Rachel Louise Carson was an American marine biologist and conservationist whose book Silent Spring and other writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement. Carson began her career as an aquatic biologist in the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, became a full-time nature writer in the 1950s, her praised 1951 bestseller The Sea Around Us won her a U. S. National Book Award, recognition as a gifted writer, financial security, her next book, The Edge of the Sea, the reissued version of her first book, Under the Sea Wind, were bestsellers. This sea trilogy explores the whole of ocean life from the shores to the depths. Late in the 1950s, Carson turned her attention to conservation some problems that she believed were caused by synthetic pesticides; the result was the book Silent Spring, which brought environmental concerns to an unprecedented share of the American people. Although Silent Spring was met with fierce opposition by chemical companies, it spurred a reversal in national pesticide policy, which led to a nationwide ban on DDT and other pesticides.
It inspired a grassroots environmental movement that led to the creation of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. Carson was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Jimmy Carter. Rachel Carson was born on May 27, 1907, on a family farm near Springdale, just up the Allegheny River from Pittsburgh, she was Robert Warden Carson, an insurance salesman. She spent a lot of time exploring around her family's 65-acre farm. An avid reader, she had her first story published at age ten, she enjoyed the St. Nicholas Magazine, the works of Beatrix Potter, the novels of Gene Stratton-Porter, in her teen years, Herman Melville, Joseph Conrad and Robert Louis Stevenson; the natural world the ocean, was the common thread of her favorite literature. Carson attended Springdale's small school through tenth grade completed high school in nearby Parnassus, graduating in 1925 at the top of her class of forty-four students. At the Pennsylvania College for Women, as in high school, Carson was somewhat of a loner.
She studied English, but switched her major to biology in January 1928, though she continued contributing to the school's student newspaper and literary supplement. Though admitted to graduate standing at Johns Hopkins University in 1928, she was forced to remain at the Pennsylvania College for Women for her senior year due to financial difficulties. After a summer course at the Marine Biological Laboratory, she continued her studies in zoology and genetics at Johns Hopkins in the fall of 1929. After her first year of graduate school, Carson became a part-time student, taking an assistantship in Raymond Pearl's laboratory, where she worked with rats and Drosophila, to earn money for tuition. After false starts with pit vipers and squirrels, she completed a dissertation project on the embryonic development of the pronephros in fish, she earned a master's degree in zoology in June 1932. She had intended to continue for a doctorate, but in 1934 Carson was forced to leave Johns Hopkins to search for a full-time teaching position to help support her family during the Great Depression.
In 1935, her father died worsening their critical financial situation and leaving Carson to care for her aging mother. At the urging of her undergraduate biology mentor Mary Scott Skinker, she settled for a temporary position with the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, writing radio copy for a series of weekly educational broadcasts entitled Romance Under the Waters; the series of 52 seven-minute programs focused on aquatic life and was intended to generate public interest in fish biology and in the work of the bureau, a task the several writers before Carson had not managed. Carson began submitting articles on marine life in the Chesapeake Bay, based on her research for the series, to local newspapers and magazines. Carson's supervisor, pleased with the success of the radio series, asked her to write the introduction to a public brochure about the fisheries bureau. Sitting for the civil service exam, she outscored all other applicants and, in 1936, became the second woman hired by the Bureau of Fisheries for a full-time professional position, as a junior aquatic biologist.
At the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, Carson's main responsibilities were to analyze and report field data on fish populations, to write brochures and other literature for the public. Using her research and consultations with marine biologists as starting points, she wrote a steady stream of articles for The Baltimore Sun and other newspapers. However, her family responsibilities further increased in January 1937 when her older sister died, leaving Carson as the sole breadwinner for her mother and two nieces. In July 1937, the Atlantic Monthly accepted a revised version of an essay, The World of Waters, that she wrote for her first fisheries bureau brochure, her supervisor had deemed it too good for that purpose. The essay, published as Undersea, was a vivid narrative of a journey along the ocean floor, it marked a major turning point in Carson's writing career. Publishing house Simon & Schuster, impressed by Undersea, contacted Carson and suggested that she expand it into a book. Several years of writing resulted in Under the Sea Wind, which received excellent reviews but sold poorly.
In the meantime, Carson's article-writing success continued—her features a
The Harwood Museum of Art is located in Taos, New Mexico. Founded in 1923 by the Harwood Foundation, it is the second oldest art museum in New Mexico, its collections include a wide range of Hispanic works and visual arts from the Taos Society of Artists, Taos Moderns, contemporary artists. In 1935 the museum was purchased by the University of New Mexico. Since the property has been expanded to include an auditorium and additional exhibition space; the Harwood Museum of Art in Taos has a permanent collection of over 1,700 works of art and 17,000 photographic images. The collection dates from the 19th century to the present and reflects the multicultural heritages and influences of the Taos artistic community; the categories of works include: Hispanic, Taos Society of Artists, Taos Moderns and Prints, Drawings and Photographs. The Harwood Museum has a collection of a broad range of Hispanic works, including paintings and woodworking reflecting craftsmanship going back to the beginning of Spanish colonization of New Mexico.
WoodworkingToo expensive to have furniture shipped from Mexico City, New Mexicans established carpentry shops in late 18th Century and early 19th Century where carved furniture was made, such as cajas and trasteros. The Valdez workshop in Taos County created. Tin workTin work served as an integral part of Hispanic religious culture during the 19th Century. Tin cans, glass panes and religious prints were fashioned into devotional objects. There were 13 workshops in New Mexico from 1840 to 1915 thirteen workshops in New Mexico. By the turn of the century tinsmiths created items for the home, such as sconces and trinket boxes. SantosSantos, sacred images of Roman Catholicism for homes and churches, were made in New Mexico since the late 1700s; the museum's collection includes works donated by Mabel Dodge Luhan made between 1800-1850 and contemporary works. The Harwood has the largest publicly owned collection of secular works by Patrociño Barela, an acclaimed leader for contemporary santeros; some of the museum's pieces include.
Spanish Colonial revivalDuring the 1920s and 1930s there was Spanish Colonial revival reflected in many forms of art, including furniture, tinware and colcha embroidery. State and Federal government and private foundations funded programs to hire instructors to teach craftsmanship; the New Deal's Taos Crafts smithing and furniture school resulted in pieces made in wood and tin, such as tin work chandeliers, bancos and sillas that are used in the gallery or offices of the Harwood. The Taos Society of Artists, inspired by the Taos Pueblo people and the Taos landscape, was formed in 1915 by European trained artists Joseph Henry Sharp, Bert Geer Phillips, Ernest L. Blumenschein, Oscar E. Berninghaus, E. Irving Couse and W. Herbert Dunton, they wanted an organization like the Barbizon School of artists who painted landscapes in the Barbizon region of France. The Taos Society of Artists coordinated traveling shows of society members' works throughout the United States, their work was of Native Americans and early Anglo-Americans settlers and landscapes.
The organization disbanded in 1927. In the 1940s a group of artists, some able to study under the G. I. came to Taos and influenced by European and American modern art. Without knowing the history of the local art colony, artists came from New York City and San Francisco, centers for abstract painting that emerged after World War II. By the 1950s Taos had become one of the major centers for modern art in the country. Andrew Dasbug was a mentor to many of the new artists; some of the emerging artists from this period include: Thomas Benrimo, Agnes Martin, Clay Spohn, Edward Corbett. Other visiting artists include Richard Diebenkorn, Mark Rothko, Ad Reinhardt, Clyfford Still and Morris Graves. Like earlier artists, they portrayed the colorful New Mexican landscape and cultural influences, such as the "timelessness they perceived in Puebloan culture and the deep connection to the land they noted in the everyday life of both Native Americans and Hispanics influence experimentation and innovation in their own art."
Rather than capturing realist images of people and the landscape, they sought to capture the true meaning of their subjects. The 1960s and 1970s was a transitional period for the Taos art colony. People, guiding forces of the art colony died, such as Mabel Dodge Luhan, Andrew Dasburg, Emil Bisttram, Dorothy Brett. There was an influx of a new generation of artists when Dennis Hopper came to Taos to complete final rough cut of "Easy Rider", he stayed and bought the Mabel Dodge Luhan property and, like her, encouraged artists and celebrities to visit him in Taos. Contemporary artists such as Ronald Davis, Dennis Hopper, Kenneth Price, Larry Bell, Ron Cooper, Gus Foster, Lee Mullican, Larry Calcagno and R. C. Gorman came to Taos. Price's project known as Happy's Curios was shown at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art; the Harwood Museum has one of the larger pieces, "Death Shrine 1" from that collection on extended loan. Harwood's collection include a retrospective of 18-20 works by Larry Calcagno and R. C.
Ellis. Taos is a second home for artists from the east and west coasts, continuing Taos art colony's international reputation. In 2009 the Harwood Museum held a group exhibition curated by Dennis Hopper called Hopper
The Fauvel AV.22 was an unorthodox glider produced in France in the 1950s, 60s, 70s. Intended to be produced in series, it was marketed to homebuilders. Like other Charles Fauvel designs, it was a tailless aircraft, this particular design featured wings with a slight forward sweep; the original AV.22 design was unpowered, but versions were equipped with an engine mounted in the nose for self-launching. The AV.22 was entered in a 1959 competition to select a standard glider for the French aeroclubs, but lost to the Wassmer Bijave. The first powered version was the AV.221, which flew on 8 April 1965. In addition to the powerplant, the fuselage was redesigned to accommodate a passenger side-by-side with the pilot. A simplified version of this aircraft was marketed for homebuilding as the AV.222, with options including a choice of airfoils, either one or two wheel undercarriage. AV.22 Initial glider version. Two prototypes and four production aircraft were built AV.22S Production version of the AV.22 glider.
AV.221 Two-seat motor glider, powered by a 28.7 kW Rectimo 4 AR 1200 engine. AV.221B A proposed variant powered by a 29.8 kW Survol - de Coucy "Pygmée" engine. AV.222 Simplified AV.221 for homebuilding. Data from The World's Sailplanes:Die Segelflugzeuge der Welt:Les Planeurs du Monde Volume II Nurflugel AV.22 Nurflugel AV.221 Nurflugel AV.222 Jane's World Sailplanes and Motor GlidersGeneral characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 5.07 m - 5.22 m - 5.22 m - Wingspan: 15.2 m - 15.48 m - 16.4 m - Height: 1.48 m at cockpit Wing area: 21.75 m2 - 21.75 m2 - 23.05 m2 - Aspect ratio: 10.6 - 11 - 11.67 - Airfoil: F2 17% Empty weight: 220 kg - 325 kg - 350 kg - Max takeoff weight: 495 kg - 550 kg - Powerplant: 1 × Rectimo 4 AR 1200 4-cyl. Horizontally opposed air-cooled piston engine, 28.7 kW Performance Maximum speed: 160 km/h - 210 km/h - Stall speed: 58 km/h - 74 km/h - Never exceed speed: 170 km/h - Rough air speed max: 157 km/h - Aerotow speed: 160 km/h in smooth air - Aerotow speed: 128 km/h in rough air - Terminal velocity: with full air-brakes at max all-up weight 165 km/h - g limits: +8 -4 at 254 km/h - Maximum glide ratio: 26:1 at 51.6 mph.
Eileen Horn is an American politician serving as a Democratic member of the Kansas House of Representatives. Horn has represented the 10th district, consisting of Lawrence, Baldwin City, southeastern Douglas County, since 2017, she has served as Policy Chair of the House Democratic caucus since 2019. When the Kansas Legislature is not in session, she works with local communities to support sustainability and health initiatives, she co-owns a restaurant in downtown Lawrence with her husband, a chef. Horn was raised in Lenexa, Kansas. After graduating summa cum laude from the Catholic University of America in 2002 and receiving her Master's at the University of Vermont in 2007, Horn moved back to Kansas to serve as the Director of Education and Outreach for the Climate and Energy Project based in Lawrence, Kansas. While working at CEP, she was given the Governor's Award for Energy Achievement for her work increasing awareness of energy efficiency solutions. In 2010, Horn accepted a position as Sustainability Director for the City of Lawrence and Douglas County, coordinating policy initiatives to promote sustainability, energy efficiency, local food goals.
Horn resigned upon her swearing-in to the Kansas Legislature, stating "I wanted to give my full to this. It’s a big job and I want to be all-in."She continues to co-own Limestone Pizza, a restaurant in downtown Lawrence, with her husband. In summer 2017, 10th district Representative John Wilson resigned from the Kansas Legislature citing a desire to focus on his work and family. In August, Horn was selected to serve out the remainder of his term at a meeting of the district's Democratic precinct committeepeople, was sworn in that month, she was elected to the legislature in her own right in November 2018, was selected by her peers in the House Democratic caucus for the position of Policy Chair for the 2019 and 2020 sessions. Horn led a charge to establish a dedicated lactation room in the Kansas Capitol, citing difficulties she experienced as a new mother trying to find proper privacy for breastfeeding during her first session as a state representative. Governor Laura Kelly unveiled the newly established room in a ceremony with Horn in January 2019.
Horn has cited environmental sustainability, social justice, increasing funding for public education, raising the minimum wage as major policy priorities. She has called health care a "human right" and supported legislative efforts to expand Medicaid in the state of Kansas under provisions of the Affordable Care Act. Rural Revitalization Health and Human Services Agriculture Calendar and Printing Joint Committee on State Building Construction In the 2018 elections, Horn ran unopposed in both the primary and general. Douglas County, the southeast portion of, covered by the 10th district, is home to Lawrence and the University of Kansas, is known as one of the few Democratic strongholds in Republican Kansas. Horn lives in Kansas with her husband Rick and three children. In 2014, she served as a Healthy Food Access Fellow with the Kansas Health Institute and graduated from Leadership Lawrence, a professional development program in Douglas County, she has led and helped found multiple community organizations, including the Lawrence Community Mercantile Cooperative, Kansas Women's Environmental Network, the Douglas County Food Policy Council, LiveWell Lawrence Health Coalition.
Horn's hobbies include traveling with her family. During the 2018 Kansas gubernatorial election, Horn endorsed the eventual nominee, State Senator Laura Kelly, in the Democratic primary. Kelly would go on to defeat Republican Kris Kobach and Independent Greg Orman in the general election, becoming the 48th Governor of Kansas. Official campaign site Project Vote Smart key vote history
The Kenmu Restoration was a three-year period of Imperial rule in Japanese history between the Kamakura period and the Muromachi period from 1333 to 1336The Kenmu Restoration was an effort made by Emperor Go-Daigo to overthrow the ruling Kamakura Shogunate and restore the Imperial House back into power in Japan, returning to civilian government after 148 years of de facto military government from Kamakura. Go-Daigo launched the Genkō War in 1331 against the Kamakura Shogunate but was defeated and exiled to the Oki Islands. Go-Daigo launched a second uprising and with the assistance of the defected Kamakura general Ashikaga Takauji defeated the Kamakura Shogunate at the Siege of Kamakura in 1333; the Imperial House was restored to power but Go-Daigo's policies failed to satisfy his samurai supporters and most Japanese people. The Kenmu Restoration was overthrown when Takauji became Shōgun and founded the Ashikaga Shogunate in 1336, beginning the "Northern and Southern Courts" period and the Muromachi period.
The Kenmu Restoration was the last time the Emperor of Japan had any power until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. The Emperor's role had been usurped by the Minamoto and Hōjō families since Minamoto no Yoritomo had obtained from the Emperor the title of shōgun in 1192, ruling thereafter from Kamakura. For various reasons, the Kamakura shogunate decided to allow two contending imperial lines—known as the Southern Court or junior line, the Northern Court or senior line—to alternate on the throne; the method worked for several successions until a member of the Southern Court ascended to the throne as Emperor Go-Daigo. Go-Daigo wanted to overthrow the shogunate and defied Kamakura by naming his own son his heir. In 1331 the shogunate exiled Go-Daigo but loyalist forces, including Kusunoki Masashige and came to his support, they were aided by, among others, future shōgun Ashikaga Takauji, a samurai who had turned against Kamakura when dispatched to put down Go-Daigo's rebellion. At the same time, Nitta Yoshisada, another eastern chieftain, attacked the shogunate's capital.
The shogunate tried to resist his advance: Yoshisada and shogunate forces fought several times along the Kamakura Kaidō, for example at Kotesashigahara and Bubaigawara, in today's Fuchū closer to Kamakura. The city was reached and taken. Kamakura would remain for one century the political capital of the Kantō region, but its supremacy was over; when Emperor Go-Daigo ascended the throne in 1318, he manifested his intention to rule without interference from the military in Kamakura. Historical documents show that, disregarding evidence to the contrary, he and his advisers believed that a revival of the Imperial House was possible, that the Kamakura's shogunate was the greatest and most obvious of the obstacles. Another situation that begged for a solution was the land-ownership problem posed by the manors and their lands; the great landowners, with their political independence and their tax exemptions were impoverishing the government and undermining its authority, Kitabatake Chikafusa, Daigo's future chief adviser, discussed the situation in his works on succession.
Chikafusa admitted that nobody had any intention of abolishing those privileges, so the hope of success on this front was from the beginning very dim. What he planned to replace shugo and jitō with is unclear, but he had no intention of sharing power with the samurai class; however serious the land ownership problem and his advisers made no serious effort to solve it because it was samurai from the manors in the western provinces that had defeated the shogunate for him. In such a situation, any effort to regulate the manors was bound to cause resentment among key allies; the Emperor reclaimed the property of some manors his family had lost control of, rewarding with them, among others, Buddhist temples like Tō-ji and Daitoku-ji in the hope to obtain their support. He however failed to protect the rights of tenants and workers, whose complaints poured into the monasteries, he did not understand the importance to him of the warrior class either, because he never properly rewarded his minor samurai supporters, as he could have done using lands from the confiscated Hōjō lands, indulging instead in favoritism.
These errors are the key to understanding the events of the next few decades. After rewarding religious institutions, he prepared to redistribute Hōjō lands, samurai came to him in great numbers to lay their claims; the biggest rewards were given to samurai, among them Nitta Yoshisada, the man who had destroyed the Kamakura shogunate, Ashikaga Takauji. In so doing, however, he failed to return control of the provinces to civilians, but he made his greatest error when he failed to properly reward minor warriors who had supported him. The tribunals set up to the purpose were inefficient and too inexperienced for the task, corruption was rife. Samurai anger was made worse by the fact that Go-Daigo, wanting to build a palace for himself but having no funds, levied extra taxes from the samurai class. A wave of enmity towards the nobility started to run through the country, growing stronger with time; the Taiheiki records that, although Takauji and Yoshisada were richly rewarded, the offices of shugo and jito in more than fifty provinces went to nobles and court bureaucrats, leaving no spoils for the warriors.
By the end of 1335 the Emperor and the nobility had lost all support of the warrior class. Go-Daigo wanted to re-establish his rule in Kamakura and the east of the country without sending a shōgun there, as this was seen as still too dangerous; as a co
Penamakuru is a village located in Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Bharatha Yuvajana Sangham, a youth welfare organisation, conduct the Games Meet to mark Sankranti in January to prevent illegal activities such as gambling and cock fights, in Penamakuru village of Thotlavalluru mandal in Krishna District. After conducting various games at Penamakuru during Sankranti for 26 years, the sangham has decided to conduct district-level chedugudu and shuttle badminton competitions to draw the attention of youngsters toward games rather than cock fights and gambling during the festival, said T. Mareedu, Bharatha Yuvajana Sangham president. Explaining about the games, he said chedugudu competitions will be held between 4 and 9 January and shuttle badminton competitions will be organised between 10 and 14 January at Penamakuru. Other events like rangoli competitions, running, musical chairs for women and children will be conducted; the BYS initiated the events in the village in 1980 to prevent the illegal activities like cock fights, gambling during the festival, he said.
Underlining the development aspects of agriculture, industrial sectors and their professions in the village, the State government carried out a seven-page syllabus about Penamakuru in Social Sciences textbook of Class VI both in English and Telugu mediums in the current academic year. Unlike other villages in coastal districts, many youngsters who are educated and professionals working in corporate firms in various places, are busy in making shuttle badminton courts, decorating the venues where cultural activities will be held at Penamakuru village in Krishna district. What more, children aged between six years and 15 years are practicing dance for devotional and patriotic songs to perform at the venue. All these activities take place every year in Penamakuru village that comes under Vijayawada police commissionerate to divert the attention of youngsters and students to games and cultural events rather than illegal activities of gambling and cockfights during Sankranti. Having an experience in organising such activities in the village for more than three decades, the Bharata Yuvajana Sangham, a youth welfare organisation, is all set to conduct the 31st annual games meet at Penamakuru to mark Sankranti.
"A few years ago, many youngsters and children, clad in murky clothes, had indulged in illegal activities like cockfights and gambling during Sankranti. Since, the Bharat Yuvajana Sangham started in organising games meet, we changed the mindset of youngsters not to indulge in illegal activities, they are changed now and participating in games. Some youngsters participate in the games and cultural events and other take the responsibility in organising those activities during Sankranti in Penamakuru,’’ explains M. Timothi, an MBA graduate and president of Bharata Yuvajana Sangham. In 1980, former sarpanch of the village M. Nageswara Rao had created the trend by organising such games and cultural events in protecting Sankranti festival and its tradition while preventing illegal activities of gambling and cockfights. Attracted by this new trend in the village, youngsters who finished their higher education in various streams and working in various corporate firms in different places in the state and other places in the country have started a youth welfare organisation — Bharat Yuvajana Sangham.
They have been continuing the games meet in Penamakuru to prevent illegal activities. Penamakuru finds a place in textbook for Class IV Penamakuru, a village in Krishna delta, is part of the Social Studies textbook of Class VI prescribed by the State Council of Educational Research and Training. One of the invisible developments registered here was the stunning growth in the population in recent years. ‘Penamakuru – A village in Krishna Delta’ is in the Social Studies textbook of -VI. The State Council of Educational Research and Training, has included the story of Penamakuru village in the series of Diversity on the Earth, it narrates the changes witnessed in the agrarian village on several fronts — agriculture, rural economy, modes of ownership of land, livelihood options and diversification of crops on the deltaic land. The SCERT syllabus with the village story was prescribed from the academic year 2012-13 both for Telugu and English medium and is being distributed across the state. "A drastic change in our lives over the years has made our village one of the ideal villages in the Krishna delta.
There were unpredictable changes in crop pattern and growth in agriculture-allied sectors and food production," Penam-akuru sarpanch Mareedu Nagesw-ara Rao said. The lesson compiled with 14 pictures of the village on various aspects of life and geographical conditions, including village map, tells a complete tale of all-round development of an agrarian pocket in Andhra Pradesh