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Race and intelligence

The connection between race and intelligence has been a subject of debate in both popular science and academic research since the inception of IQ testing in the early 20th century. Since there have been observed differences between average IQ scores of different population groups, but whether and to what extent these differences reflect environmental factors as opposed to genetic ones, as well as what the definitions of "race" and "intelligence" are, whether they can be objectively defined, is the subject of much debate. At present, there is no non-circumstantial evidence that these differences in test scores have a genetic component, although some researchers believe that the existing circumstantial evidence makes it at least plausible that hard evidence for a genetic component will be found; the first tests showing differences in IQ scores between different population groups in the United States were the tests of United States Army recruits in World War I. In the 1920s, groups of eugenics lobbyists argued that this demonstrated that African-Americans and certain immigrant groups were of inferior intellect to Anglo-Saxon white people, due to innate biological differences, using this as an argument for policies of racial segregation.

However, other studies appeared, contesting these conclusions and arguing instead that the Army tests had not adequately controlled for environmental factors, such as socio-economic and educational inequality between black people and white people. Observations of phenomena such as the Flynn effect have suggested that environmental factors play a greater role in group IQ differences than expected; the causes of differences in IQ test scores are not well-understood, the topic remains controversial among researchers. Claims of races having different intelligence were used to justify colonialism, racism, social Darwinism, racial eugenics. Racial thinkers such as Arthur de Gobineau relied crucially on the assumption that black people were innately inferior to white people in developing their ideologies of white supremacy. Enlightenment thinkers such as Thomas Jefferson, a slave owner, believed black people to be innately inferior to white people in physique and intellect; the first practical intelligence test was developed between 1905 and 1908 by Alfred Binet in France for school placement of children.

Binet warned that results from his test should not be assumed to measure innate intelligence or used to label individuals permanently. Binet's test was translated into English and revised in 1916 by Lewis Terman and published under the name the Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scales; as Terman's test was published, there was great concern in the United States about the abilities and skills of recent immigrants. Different immigrant nationalities were sometimes thought to belong to different races, such as Slavs. A different set of tests developed by Robert Yerkes were used to evaluate draftees for World War I, researchers found that people from southern and eastern Europe scored lower than native-born Americans, that Americans from northern states had higher scores than Americans from southern states, that black Americans scored lower than white Americans; the results were publicized by a lobby of anti-immigration activists, including the New York patrician and conservationist Madison Grant, who considered the Nordic race to be superior, but under threat of immigration by inferior breeds.

In his influential work, A Study of American Intelligence, psychologist Carl Brigham used the results of the Army tests to argue for a stricter immigration policy, limiting immigration to countries considered to belong to the "Nordic race". In the 1920s, states like Virginia enacted eugenic laws, such as its 1924 Racial Integrity Act, which established the one-drop rule as law. Many scientists reacted negatively to eugenicist claims linking abilities and moral character to racial or genetic ancestry, they pointed to the contribution of environment to test results. By the mid-1930s, many United States psychologists adopted the view that environmental and cultural factors played a dominant role in IQ test results, among them Carl Brigham, who repudiated his own previous arguments on the grounds that he realized that the tests were not a measure of innate intelligence. Discussion of the issue in the United States influenced German Nazi claims of the "Nordics" being a "master race", influenced by Grant's writings.

As the American public sentiment shifted against the Germans, claims of racial differences in intelligence came to be regarded as problematic. Anthropologists such as Franz Boas, Ruth Benedict and Gene Weltfish, did much to demonstrate the unscientific status of many of the claims about racial hierarchies of intelligence. Nonetheless, a powerful eugenics and segregation lobby funded by textile-magnate Wickliffe Draper continued to publicize studies using intelligence studies as an argument for eugenics and anti-immigration legislation; as the de-segregation of the American South gained traction in the 1950s, debate about black intelligence resurfaced. Audrey Shuey, funded by Draper's Pioneer Fund, published a new analysis of Yerkes' tests, concluding that black people were of inferior intellect to white people; this study was used by segregationists as an argument that it was to the advantage of black children to be educated separately from the superior white children. In the 1960s, the debate was further revived when William Shockley publicly defended the argument that black children were innately unable to learn as well as white children.

Arthur Jensen caused discussion of the issue with his Harvard Educational Review article, "How Much Can We Boo

Tauchers Platform railway station

Tauchers Platform railway station served Glentauchers distillery, Moray, Scotland that had opened in 1897 and the hamlet of Tauchers. The single platform halt was opened by the London and Scottish Railway circa 1923 on the Inverness and Aberdeen Junction Railway route for the convenience of workers at the site and for the general public from 1949; the station lay 3 miles 70 chains from Keith railway station. The station is said to have been opened at some point after 1923 and closed to passengers traffic on 7 December 1964, however the distillery remained open and is still operational; the distillery was once connected by a single line, served by freight trains from the west. From 23 May 1949 the halt was available to the general public. One source gives the opening date as 1922 in the final days of the Highland Railway. A'Tauchers Halt' is shown on the 1938 Ordnance Survey map; the simple wooden platform had basic lighting, a simple shelter and steps that ran down from the overbridge on the northern side of the line.

Tauchers may have been constructed as early as 1922 before the Highland Railway became part of the London Midland and Scottish Railway. It served the distillery workers and the local community, etc. until 7 December 1964, freight facilities were not provided. Nothing now remains of the station, signal box or siding however the entrance and car park area is still present and the line remains open; the distillery branch was operated by a signal box located near the road overbridge on its western side with two short sidings and associated points lying parallel to the main line. The single track branch to the distillery had sidings; the siding at Glentauchers Distillery was circa 4 miles west of Keith on the line between Aberdeen and Inverness. The working timetable in the mid 1950s shows that a single daily working ran between Keith and Mulben, leaving at 2.20pm, working the Glentauchers distillery siding until 2.50pm and running to Mulben railway station, arriving at 2.55pm and returning to Keith for 3.25pm.

Glentauchers Distillery video footage

Dragonfly (Fleetwood Mac song)

"Dragonfly" is a song written by British rock musician Danny Kirwan with lyrics taken from a poem by Welsh poet W. H. Davies, it was recorded by Kirwan's band Fleetwood Mac in 1970, became the first UK single released by the band after the departure of their frontman Peter Green. It was their first single with Christine McVie as a full member of the group. By the time the song had been released, guitarist Jeremy Spencer had left the band; the lyrics to "Dragonfly" were taken from W. H. Davies' 1927 poem, "The Dragonfly", with some lines switched around and others omitted; the poem included an extra verse. Kirwan wrote the music for the song and played guitar, accompanied by Mick Fleetwood on drums and John McVie on bass guitar; the B-side of the single, "The Purple Dancer", was written by Kirwan and John McVie, featured vocals from both Kirwan and Jeremy Spencer. Both songs were recorded during the same session in late 1970. Spencer did not participate in the recording of "Dragonfly", but both songs were played at concerts during late 1970 and early 1971 and exist on bootleg recordings.

"Dragonfly" was recorded for the German TV show Beat-Club in 1971, after Spencer had left the band. New guitarist Bob Welch featured in the performance in Spencer's place. "Dragonfly" was recorded after the release of Fleetwood Mac's Kiln House album in September 1970, no songs from that album had been released as singles in the UK, although "Jewel Eyed Judy" was a single in the United States and the Netherlands, "Tell Me All the Things You Do" had been released in France. "Dragonfly" was chosen as the band's next single in Germany and the Netherlands. Special picture sleeves were issued for the German and Dutch releases, but the British single had a plain Reprise sleeve; the single failed to chart in any of the countries in which it was released in the Netherlands, where the previous single "Jewel Eyed Judy" had made the top 50. "Dragonfly"'s commercial failure added to the gloom within the band when they returned to Britain from America. Christine McVie confessed, "Over the last year, it seems as if we have just been battered and beaten about the head with a giant club.""Dragonfly" subsequently did not feature on Fleetwood Mac's following album Future Games, although it did appear on a 1971 Greatest Hits collection.

"Dragonfly" and its original B-side, "The Purple Dancer" was released as a limited edition pressing of only 3000 copies on purple vinyl by Reprise Records for Record Store Day 2014 on 19 April 2014. Released on blue vinyl, this release was the first time the song was available as a single in the United States, it charted at No. 9 on the Hot Singles Sales chart in the US, the first time the song had charted anywhere. Kirwan's former bandmate Peter Green said of "Dragonfly": "The best thing he wrote... that should have been a hit." In his book, "The Complete Guide to the Music of Fleetwood Mac", Rikky Rooksby stated: "... wonderfully textured guitar playing. It has shimmering chords and the tune coming down in octaves... This is far and away the best thing which Kirwan wrote." Danny Kirwan – guitar, vocals John McVie – bass guitar Mick Fleetwood – drums Jeremy Spencer – guitar, vocals Christine McVie – piano, backing vocals Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics