Charter of the United Nations
The Charter of the United Nations of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization. The UN Charter articulated a commitment to uphold human rights of citizens and outlined a broad set of principles relating to achieving ‘higher standards of living’, addressing ‘economic, social and related problems,’ and ‘universal respect for, observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, language, or religion.’ As a charter, it is a constituent treaty, all members are bound by its articles. Furthermore, Article 103 of the Charter states that obligations to the United Nations prevail over all other treaty obligations; the Charter was opened for signature on 26 June 1945 and was signed at the San Francisco War Memorial and Performing Arts Center in San Francisco, United States, on 26 June 1945, by 50 of the 51 original member countries. It entered into force on 24 October 1945, after being ratified by the original five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council—the Republic of China, the Provisional Government of the French Republic, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom, the United States—and a majority of the other signatories.
In the meantime, the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki took place on 6 and 9 August, respectively. Most countries in the world have now ratified the Charter. 24 October was declared as United Nations Day by the United Nations General Assembly. The Charter consists of a series of articles grouped into chapters; the preamble consists of two principal parts. The first part contains a general call for the maintenance of peace and international security and respect for human rights; the second part of the preamble is a declaration in a contractual style that the governments of the peoples of the United Nations have agreed to the Charter and it is the first international document regarding human rights. Chapter I sets forth the purposes of the United Nations, including the important provisions of the maintenance of international peace and security. Chapter II defines the criteria for membership in the United Nations. Chapters III–XV, the bulk of the document, describe the organs and institutions of the UN and their respective powers.
Chapters XVI and Chapter XVII describe arrangements for integrating the UN with established international law. Chapters XVIII and Chapter XIX provide for ratification of the Charter; the following chapters deal with the enforcement powers of UN bodies: Chapter VI describes the Security Council's power to investigate and mediate disputes. Chapters XVI through Chapter XIX deal with XVI: miscellaneous provisions, XVII: transitional security arrangements related to World War II, XVIII: the charter amendment process, XIX: ratification of the charter The Preamble to the treaty reads as follows: WE THE PEOPLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS DETERMINEDto save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,AND FOR THESE ENDSto practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples,HAVE RESOLVED TO COMBINE OUR EFFORTS TO ACCOMPLISH THESE AIMS.
Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations. Although the Preamble is an integral part of the Charter, it does not set out any of the rights or obligations of member states; the Purposes of the United Nations are To maintain international peace and security, to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, for the
Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood
Edgar Algernon Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood, known as Lord Robert Cecil from 1868 to 1923, was a British lawyer and diplomat. He was one of the architects of the League of Nations and a defender of it, whose service to the organisation saw him awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1937. Cecil was born at Cavendish Square, the sixth child and third son of Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, three times Prime Minister, Georgina, daughter of Sir Edward Hall Alderson, he was the brother of James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury, Lord William Cecil, Lord Edward Cecil and Lord Quickswood and the cousin of Arthur Balfour. He was educated at home until he was thirteen and spent four years at Eton College, he claimed in his autobiography to have enjoyed his home education most. He studied law at University College, where he became a well-known debater. A first job was as private secretary to his father, when commencing in office as Prime Minister from 1886-88.
In 1887, he was called to the bar by the Inner Temple. He was fond of saying that his marriage to Lady Eleanor Lambton, daughter of George Frederick D'Arcy Lambton, 2nd Earl of Durham on 22 January 1889, was the cleverest thing he had done. From 1887 to 1906, Cecil practised civil law, including work in parliamentary practice. On 15 June 1899, he was appointed a Queen's Counsel. After the outbreak of the Second Boer War, he enrolled as a recruit in the Inns of Court Rifles in February 1900, but he never saw active service, he collaborated in writing a book, entitled Principles of Commercial Law. In 1910 he was appointed a member of the General Council of the Bar, a Bencher of the Inner Temple, he was a Justice of the Peace when he was raised the following year as Chairman of the Hertfordshire Quarter Sessions. At the 1906 general election, Cecil was elected as a Conservative Member of Parliament representing Marylebone East. Cecil was a convinced believer in free trade, opposing Joseph Chamberlain's agitation for Tariff Reform, denouncing it as "a rather sordid attempt to ally Imperialism with State assistance for the rich".
In February 1905 he compiled for party leader Arthur Balfour a memorandum on ‘The Attack on Unionist Free Trade Seats’ in which he quoted a letter to The Times by a member of the Tariff Reform League that stated they would oppose free trade candidates, whether Unionist or Liberal. Cecil argued. In January 1908 Cecil wrote to fellow Unionist Free Trader Arthur Elliot, saying that "To me, the greatest necessity of all is to preserve, if possible, a foothold for Free Trade within the Unionist party. For, if not, I and others who think like me, will be driven to imperil either free trade or other causes such as religious education, the House of Lords, the Union, which seem to us of equal importance". In March 1910 Cecil and his brother Lord Hugh, unsuccessfully appealed to Chamberlain that he should postpone advocating food taxes at the next election in order to concentrate on opposing Irish Home Rule, he did not contest the Marylebone seat in either of the general elections in 1910 as a result of the Tariff Reform controversy.
Instead he unsuccessfully contested Blackburn in the January election and Wisbech in the December election. In 1911 he won a by-election in Hitchin, Hertfordshire as an Independent Conservative and served as its MP until 1923. Fifty years old at the outbreak of the First World War and too old for military service, Cecil went to work for the Red Cross, he was made Vicar-General to the Archbishop of York, on account of his deep religious convictions and commitment to pacifism. Following the formation of the 1915 coalition government, he became Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs on 30 May 1915, on 16 June he was sworn of the Privy Council, promoted to Assistant Secretary in 1918-19, he served in this post until 10 January 1919, additionally serving in the cabinet as Minister of Blockade between 23 February 1916 and 18 July 1918. He was responsible for devising procedures to bring economic and commercial pressure against the enemy forcing them to choose between feeding their occupying military forces or their civilian population.
After the War, in 1919, he was made an Honorary Fellow, granted his MA of University College, Oxford, as well as an Honorary Doctorate of Civil Law, apt for a university chancellor. In September 1916, he wrote and circulated a ‘Memorandum on Proposals for Diminishing the Occasion of Future Wars’ in the Cabinet. Cecil noted the suffering and destruction of the war, along with the threat to European civilisation and the likelihood of postwar disputes, he urged an alternative to war as a means of settling international disputes and claimed that neither the destruction of German militarism nor a postwar settlement based on self-determination would guarantee peace. Cecil rejected compulsory arbitration but claimed a regular conference system would be unobjectionable. Peaceful procedures for settling disputes should be compulsory before there was any outbreak of fighting. Sanctions, including blockade, would be necessary to force countries to submit to peaceful procedures. If overwhelming naval and financial power could be combined in a peace system, "no modern State could resist its pressure".
He hoped that America might be willing to "join in organized economic action to preserve peace". He said that this was the "first document from which sprang British official advocacy of the League of Nations". In May 1917 Cecil circulated his ‘Proposals for Maintenance of Future Peace’ in which the signatories would agree to keep the postwar territorial settlement for five years, followed by a conference to consi
Prime Minister of Italy
The President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic referred to in Italy as Presidente del Consiglio, or informally as Premier and known in English as the Prime Minister of Italy, is the head of government of the Italian Republic. The office of Prime Minister is established by Articles 92 through to 96 of the Constitution of Italy; the Prime Minister is appointed by the President of the Republic after each general election and must have the confidence of the Italian Parliament to stay in office. Prior to the establishment of the Italian Republic, the position was called President of the Council of Ministers of the Kingdom of Italy. From 1925 to 1943 during the Fascist regime, the position was transformed into the dictatorial position of Head of the Government, Prime Minister, Secretary of State held by Benito Mussolini, Duce of Fascism, who governed on the behalf of the King of Italy. King Victor Emmanuel III removed Mussolini from office in 1943 and the position was restored with Marshal Pietro Badoglio becoming Prime Minister in 1943.
Alcide De Gasperi became the first Prime Minister of the Italian Republic in 1946. The Prime Minister is the President of the Council of Ministers which holds executive power and the position is similar to those in most other parliamentary systems; the formal Italian order of precedence lists the office as being ceremonially the fourth most important Italian state office. As the President of the Council of Ministers, the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet. In addition, the Prime Minister leads a major political party and is required by the Constitution to have the confidence of the majority of the voting members of the Parliament. In addition to powers inherent in being a member of the Cabinet, the Prime Minister holds specific powers, most notably being able to nominate a list of Cabinet ministers to be appointed by the President of the Republic and the countersigning of all legislative instruments having the force of law that are signed by the President of the Republic. Article 95 of the Italian constitution provides that the Prime Minister "directs and coordinates the activity of the ministers".
This power has been used to a quite variable extent in the history of the Italian state as it is influenced by the political strength of individual ministers and thus by the parties they represent. The Prime Minister's activity has consisted of mediating between the various parties in the majority coalition, rather than directing the activity of the Council of Ministers; the Prime Minister's supervisory power is further limited by the lack of any formal authority to fire ministers, although a Cabinet reshuffle or sometimes an individual vote of no confidence on the part of Parliament may in practice provide a surrogate measure. The office was first established in 1848 in Italy's predecessor state, the Kingdom of Sardinia—although it was not mentioned in its constitution, the Albertine Statute. From 1848 to 1861, ten Prime Ministers governed the Kingdom, most of them being right-wing politicians. After the unification of Italy and the establishment of the kingdom, the procedure did not change.
In fact, the candidate for office was appointed by the King and presided over a unstable political system. The first Prime Minister was Camillo Benso di Cavour, appointed on 23 March 1861, but he died on 6 June the same year. From 1861 to 1911, Historical Right and Historical Left Prime Ministers alternatively governed the country. One of the most famous and influential Prime Ministers of this period was Francesco Crispi, a left-wing patriot and statesman, the first head of the government from Southern Italy, he led the country for six years from 1887 until 1891 and again from 1893 until 1896. Crispi was internationally famous and mentioned along with world statesmen such as Otto von Bismarck, William Ewart Gladstone and Salisbury. An enlightened Italian patriot and democrat liberal, Crispi went on to become a bellicose authoritarian Prime Minister and admirer of Bismarck, his career ended amid controversy and failure due to becoming involved in a major banking scandal and subsequently fell from power in 1896 after a devastating colonial defeat in Ethiopia.
He is seen as a precursor of the fascist dictator Benito Mussolini. In 1892, Giovanni Giolitti, a young leftist politician, was appointed Prime Minister by King Umberto I, but after less than a year he was forced to resign and Crispi returned to power. In 1903, he was appointed again head of the government after a period of instability. Giolitti was Prime Minister five times between 1892 and 1921 and the second-longest serving Prime Minister in Italian history. Giolitti was a master in the political art of trasformismo, the method of making a flexible, fluid centrist coalition in Parliament which sought to isolate the extremes of the left and the right in Italian politics. Under his influence, the Italian Liberals did not develop as a structured party, they were instead a series of informal personal groupings with no formal links to political constituencies. The period between the start of the 20th century and the start of World War I, when he was Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior from 1901 to 1914 with only brief interruptions, is called the Giolittian Era.
A left-wing liberal with strong ethical concerns, Giolitti's periods in office were notable for the passage of a wide range of progressive social reforms which improved the living standards of ordinary Italians, together with the enactment of several policies of government intervention. Besides putting in place several tar
Kingdom of Italy
The Kingdom of Italy was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when civil discontent led a constitutional referendum to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866 and received the region of Veneto following their victory. Italian troops entered Rome in 1870, thereby ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power. Italy entered into a Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1882, following strong disagreements with France about the respective colonial expansions; however if relations with Berlin became friendly, the alliance with Vienna remained purely formal as the Italians were keen to acquire Trentino and Trieste, corners of Austria-Hungary populated by Italians.
So in 1915, Italy accepted the British invitation to join the Allied Powers, as the western powers promised territorial compensation for participation, more generous than Vienna's offer in exchange for Italian neutrality. Victory in the war gave Italy a permanent seat in the Council of the League of Nations. "Fascist Italy" is the era of National Fascist Party government from 1922 to 1943 with Benito Mussolini as head of government. The fascists imposed totalitarian rule and crushed the political and intellectual opposition, while promoting economic modernization, traditional social values and a rapprochement with the Roman Catholic Church. According to Payne, " Fascist government passed through several distinct phases"; the first phase was nominally a continuation of the parliamentary system, albeit with a "legally-organized executive dictatorship". Came the second phase, "the construction of the Fascist dictatorship proper, from 1925 to 1929"; the third phase, with less activism, was 1929 to 1934.
The fourth phase, 1935–1940, was characterized by an aggressive foreign policy: war against Ethiopia, launched from Italian Eritrea and Italian Somaliland, which resulted in its annexation. The war itself was the fifth phase with its disasters and defeats, while the rump Salò Government under German control was the final stage. Italy was an important member of the Axis powers in World War II, battling on several fronts with initial success. However, after the German-Italian defeat in Africa and Soviet Union and the subsequent Allied landings in Sicily, King Victor Emmanuel III placed Mussolini under arrest, the Fascist Party in areas controlled by the Allied invaders was shut down; the new government signed an armistice on September 1943. German forces occupied northern Italy with Fascists' help, setting up the Italian Social Republic, a collaborationist puppet state still led by Mussolini and his Fascist loyalists; as conseguence, the country descended into civil war, with the Italian Co-belligerent Army and the resistance movement contended the Social Republic's forces and its German allies.
Shortly after the war and the liberation of the country, civil discontent led to the constitutional referendum of 1946 on whether Italy would remain a monarchy or become a republic. Italians decided to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic, the present-day Italian state; the Kingdom of Italy claimed all of the territory which covers present-day Italy and more. The development of the Kingdom's territory progressed under Italian re-unification until 1870; the state for a long period of time did not include Trieste or Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, which were annexed in 1919 and remain Italian territories today. The Triple Entente promised to grant to Italy – if the state joined the Allies in World War I – several territories including former Austrian Littoral, western parts of former Duchy of Carniola, Northern Dalmazia and notably Zara and most of the Dalmatian islands, according to the secret London Pact of 1915. After the compromise was nullified under pressure of President Woodrow Wilson with the Treaty of Versailles, Italian claims on Northern Dalmazia were voided.
During World War II, the Kingdom gained additional territory: it gained Corsica and Savoia from France after its surrender in 1940, territory in Slovenia and Dalmazia from Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1941 and Monaco in 1942. After World War II, the borders of present-day Italy were founded and the Kingdom abandoned its land claims; the Italian Empire gained territory until the end of World War II through colonies, military occupations and puppet states. These included Eritrea, Italian Somaliland, Ethiopia, British Somaliland, Tunisia, Kosovo, Montenegro and a 46-hectare concession from China in Tianjin; the Kingdom of Italy was theoretically a constitutional monarchy. Executive power belonged to the monarch; the legislative branch was a bicameral Parliament comprising an appointive Senate and an elective Chamber of Deputies. The kingdom's constitution was the Statuto Albertino, the former governing document of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In theory, ministers were responsible to the king. However, by this time it was impossible for a king to appoint a government of his ow
Human rights are "the basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled" Examples of rights and freedoms which are thought of as human rights include civil and political rights, such as the right to life and property, freedom of expression, pursuit of happiness and equality before the law. All human beings are born equal in dignity and rights, they are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Ancient peoples did not have the same modern-day conception of universal human rights; the true forerunner of human-rights discourse was the concept of natural rights which appeared as part of the medieval natural law tradition that became prominent during the European Enlightenment. From this foundation, the modern human rights arguments emerged over the latter half of the 20th century.17th-century English philosopher John Locke discussed natural rights in his work, identifying them as being "life and estate", argued that such fundamental rights could not be surrendered in the social contract.
In Britain in 1689, the English Bill of Rights and the Scottish Claim of Right each made illegal a range of oppressive governmental actions. Two major revolutions occurred during the 18th century, in the United States and in France, leading to the United States Declaration of Independence and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen both of which articulated certain human rights. Additionally, the Virginia Declaration of Rights of 1776 encoded into law a number of fundamental civil rights and civil freedoms. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life and the pursuit of Happiness. Philosophers such as Thomas Paine, John Stuart Mill and Hegel expanded on the theme of universality during the 18th and 19th centuries. In 1831 William Lloyd Garrison wrote in a newspaper called The Liberator that he was trying to enlist his readers in "the great cause of human rights" so the term human rights came into use sometime between Paine's The Rights of Man and Garrison's publication.
In 1849 a contemporary, Henry David Thoreau, wrote about human rights in his treatise On the Duty of Civil Disobedience, influential on human rights and civil rights thinkers. United States Supreme Court Justice David Davis, in his 1867 opinion for Ex Parte Milligan, wrote "By the protection of the law, human rights are secured. In Western Europe and North America, labour unions brought about laws granting workers the right to strike, establishing minimum work conditions and forbidding or regulating child labour; the women's rights movement succeeded in gaining for many women the right to vote. National liberation movements in many countries succeeded in driving out colonial powers. One of the most influential was Mahatma Gandhi's movement to free his native India from British rule. Movements by long-oppressed racial and religious minorities succeeded in many parts of the world, among them the civil rights movement, more recent diverse identity politics movements, on behalf of women and minorities in the United States.
The foundation of the International Committee of the Red Cross, the 1864 Lieber Code and the first of the Geneva Conventions in 1864 laid the foundations of International humanitarian law, to be further developed following the two World Wars. The League of Nations was established in 1919 at the negotiations over the Treaty of Versailles following the end of World War I; the League's goals included disarmament, preventing war through collective security, settling disputes between countries through negotiation and improving global welfare. Enshrined in its Charter was a mandate to promote many of the rights which were included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; the League of Nations had mandates to support many of the former colonies of the Western European colonial powers during their transition from colony to independent state. Established as an agency of the League of Nations, now part of United Nations, the International Labour Organization had a mandate to promote and safeguard certain of the rights included in the UDHR: the primary goal of the ILO today is to promote opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity and human dignity.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a non-binding declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948 in response to the barbarism of World War II. The UDHR urges member nations to promote a number of human, civil and social rights, asserting these rights are part of the "foundation of freedom and peace in the world"; the declaration was the first international legal effort to limit the behavior of states and press upon them duties to their citizens following the model of the rights-duty duality....recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom and peace in the world The UDHR was framed by members of the Human Rights Commission, with Eleanor Roosevelt as Chair, who began to discuss an International Bill of Rights in 1947. The members of the Commission did not agree on the form of such a bill of rights, whe
Prime Minister of Australia
The Prime Minister of Australia is the head of government of Australia. The individual who holds the office is the most senior Minister of State, the leader of the Federal Cabinet; the Prime Minister has the responsibility of administering the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, is the chair of the National Security Committee and the Council of Australian Governments. The office of Prime Minister is not mentioned in the Constitution of Australia but exists through Westminster political convention; the individual who holds the office is commissioned by the Governor-General of Australia and at the Governor-General's pleasure subject to the Constitution of Australia and constitutional conventions. Scott Morrison has held the office of Prime Minister since 24 August 2018, he received his commission after replacing Malcolm Turnbull as the leader of the Liberal Party, the largest party in the Coalition government, following the Liberal Party leadership spill earlier the same day. The Prime Minister of Australia is appointed by the Governor-General of Australia under Section 64 of the Australian Constitution, which empowers the Governor-General, as the official representative of the Crown, to appoint government ministers of state on the advice of the Prime Minister and requires them to be members of the House of Representatives or the Senate, or become members within three months of the appointment.
The Prime Minister and Treasurer are traditionally members of the House, but the Constitution does not have such a requirement. Before being sworn in as a Minister of State, a person must first be sworn in as a member of the Federal Executive Council if they are not a member. Membership of the Federal Executive Council entitles the member to the style of The Honourable for life, barring exceptional circumstances; the senior members of the Executive Council constitute the Cabinet of Australia. The Prime Minister is, like other ministers sworn in by the Governor-General and presented with the commission of office; when defeated in an election, or on resigning, the Prime Minister is said to "hand in the commission" and does so by returning it to the Governor-General. In the event of a Prime Minister dying in office, or becoming incapacitated, or for other reasons, the Governor-General can terminate the commission. Ministers hold office "during the pleasure of the Governor-General", so theoretically, the Governor-General can dismiss a minister at any time, by notifying them in writing of the termination of their commission.
According to convention, the Prime Minister is the leader of the majority party or largest party in a coalition of parties in the House of Representatives which holds the confidence of the House. Some commentators argue that the Governor-General may dismiss a Prime Minister, unable to pass the government's supply bill through both houses of parliament, including the Australian Senate, where the government doesn't command the majority, as happened in the 1975 constitutional crisis. Other commentators argue that the Governor General acted improperly in 1975 as Whitlam still retained the confidence of the House of Representatives, there are no accepted conventions to guide the use of the Governor General's reserve powers in this circumstance. However, there is no constitutional requirement that the Prime Minister sit in the House of Representatives, or be a member of the federal parliament, though by convention this is always the case; the only case where a member of the Senate was appointed Prime Minister was John Gorton, who subsequently resigned his Senate position and was elected as a member of the House of Representatives.
Despite the importance of the office of Prime Minister, the Constitution does not mention the office by name. The conventions of the Westminster system were thought to be sufficiently entrenched in Australia by the authors of the Constitution that it was deemed unnecessary to detail them; the formal title of the portfolio has always been "Prime Minister", except for the period of the Fourth Deakin Ministry, when it was known as "Prime Minister". If a government cannot get its appropriation legislation passed by the House of Representatives, or the House passes a vote of "no confidence" in the government, the Prime Minister is bound by convention to advise the Governor-General to dissolve the House of Representatives and hold a fresh election. Following a resignation in other circumstances or the death of a Prime Minister, the governor-general appoints the Deputy Prime Minister as the new Prime Minister, until or if such time as the governing party or senior coalition party elects an alternative party leader.
This has resulted in the party leaders from the Country Party being appointed as Prime Minister, despite being the smaller party of their coalition. This occurred when Earle Page became caretaker Prime Minister following the death of Joseph Lyons in 1939, when John McEwen became caretaker Prime Minister following the disappearance of Harold Holt in 1967; however in 1941, Arthur Fadden became the leader of the Coalition and subsequently Prime Minister by the agreement of both coalition parties, despite being the leader of the smaller party in coalition, following the resignation of UAP leader Robert Menzies. Excluding the brief transition periods during changes of government or leadership elections, there have only been a handful of cases where someone other than the leader of the majority party
Southern Democrats are members of the U. S. Democratic Party who reside in the Southern United States. In the 19th century, Southern Democrats were whites in the South who believed in Jeffersonian democracy. In the 1850s they defended slavery in the United States, promoted its expansion into the West against northern Free Soil opposition; the United States presidential election of 1860 formalized the split, brought the American Civil War. After Reconstruction ended in the late 1870s they controlled all the Southern states and disenfranchised blacks; the "Solid South" gave nearly all its electoral votes to Democrats in presidential elections. Republicans were elected to office outside some Appalachian mountain districts and a few German-American counties of Texas; the monopoly that the Democratic Party held over most of the South first showed major signs of breaking apart in 1948, when many Southern Democrats, dissatisfied with the policies of desegregation enacted during the administration of Democratic President Harry Truman, created the States Rights Democratic Party, which nominated South Carolina Governor Strom Thurmond for president.
The "Dixiecrats" won most of the deep South. The new party collapsed with a return to the Democratic Party; the Civil Rights Act of 1964 signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson, a Democrat, was filibustered by Democratic Senator and KKK member Robert C. Byrd which led many Southern Democrats to vote for Barry Goldwater at the national level. In the ensuing years, with the passing of the Civil Rights Act and the increasing conservatism of the Republican Party compared to the liberalism of the Democratic Party led many more southern Democrats in the South to vote Republican. However, many continued to vote for Democrats at the state and local levels before 1994. After 2010, Republicans had gained a solid advantage over Democrats at all levels of politics in most Southern states; the title of "Democrat" has its beginnings in the South, going back to the founding of the Democratic-Republican Party in 1793 by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. It distrusted the national government. Foreign policy was a major issue.
After being the dominant party in U. S. politics from 1800 to 1829, the Democratic-Republicans split into two factions by 1828: the federalist National Republicans, the Democrats. The Democrats and Whigs were evenly balanced in the 1840s. However, by the 1850s, the Whigs disintegrated. Other opposition parties emerged. Northern Democrats were in serious opposition to Southern Democrats on the issue of slavery; the Southern Democrats, reflecting the views of the late John C. Calhoun, insisted slavery was national; the Democrats controlled the national government from 1852 until 1860, Presidents Pierce and Buchanan were friendly to Southern interests. In the North, the newly formed anti-slavery Republican Party came to power, dominated the electoral college. In the 1860 presidential election, the Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln, but the divide among Democrats led to the nomination of two candidates: John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky represented Southern Democrats, Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois represented Northern Democrats.
The Republicans had a majority of the electoral vote regardless of how the opposition split or joined together and Abraham Lincoln was elected. After the election of Abraham Lincoln, Southern Democrats led the charge to secede from the Union and form the Confederate States of America; the Union Congress was dominated by Republicans, save for Andrew Johnson of Tennessee, the only senator from a state in rebellion to reject secession. The Border States of Kentucky and Missouri were torn by political turmoil. Kentucky and Missouri were both governed by pro-secessionist Southern Democratic Governors who vehemently rejected Lincoln's call for 75,000 troops. Kentucky and Missouri both held secession conventions, but neither declared secession. Southern Democrats in Maryland faced the Union Army. Armed with the suspension of habeas corpus and Union troops, Governor Hicks was able to stop Maryland's secession movement. Maryland was the only state south of the Mason–Dixon line whose governor affirmed Lincoln's call for 75,000 troops.
After secession, the Democratic vote in the North split between the War Democrats and the Peace Democrats or "Copperheads". The War Democrats voted for Lincoln in the 1864 election, he had one—Andrew Johnson—on his ticket. In the South during Reconstruction the white Republican element, called "Scalawags" became smaller and smaller as more and more joined the Democrats. In the North most War Democrats returned to the Democracy, when the "Panic of 1873" hit, the GOP was blamed and the Democrats gained control of the House of Representatives in 1874; the Democrats emphasized that since Jefferson and Jackson they had been the party of states rights, which added to their appeal in the white South. At the beginning of the 20th century the Democrats, led by the dominant Southern wing, had a strong representation in Congress, they won both houses in 1912 and elected Woodrow Wilson, a New Jersey academic with deep Southern roots and a strong base among the Southern middle class. The GOP regained Congress in 1918.
From 1921 until 1930, the Democrats, despite universal dominance in most of the South, were relegated to second place status in national politics, controlling no branch of the federal gover