformation. All members were free to attend both societies; the Fabian Society additionally advocated renewal of Western European Renaissance ideas and their promulgation throughout the world. The Fellowship of the New Life was dissolved in 1899, but the Fabian Society grew to become the pre-eminent academic society in the United Kingdom in the Edwardian era, it was typified by the members of its vanguard Coefficients club. Public meetings of the Society were for many years held at Essex Hall, a popular location just off the Strand in central London; the Fabian Society was named — at the suggestion of Frank Podmore — in honour of the Roman general Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus.
His Fabian strategy sought gradual victory against the superior Carthaginian army under the renowned general Hannibal through persistence and wearing the enemy down by attrition rather than pitched, climactic battles. An explanatory note appearing on the title page of the group's first pamphlet declared:For the right moment you must wait, as Fabius did most patiently, when warring against Hannibal, though many censured his delays. According to author Jon Perdue, "The logo of the Fabian Society, a tortoise, represented the group’s predilection for a slow, imperceptible transition to socialism, while its coat of arms, a'wolf in sheep’s clothing', represented its preferred methodology for achieving its goal." The wolf in sheep's clothing symbolism was abandoned, due to its obvious negative connotations. Its nine founding members were Frank Podmore, Edward R. Pease, William Clarke, Hubert Bland, Percival Chubb, Frederick Keddell, H. H. Champion, Edith Nesbit, Rosamund Dale Owen. Havelock Ellis is sometimes mentioned as a tenth founding member, though there is some question about this.
Upon its inception, the Fabian Society began attracting many prominent contemporary figures drawn to its socialist cause, including George Bernard Shaw, H. G. Wells, Annie Besant, Graham Wallas, Charles Marson, Sydney Olivier, Oliver Lodge, Ramsay MacDonald and Emmeline Pankhurst. Bertrand Russell became a member, but resigned after he expressed his belief that the Society's principle of entente could lead to war. At the core of the Fabian Society were Beatrice Webb. Together, they wrote numerous studies of industrial Britain, including alternative co-operative economics that applied to ownership of capital as well as land. Many Fabians participated in the formation of the Labour Representation Committee in 1900 and the group's constitution, written by Sidney Webb, borrowed from the founding documents of the Fabian Society. At the meeting that founded the Labour Representation Committee in 1900, the Fabian Society claimed 861 members and sent one delegate; the years 1903 to 1908 saw a growth in popular interest in the socialist idea in Great Britain and the Fabian Society grew accordingly, tripling its membership to nearly 2500 by the end of the period, half of whom were located in London.
In 1912, a student section was organised called the University Socialist Federation and by the outbreak of World War I this contingent counted its own membership of more than 500. The first Fabian Society pamphlets advocating tenets of social justice coincided with the zeitgeist of Liberal reforms during the early 1900s, including eugenics; the Fabian proposals however were more progressive than those that were enacted in the Liberal reform legislation. The Fabians lobbied for the introduction of a minimum wage in 1906, for the creation of a universal health care system in 1911 and for the abolition of hereditary peerages in 1917. Fabian socialists were in favour of reforming Britain's imperialist foreign policy as a conduit for internationalist reform, were in favour of a capitalist welfare state modelled on the Bismarckian German model, they favoured a national minimum wage i
Peter Howson (politician)
Peter Howson CMG was an Australian politician who served in the House of Representatives from 1955 to 1972, representing the Liberal Party. He was Minister for Air from 1964 to 1968 and Minister for the Environment and the Arts from 1971 to 1972. Howson was born in London, the son of Jessie and George Arthur Howson, his father was a British Army officer, while his grandfather George John Howson was an Anglican archdeacon. Howson was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. During World War II, he served in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve as a pilot from 1940 to 1946, was Mentioned in Despatches for his service, he was shot down while flying a Fairey Albacore over Malta for the Fleet Air Arm, as he and four Hawker Hurricanes were surprised by 70 German planes. This gave him a long scar on his face. Howson was the Liberal member for the House of Representatives seat of Fawkner from his defeat of William Bourke at the 1955 election until its abolition before the 1969 election, he was elected as the member for Casey.
He was appointed Minister for Air in June 1964 in Robert Menzies' last ministry. In 1967, Harold Holt's government was attacked over allegations that it had misused the VIP aircraft fleet for ministers' private purposes; when asked to table records on the fleet's movements and Howson refused and implied that they did not exist, but Senator John Gorton found that the records did exist and tabled them in the Senate. When Gorton became Prime Minister on 10 January 1968, he retained all of the previous ministers in his ministry, but after he won a seat in the House of Representatives he carried out a Cabinet reshuffle on 28 February 1968 and dropped Howson from the ministry. Expecting to be rewarded for his support of McMahon during Gorton's ministry, Howson was disappointed when he was appointed as Australia's first Minister for the Environment and the Arts, he was reported as commenting: "The little bastard gave me trees and pooftas". However, according to Rob Chalmers, he subsequently "showed great energy and concern to improve the lot of Aborigines".
Howson was defeated by Labor's Race Mathews at the 1972 election. In 1973, Howson founded the Deafness Foundation Victoria. In 1984, Howson published a diary recording the events during his period as a parliamentarian and as a minister. According to Rob Chalmers, it was "one of the most informative and interesting books on Australian postwar politics published". Howson was active as a commentator on Indigenous matters supporting their cultural assimilation while deriding the Stolen Generations as a "silly fairy tale". Howson died in Geelong in 2009. Howson was appointed a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George in 1980 for services to Parliament, he was awarded the Centenary Medal in 2001 for long and devoted service to improving conditions for Australia's indigenous people
A credit union is a member-owned financial cooperative, controlled by its members and operated on the principle of people helping people, providing its members credit at competitive rates as well as other financial services. Worldwide, credit union systems vary in terms of total assets and average institution asset size, ranging from volunteer operations with a handful of members to institutions with assets worth several billion U. S. dollars and hundreds of thousands of members. Credit unions operate alongside other mutuals and cooperatives engaging in cooperative banking, such as building societies. "Natural-person credit unions" serve individuals, as distinguished from "corporate credit unions", which serve other credit unions. Credit unions in the US had one-fifth the failure rate of other banks during the financial crisis of 2007–2008 and more than doubled lending to small businesses between 2008 and 2016, from $30 billion to $60 billion, while lending to small businesses overall during the same period declined by around $100 billion..
Public trust in credit unions stands at 60%, compared to 30% for big banks Furthermore, small businesses are eighty percent less to be dissatisfied with a credit union than with a big bank. Credit unions differ from banks and other financial institutions in that those who have accounts in the credit union are its members and owners, they elect their board of directors in a one-person-one-vote system regardless of their amount invested. Credit unions see themselves as different from mainstream banks, with a mission to be "community-oriented" and "serve people, not profit". Credit unions offer many of the same financial services as banks but use different terminology. Typical services include share accounts, share draft accounts, credit cards, share term certificates, online banking. Only a member of a credit union may deposit or borrow money. Surveys of customers at banks and credit unions have shown higher customer satisfaction rates with the quality of service at credit unions. Credit unions have claimed to provide superior member service and to be committed to helping members improve their financial situation.
In the context of financial inclusion, credit unions claim to provide a broader range of loan and savings products at a much cheaper cost to their members than do most microfinance institutions. In the credit union context, "not-for-profit" must be distinguished from a charity. Credit unions are "not-for-profit" because their purpose is to serve their members rather than to maximize profits, so unlike charities and the like, credit unions do not rely on donations and are financial institutions that must make what is, in economic terms, a small profit to remain in existence. According to the World Council of Credit Unions, a credit union's revenues must exceed its operating expenses and dividends in order to maintain capital and solvency. In the United States, credit unions incorporated and operating under a state credit union law are tax-exempt under Section 501. Federal credit unions organized and operated in accordance with the Federal Credit Union Act are tax-exempt under Section 501. According to the World Council of Credit Unions, at the end of 2014 there were 57,480 credit unions in 105 countries.
Collectively they oversaw US$1.79 trillion in assets. WOCCU does not include data from cooperative banks, so, for example, some countries seen as the pioneers of credit unionism, such as Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, are not always included in their data; the European Association of Co-operative Banks reported 38 million members in those four countries at the end of 2010. The countries with the most credit union activity are diverse. According to WOCCU, the countries with the greatest number of credit union members were the United States, Canada, South Korea, Philippines and Mexico, Australia, Thailand and Ireland; the countries with the highest percentage of credit union members in the economically active population were Barbados, Grenada, Trinidad & Tobago, Belize and St. Lucia, St. Kitts & Nevis, Jamaica and Barbuda, the United States and Canada. Several African and Latin American countries had high credit union membership rates, as did Australia and South Korea; the average percentage for all countries considered in the report was 8.2%.
Credit unions were launched in Poland in 1992. Modern credit union history dates from 1852, when Franz Hermann Schulze-Delitzsch consolidated the learning from two pilot projects, one in Eilenburg and the other in Delitzsch in the Kingdom of Saxony into what are recognized as the first credit unions in the world, he went on to develop a successful urban credit union system. In 1864 Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen founded the first rural credit union in Heddesdorf in Germany. By the time of Raiffeisen's death in 1888, credit unions had spread to Italy, the Netherlands, England and other nations; the first credit union in North America, the Caisse Populaire de Lévis in Quebec, began operations on January 23, 1901 with a 10-cent deposit. Founder Alp
Australian Labor Party
The Australian Labor Party is a major centre-left political party in Australia. The party has been in opposition at the federal level since the 2013 election. Bill Shorten has been the party's federal parliamentary leader since 13 October 2013; the party is a federal party with branches in each territory. Labor is in government in the states of Victoria, Western Australia, in both the Australian Capital Territory and Northern Territory; the party competes against the Liberal/National Coalition for political office at the federal and state levels. It is the oldest political party in Australia. Labor's constitution has long stated: "The Australian Labor Party is a democratic socialist party and has the objective of the democratic socialisation of industry, production and exchange, to the extent necessary to eliminate exploitation and other anti-social features in these fields"; this "socialist objective" was introduced in 1921, but was qualified by two further objectives: "maintenance of and support for a competitive non-monopolistic private sector" and "the right to own private property".
Labor governments have not attempted the "democratic socialisation" of any industry since the 1940s, when the Chifley Government failed to nationalise the private banks, in fact have privatised several industries such as aviation and banking. Labor's current National Platform describes the party as "a modern social democratic party"; the ALP was not founded as a federal party until after the first sitting of the Australian Parliament in 1901. It is regarded as descended from labour parties founded in the various Australian colonies by the emerging labour movement in Australia, formally beginning in 1891. Labor is thus the country's oldest political party. Colonial labour parties contested seats from 1891, federal seats following Federation at the 1901 federal election; the ALP formed the world's first Labour Party government, as well as the world's first social democratic government at a national level. Labor was the first party in Australia to win a majority in either house of the Australian Parliament, at the 1910 federal election.
The Australian Labor Party at both a federal and state/colony level predates, among others, both the British Labour Party and the New Zealand Labour Party in party formation and policy implementation. Internationally, the ALP is a member of the Progressive Alliance network of social-democratic parties, having been a member of the Socialist International. In standard Australian English, the word "labour" is spelled with a ⟨u⟩. However, the political party uses the spelling "Labor", without a ⟨u⟩. There was no standardised spelling of the party's name, with "Labor" and "Labour" both in common usage. According to Ross McMullin, who wrote an official history of the Labor Party, the title page of the proceedings of Federal Conference used the spelling "Labor" in 1902, "Labour" in 1905 and 1908, "Labor" from 1912 onwards. In 1908, James Catts put forward a motion at Federal Conference that "the name of the party be the Australian Labour Party", carried by 22 votes to two. A separate motion recommending state branches to adopt the name was defeated.
There was no uniformity of party names until 1918, when Federal Conference resolved that state branches should adopt the name "Australian Labor Party" – now spelled without a ⟨u⟩. Each state branch had used a different name, due to their different origins. Despite the ALP adopting the spelling without a ⟨u⟩, it took decades for the official spelling to achieve widespread acceptance. In 1954, Labor MP Ted Johnson complained in the Parliament of Western Australia that both Hansard and the daily newspapers were still using the spelling "Labour"; as late as the 1980s, historian Finlay Crisp used the spelling "Labour" in academic works about the party. McMullin has observed that "the way the spelling of'Labor Party' was consolidated had more to do with the chap who ended up being in charge of printing the federal conference report than any other reason"; some sources have attributed the official decision to use "Labor" to King O'Malley, born in the United States and was reputedly an advocate of spelling reform.
It has been suggested that the adoption of the spelling without a ⟨u⟩ "signified one of the ALP's earliest attempts at modernisation", served the purpose of differentiating the party from the Australian labour movement as a whole and distinguishing it from other British Empire labour parties. The decision to include the word "Australian" in the party's name – rather than just "Labour Party" as in the United Kingdom – has been attributed to "the greater importance of nationalism for the founders of the colonial parties"; the Australian Labor Party has its origins in the Labour parties founded in the 1890s in the Australian colonies prior to federation. Labor tradition ascribes the founding of Queensland Labour to a meeting of striking pastoral workers under a ghost gum tree in Barcaldine, Queensland in 1891; the Balmain, New South Wales branch of the party claims to be the oldest in Australia. Labour as a parliamentary party dates from 1891 in New South Wales and South Australia, 1893 in Queensland, in the other colonies.
The first election contested by Labour candidates was the 1891 New South Wales election, when Labour candidates won 35 of 141 seats. The major parties were the Protectionist and Free Trade parties and Labour held the balance of power, it offered parliamentary support in exchange for policy concessions. The United Labor Party of
Monash University is a public research university based in Melbourne, Australia. Founded in 1958, it is the second oldest university in the State of Victoria; the university has a number of campuses, four of which are in Victoria, one in Malaysia. Monash has a research and teaching centre in Prato, Italy, a graduate research school in Mumbai, India and a graduate school in Suzhou, China. Monash University courses are delivered at other locations, including South Africa. Monash is home to major research facilities, including the Monash Law School, the Australian Synchrotron, the Monash Science Technology Research and Innovation Precinct, the Australian Stem Cell Centre, 100 research centres and 17 co-operative research centres. In 2016, its total revenue was over $2.2 billion dollars, with external research income around $282 million. In 2016, Monash enrolled over 22,000 graduate students, it has more applicants than any other university in the state of Victoria. Monash is a member of Australia's Group of Eight, a coalition of Australia's eight leading research Universities, a member of the ASAIHL, is the only Australian member of the M8 Alliance of Academic Health Centers and National Academies.
Monash is one of two Australian universities to be ranked in the École des Mines de Paris ranking on the basis of the number of alumni listed among CEOs in the 500 largest worldwide companies. The original campus was in the City of Clayton; the university was granted an expansive site of 100 hectares of open land in Clayton. The 100 hectares of land consists of the former Talbot Epileptic Colony. From its first intake of 357 students at Clayton on 13 March 1961, the university grew in size and student numbers so that by 1967, it had enrolled more than 21,000 students since its establishment. In its early years, it offered undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in engineering, science, economics, politics and law, it was a major provider for international student places under the Colombo Plan, which saw the first Asian students enter the Australian education system. In its early years of teaching and administration, Monash was not disadvantaged by entrenched traditional practices. Monash was able to adopt modern approaches without resistance from those who preferred the status quo.
A modern administrative structure was set up. The university was named after the prominent Australian general Sir John Monash; this was the first time in Australia that a university had been named after a person, rather than a city or state. From the mid-1960s to the early 1970s, Monash became the centre of student radicalism in Australia, it was the site of many mass student demonstrations concerning Australia's role in Vietnam War and conscription. By the late 1960s, several student organisations, some of which were influenced by or supporters of communism, turned their focus to Vietnam, with numerous blockades and sit-ins. In one extraordinary event that came to be known as the Monash Siege, students forced Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser to hide in a basement at the Alexander Theatre, in a major protest over the Whitlam dismissal. In the late 1970s and 1980s, some of Monash's most publicised research came through its pioneering of in-vitro fertilisation. Led by Carl Wood and Alan Trounson, the Monash IVF Program achieved the world's first clinical IVF pregnancy in 1973.
In 1980, they delivered the first IVF baby in Australia. This became a massive source of revenue for the university at a time when university funding in Australia was beginning to slow down. In the late 1980s, the Dawkins Reforms changed the landscape of higher education in Australia. Under the leadership of Vice-Chancellor Mal Logan, Monash transformed dramatically. In 1988, Monash University had only one campus in Clayton, with around 15,000 students. Just over a decade it had 8 campuses, a European research and teaching centre, more than 50,000 students, making it the largest and most internationalised Australian university. Expansion of the university began in 1990 with a series of mergers between Monash, the Chisholm Institute of Technology, the Gippsland Institute of Advanced Education. In 1991 a merger with the Victorian College of Pharmacy created a new faculty of the university; this continued with the establishment of the Berwick campus. In 1998, the university opened the Malaysia campus, its first overseas campus and the first foreign university in Malaysia.
In 2001, Monash South Africa opened its doors in Johannesburg, making Monash the first foreign university in South Africa. The same year, the university secured an 18th-century Tuscan palace to open a research and teaching centre in Prato, Italy. At the same time, Australian universities faced unprecedented demand for international student places, which Monash met on a larger scale than most. Today, around 30% of its students are from outside Australia. Monash students come from over 100 different countries, speak over 90 different languages; the increase in international students, combined with the university's expansion, meant that Monash's income increased throughout the 1990s, it is now one of Australia's top 200 exporters. In recent years, the university has been prominent in medical research. A highlight of this came in 2000, when Alan Trounson led the team of scientists which announced to the world that nerve stem cells could be derived from embryonic stem cells, a discovery which led to a dramatic increase in interest in the potential of stem cells.
It has led to Monash being ranked in the top
A housing cooperative, co-op, or housing company, is a legal entity a cooperative or a corporation, which owns real estate, consisting of one or more residential buildings. Housing cooperatives are a distinctive form of home ownership that have many characteristics that differ from other residential arrangements such as single family home ownership and renting; the corporation is membership-based, with membership granted by way of a share purchase in the cooperative. Each shareholder in the legal entity is granted the right to occupy one housing unit. A primary advantage of the housing cooperative is the pooling of the members' resources so that their buying power is leveraged, thus lowering the cost per member in all the services and products associated with home ownership. Another key element in some forms of housing cooperatives is that the members, through their elected representatives and select who may live in the cooperative, unlike any other form of home ownership. Housing cooperatives fall into two general tenure categories: ownership.
In non-equity cooperatives, occupancy rights are sometimes granted subject to an occupancy agreement, similar to a lease. In equity cooperatives, occupancy rights are sometimes granted by way of the purchase agreements and legal instruments registered on the title; the corporation's articles of incorporation and bylaws as well as occupancy agreement specifies the cooperative's rules. The word cooperative is used to describe a non-share capital co-op model in which fee-paying members obtain the right to occupy a bedroom and share the communal resources of a house, owned by a cooperative organization; such is the case with student cooperatives in some college and university communities across the United States. As a legal entity, a co-op can contract with other companies or hire individuals to provide it with services, such as a maintenance contractor or a building manager, it can hire employees, such as a manager or a caretaker, to deal with specific things that volunteers may prefer not to do or may not be good at doing, such as electrical maintenance.
However, as many housing cooperatives strive to run self-sufficiently, as much work as possible is completed by its members. In non-equity cooperatives and in limited equity cooperatives, a shareholder in a co-op does not own real estate, but a share of the legal entity that does own real estate. Co-operative ownership is quite distinct from condominiums where people own individual units and have little say in who moves into the other units; because of this, most jurisdictions have developed separate legislation, similar to laws that regulate companies, to regulate how co-ops are operated and the rights and obligations of shareholders. Each resident or resident household has membership in the co-operative association. In non-equity cooperatives, members have occupancy rights to a specific suite within the housing co-operative as outlined in their "occupancy agreement", or "proprietary lease", a lease. In ownership cooperatives, occupancy rights are transferred to the purchaser by way of the title transfer.
Since the housing cooperative holds title to all the property and housing structures, it bears the cost of maintaining and replacing them. This relieves the member from the burden of such work. In that sense, the housing cooperative is like the landlord in a rental setting. However, another hallmark of cooperative living is that it is nonprofit, so that the work is done at cost, with no profit motive involved. In some cases, the co-op follows Rochdale Principles. Most cooperatives are incorporated as limited stock companies where the number of votes an owner has is tied to the number of shares owned by the person. Whichever form of voting is employed it is necessary to conduct an election among shareholders to determine who will represent them on the board of directors, the governing body of the co-operative; the board of directors is responsible for the business decisions including the financial requirements and sustainability of the co-operative. Although politics vary from co-op to co-op and depend on the wishes of its members, it is a general rule that a majority vote of the board is necessary to make business decisions.
In larger co-ops, members of a co-op elect a board of directors from amongst the shareholders at a general meeting the annual general meeting. In smaller co-ops, all members sit on the board. A housing cooperative's board of directors is elected by the membership, providing a voice and representation in the governance of the property. Rules are determined by the board, providing a flexible means of addressing the issues that arise in a community to assure the members' peaceful possession of their homes. A housing cooperative is de facto non-profit, since most of its income comes from the rents paid by its residents, who are invariably its members. There is no point in creating a deliberate surplus—except for operational requirements such as setting aside funds for replacement of assets—since that means that the rents paid by members are set higher than the expenses. In the lifecycle of buildings, the replacement of assets requires si
Consumers' co-operatives are enterprises owned by consumers and managed democratically which aim at fulfilling the needs and aspirations of their members. They operate within the market system, independently of the state, as a form of mutual aid, oriented toward service rather than pecuniary profit. Consumers' cooperatives take the form of retail outlets owned and operated by their consumers, such as food co-ops. However, there are many types of consumers' cooperatives, operating in areas such as health care, housing and personal finance. In some countries, consumers' cooperatives are known as cooperative retail societies or retail co-ops, though they should not be confused with retailers' cooperatives, whose members are retailers rather than consumers. Consumers' cooperatives may, in turn, form cooperative federations; these may come in the form of cooperative wholesale societies, through which consumers' cooperatives collectively purchase goods at wholesale prices and, in some cases, own factories.
Alternatively, they may be members of cooperative unions. Consumer cooperation has been a focus of study in the field of cooperative economics. Consumer cooperatives rose to prominence during the industrial revolution as part of the labour movement; as employment moved to industrial areas and job sectors declined, workers began organizing and controlling businesses for themselves. Workers cooperative were sparked by "critical reaction to industrial capitalism and the excesses of the industrial revolution." The formation of some workers cooperatives were designed to "cope with the evils of unbridled capitalism and the insecurities of wage labor". The first documented consumer cooperative was founded in 1769, in a furnished cottage in Fenwick, East Ayrshire, when local weavers manhandled a sack of oatmeal into John Walker's whitewashed front room and began selling the contents at a discount, forming the Fenwick Weavers' Society. In the decades that followed, several cooperatives or cooperative societies formed including Lennoxtown Friendly Victualling Society, founded in 1812.
The philosophy that underpinned the cooperative movement stemmed from the socialist writings of thinkers including Robert Owen and Charles Fourier. Robert Owen, considered by many as the father of the cooperative movement, made his fortune in the cotton trade, but believed in putting his workers in a good environment with access to education for themselves and their children; these ideas were put into effect in the cotton mills of New Lanark, Scotland. It was here. Spurred on by the success of this, he had the idea of forming "villages of co-operation" where workers would drag themselves out of poverty by growing their own food, making their own clothes and becoming self-governing, he tried to form such communities in Orbiston in Scotland and in New Harmony, Indiana in the United States of America, but both communities failed. Similar early experiments were made in the early 19th century and by 1830 there were several hundred co-operatives. Dr William King made Owen's ideas more practical, he believed in starting small, realized that the working classes would need to set up co-operatives for themselves, so he saw his role as one of instruction.
He founded a monthly periodical called The Co-operator, the first edition of which appeared on 1 May 1828. This gave a mixture of co-operative philosophy and practical advice about running a shop using cooperative principles; the first successful organization was the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, established in England in 1844. The Rochdale Pioneers established the ` Rochdale Principles'; this became the basis for the growth of the modern cooperative movement. As the mechanization of the Industrial Revolution was forcing more and more skilled workers into poverty, these tradesmen decided to band together to open their own store selling food items they could not otherwise afford. With lessons from prior failed attempts at co-operation in mind, they designed the now famous Rochdale Principles, over a period of four months they struggled to pool one pound sterling per person for a total of 28 pounds of capital. On December 21, 1844, they opened their store with a meagre selection of butter, flour, oatmeal and a few candles.
Within three months, they expanded their selection to include tea and tobacco, they were soon known for providing high quality, unadulterated goods. The Co-operative Group formed over 140 years from the merger of many independent retail societies, their wholesale societies and federations. In 1863, twenty years after the Rochdale Pioneers opened their co-operative, the North of England Co-operative Society was launched by 300 individual co-ops across Yorkshire and Lancashire. By 1872, it had become known as the Co-operative Wholesale Society. Through the 20th century, smaller societies merged with CWS, such as the Scottish Co-operative Wholesale Society and the South Suburban Co-operative Society. Consumer cooperatives utilize the cooperative principle of democratic member control, or one member/one vote. Most consumer cooperatives have a board of directors elected from the membership; the board is responsible for hiring management and ensuring that the cooperative meets its goals, both financial and otherwise.
Democratic functions, such as petitioning or recall of board members, may be codified in the bylaws or organizing document of the cooperative. Most consumer cooperatives hold regular membership meetings; as mutually owned businesses, each member of a society has a shareholding equal to the sum they paid in when they joined. Large consumers' co-ops are r