SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Racial segregation

Racial segregation is the systemic separation of people into racial or other ethnic groups in daily life. Segregation can involve spatial separation of the races, mandatory use of different institutions, such as schools and hospitals by people of different races, it may apply to activities such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a public toilet, attending school, going to the movies, riding on a bus, or in the rental or purchase of a home or of hotel rooms. In addition, segregation allowed close contact in hierarchical situations, such as allowing a person of one race to work as a servant for a member of another race. Segregation is defined by the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance as "the act by which a person separates other persons on the basis of one of the enumerated grounds without an objective and reasonable justification, in conformity with the proposed definition of discrimination; as a result, the voluntary act of separating oneself from other people on the basis of one of the enumerated grounds does not constitute segregation".

According to the UN Forum on Minority Issues, "The creation and development of classes and schools providing education in minority languages should not be considered impermissible segregation, if the assignment to such classes and schools is of a voluntary nature". Racial segregation has been outlawed worldwide. In the United States, segregation was mandated by law in some states and came with anti-miscegenation laws, until the U. S. Supreme Court led by Chief Justice Earl Warren started a liberal Constitutional Revolution in 1950s and 1960s which outlawed racial segregation throughout the United States. However, racial segregation may exist de facto through social norms when there is no strong individual preference for it, as suggested by Thomas Schelling's models of segregation and subsequent work. Segregation may be maintained by means ranging from discrimination in hiring and in the rental and sale of housing to certain races to vigilante violence. A situation that arises when members of different races mutually prefer to associate and do business with members of their own race would be described as separation or de facto separation of the races rather than segregation.

Wherever there have been multiracial communities, there has been racial segregation. Only areas with extensive miscegenation, or mixing, such as Hawaii and Brazil, despite some social stratification, seem to be exempt. Several laws enforcing racial segregation of foreigners from Chinese were passed by the Han Chinese during the Tang dynasty. In 779 the Tang dynasty issued an edict which forced Uighurs to wear their ethnic dress, stopped them from marrying Chinese females, banned them from pretending to be Chinese. Chinese disliked Uighurs; the magistrate who issued the orders may have wanted to protect "purity" in Chinese custom. In 836, when Lu Chun was appointed as governor of Canton, he was disgusted to find Chinese living with foreigners and intermarriage between Chinese and foreigners. Lu enforced separation, banning interracial marriages, made it illegal for foreigners to own property. Lu Chun believed; the 836 law banned Chinese from forming relationships with "Dark peoples" or "People of colour", used to describe foreigners, such as "Iranians, Arabs, Malays, Sumatrans", among others.

The Qing Dynasty was founded not by the Han Chinese who form the majority of the Chinese population, but the Manchus, who are today an ethnic minority of China. The Manchus were keenly aware of their minority status, however, it was only in the dynasty that they banned intermarriage. Han defectors played a massive role in the Qing conquest of China. Han Chinese Generals who defected to the Manchu were given women from the Imperial Aisin Gioro family in marriage while the ordinary soldiers who defected were given non-royal Manchu women as wives; the Manchu leader Nurhaci married one of his granddaughters to the Ming General Li Yongfang after he surrendered Fushun in Liaoning to the Manchu in 1618. Jurchen women married most the Han Chinese defectors in Liaodong. Aisin Gioro women were married to the sons of the Han Chinese Generals Sun Sike, Geng Jimao, Shang Kexi, Wu Sangui. A mass marriage of Han Chinese officers and officials to Manchu women numbering 1,000 couples was arranged by Prince Yoto and Hongtaiji in 1632 to promote harmony between the two ethnic groups.

Geng Zhongming, a Han bannerman, was awarded the title of Prince Jingnan, his son Geng Jingmao managed to have both his sons Geng Jingzhong and Geng Zhaozhong become court attendants under Shunzhi and get married to Aisin Gioro women, with Haoge's daughter marrying Geng Jingzhong and Prince Abatai's granddaughter marrying Geng Zhaozhong. The Qing differentiated between ordinary Han civilians. Han Bannermen were made out of Han Chinese who defected to the Qing up to 1644 and joined the Eight Banners, giving them social and legal privileges in addition to being acculturated to Manchu culture. So many Han defected to the Qing and swelled up the ranks of the Eight Banners that ethnic Manchus became a minority within the Banners, making up only 16% in 1648, with Han Bannermen dominating at 75%, it was this multi-ethnic force in which Manchus were only a minority, which conquered China for the Qing. It was Han Chinese Bannermen who were responsible for the successful Qing conquest of China, they made up the majority of governors in the early Qing and were the ones who governed and ad

Prince Blanco

Mark Matthews, known by his stage name Prince Blanco, is a singer and musician based in Toronto, predominantly performing and recording in the reggae and dub genre. Mark was born in Newport on the Isle of Wight off the south coast of England, his mother was his father, a musician. Following his parent's divorce, his mother remarried and the family moved to southwest London where he spent most of his youth and now going by the surname'Matthews'. Mark's earliest musical influences were Elvis Presley, The Rolling Stones, Slade, T. Rex and the'Trojan' reggae sound of the seventies such as The Upsetters; however it was the punk rock of the late seventies followed by the ska revival of the early eighties that got him involved in music. Mark picked up the drums and made several unsuccessful attempts at forming bands that would fuse the sounds of reggae and punk together, similar to what groups such as Basement 5, The Ruts, The Specials and of course, The Clash were attempting at the time. Relocating to Toronto, Canada in the late eighties, Mark continued to play drums but had by this time gained recognition as a singer leading to him give up the drums and join the powerpop group Living Room as lead vocalist.

After three years, a number of critically acclaimed releases and tours the band broke up and Mark left music to pursue other interests and to spend time back in England. In 1996, Matthews reappeared on the Canadian music scene as the drummer/vocalist for ska group The Skanksters who released the influential Dub Cookery album in the US in 1997; the group made several lineup changes to become Boogiewall Soundsystem, releasing the album Supermyownband in 2005 which featured one of the first'official' vocal appearances of Prince Blanco. In the late nineties, Mark began'moonlighting' as a solo reggae and ska vocalist and as a member of ska/calypso group, The Liquidaires under the name Prince Blanco. Mark had travelled to Jamaica a number of times during the 1990s and on one of these trips was given the opportunity to sing onstage with reggae singer Jack Radics and legendary trombonist Vin Gordon, he was introduced onstage with a name given to him earlier that afternoon by a local Rasta named Super...'King Blanco'.

Mark said he was "not worthy of being named a king" and settled for Prince Blanco – the name stuck. Over the last ten years, Prince Blanco has performed alongside artists such as Willi Williams, Michael Rose, Freddie McGregor and others, his most recent releases include the album Rebel Discothèque, two of three singles with producer Dubmatix and the Shatter The Hotel project, a benefit for Strummerville featuring various artists covering Joe Strummer compositions in a dub style. Prince Blanco's collaboration with Dubmatix, "Gonna Be Alright" won a Juno Award in 2010 for'Best Reggae Recording'. Mark aka Prince Blanco is married with two children, he still maintains a transatlantic presence, travelling back to the UK as much as possible. MySpace Shatter the Hotel

Kaibara Ekken

Kaibara Ekken or Ekiken known as Atsunobu was a Japanese Neo-Confucianist philosopher and botanist. Kaibara was born into a family of advisors to the daimyō of Fukuoka Domain in Chikuzen Province, he accompanied his father to Edo in 1648, was sent in 1649 to Nagasaki to study Western science. At his father's urging, he continued his studies in Nagasaki as a rōnin from 1650 through 1656, he re-entered service to Kuroda, which led to his continuing studies in Kyoto. After his father's death in 1665, he returned to Fukuoka. Kaibara's two most significant contributions to Japanese culture were the study of nature based on a blend of Western natural science and Neo-Confucianism, the translation of the complex writings of Neo-Confucianism into vernacular Japanese, his synthesis of Confucian ideas and Western science influence the formation of Shinto State Shinto, reflect similar concerns to the Kokugaku movement. Kaibara's science was confined to Botany and Materia medica and focused on the "natural law".

Kaibara became as famous in Japan as people such as Charles Darwin. He advanced the study of botany in Japan when he wrote Yamato honzō, a seminal study of Japanese plants; the 19th-century German Japanologist Philipp Franz von Siebold called him the "Aristotle of Japan". Kaibara was known for his manuals of behavior, such as changing his Confucian ethical system based on the teachings of Zhu Xi into an easy "self-help" manuals; as an educator and philosopher, it appears that Kaibara's main goal in life was to further the process of weaving Neo-Confucianism into Japanese culture. In this context, he is best known for such books as Precepts for Children and Greater Learning for Women. Although the genesis of the work remains unchallenged, the oldest extant copy ends with the lines "as related by our teacher Ekiken Kaibara" and the publisher's colophon states that the text was written from lectures of our teacher Kaibara." Dazaifu jinja engi. Jingikun. Onna daigaku, c. 1729. Shinju heikō aimotorazaru ron.

Yamato honzō, 1709. Yamato sōhon. Yōjōkun, 1713. Taigiroku, posthumously published in 1714. Kaibara and Shingoro Takaishi.. Women and the Wisdom of Japan. London: John Murray.... Click link for digitized, full-text copy of this book Cranmer-Byng, L. and S. A. Kapadia, eds.. Women and the Wisdom of Japan. London: John Murray.... Click link for digitized, full-text copy of this book Ko, Dorothy, JaHyun Kim Haboush and Joan R. Piggott.. Women and Confucian Cultures in Premodern China and Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23138-4 Yonemoto, Marcia.. Mapping Early Modern Japan: Space and Culture in the Tokugawa Period. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23269-0 East Asia Institute, University of Cambridge: Further reading/bibliography National Archives of Japan, illustrated scrolls plus text by Kaibara Eiken: Yoshinoyama shokeizu, guide to Mt. Yoshino, text by Eiken Itsukushima kakei, guide to Itsukushima, text by Eiken Tanngo no kuni Amano hashidate no zu, guide to Ama-no-Hashidate, text by Eiken