The racing video game genre is the genre of video games, either in the first-person or third-person perspective, in which the player partakes in a racing competition with any type of land, air or space vehicles. They may be based on anything from real-world racing leagues to fantastical settings. In general, they can be distributed along a spectrum anywhere between hardcore simulations, simpler arcade racing games. Racing games may fall under the category of sports games. In 1973, Atari released Space Race, an arcade video game where players control spaceships that race against opposing ships, while avoiding comets and meteors, it is a competitive two-player game controlled using a two-way joystick, features black and white graphics. The following year, Atari released the first car driving video game in the arcades, Gran Trak 10, which presents an overhead single-screen view of the track in low resolution white-on-black graphics; that same year, Taito released Speed Race designed by Tomohiro Nishikado, in which the player drives down a straight track dodging other cars.
The game was re-branded as Wheels by Midway Games for release in the United States and was influential on racing games. In 1976, Sega released Moto-Cross, re-branded as Fonz in the US, as a tie-in for the popular sitcom Happy Days; the game featured a three-dimensional perspective view, as well as haptic feedback, which caused the motorcycle handlebars to vibrate during a collision with another vehicle. In October 1976, Atari's Night Driver presented a first-person view. Considered the first "scandalous" arcade game, Exidy's Death Race was criticized in the media for its violent content, which only served to increase its popularity. In 1977, Atari released Super Bug, a racing game significant as "the first game to feature a scrolling playfield" in multiple directions. Sega released Twin Course T. T. a two-player motorbike racing game. Another notable video game from the 1970s was The Driver, a racing-action game released by Kasco that used 16 mm film to project full motion video on screen, though its gameplay had limited interaction, requiring the player to match their steering wheel, gas pedal and brakes with movements shown on screen, much like the sequences in laserdisc video games.1979 saw the release of Vectorbeam's Speed Freak, a 3D vector racing game, which Killer List of Videogames calls "very impressive and ahead of their time".
In 1980, Namco's overhead-view driving game Rally-X was the first game to feature background music, allowed scrolling in multiple directions, both vertical and horizontal, it was possible to pull the screen in either direction. It featured a radar, to show the rally car's location on the map. Alpine Ski, released by Taito in 1981, was a winter sports game, a vertical-scrolling racing game that involved maneuvering a skier through a downhill ski course, a slalom racing course, a ski jumping competition. Turbo, released by Sega in 1981, was the first racing game to use sprite scaling with full-color graphics. One of the most influential racing games was released in 1982: Pole Position, developed by Namco and published by Atari in North America, it was the first game to be based on a real racing circuit, the first to feature a qualifying lap, where the player needs to complete a time trial before they can compete in Grand Prix races. While not the first third-person racing game, Pole Position established the conventions of the genre and its success inspired numerous imitators.
According to Electronic Games, for the first time in the amusement parlors, a first-person racing game gives a higher reward for passing cars and finishing among the leaders rather than just for keeping all four wheels on the road". According to IGN, it was "the first racing game based on a real-world racing circuit" and "introduced checkpoints," and that its success, as "the highest-grossing arcade game in North America in 1983, cemented the genre in place for decades to come and inspired a horde of other racing games". In 1983, Kaneko produced a roller skating racer. In 1984, several racing laserdisc video games were released, including Sega's GP World and Taito's Laser Grand Prix which featured live-action footage, Universal's Top Gear featuring 3D animated race car driving, Taito's Cosmos Circuit, featuring animated futuristic racing. Taito released Kick Start, Buggy Challenge, a dirt track racing game featuring a buggy. Irem's The Battle-Road, a vehicle combat racing game that featured branching paths and up to 32 possible routes.
Racing games in general tend to drift toward the arcade side of reality due to hardware limitations in the 1980s and 1990s. It is, untrue to say that there were no games considered simulations in their time. In 1984, Geoff Crammond, who developed the Grandprix series, produced what is considered the first attempt at a racing simulator on a home system, REVS, released for the BBC Microcomputer; the game offered an unofficial recreation of British Formula 3. The hardware capabilities limited the depth of the simulation and restricted it to one track, but it offered a semi-realistic driving experience with more detail than most other racing games at the time. In 1985, Sega released a Grand Prix style motorbike racer, it used force feedback technology and was one of the first arcade games to use 16-bit graphics and Sega's "Super Scaler" technology that allowed pseudo-3D sprite-scaling at high frame rates. In 1986, Durell released Turbo Esprit, which had an official
Duivelsberg is a hill and nature reserve in the municipality of Berg en Dal in the Dutch province of Gelderland, near the border with Germany. It is politically significant, because Duivelsberg is the only part of the Netherlands, both annexed from Germany and retained after World War II; the 75.9 m hill is located on a moraine east of Nijmegen, between Berg en Dal and the Dutch-German border. The nature reserve covers about 125 ha and is predominantly covered with deciduous trees chestnut, it is managed by the Dutch Forestry Commission. In the Middle Ages Mergelp castle stood on the hill. In September 1944 airborne troops of the U. S. 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment fought to capture the Duivelsberg, "Hill 75.9", during Operation Market Garden. Until 1949 the hill was part of the nearby German village of Wyler in the municipality of Kranenburg. Duivelsberg's German name, Wylerberg, is derived from the name of this village. Duivelsberg was one of the many small areas the Netherlands annexed from Germany on 23 April 1949.
Unlike the other areas, Duivelsberg was not returned to the German authorities on 1 August 1963 and remained Dutch territory. The politician Marinus van der Goes van Naters, who lived in nearby Nijmegen during the negotiations with Germany urged that the nature reserve be kept Dutch; the Duivelsberg was inherited in 1906 by Marie Schuster-Hiby who, between 1921 and 1924, built an expressionist villa designed by the German architect Otto Bartning. In 1965 the Schuster-Hiby family sold the villa to the Dutch State. Since 1985 the Huis Wylerberg has been a nationally protected building in which conservation organizations are located. Wyler, North Rhine-WestphaliaMarinus van der Goes van Naters#German border issues after WW2
Conus antoniomonteiroi is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies. Like all species within the genus Conus, these snails are venomous, they are capable of "stinging" humans, therefore live ones should be handled or not at all. The size of the shell varies between 26 mm; this species occurs in the Atlantic Ocean off the island of Cape Verde. Filmer R. M.. A Catalogue of Nomenclature and Taxonomy in the Living Conidae 1758 - 1998. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden. 388pp. Afonso C. M. L. & Tenorio M. J. Conus cuneolus 1843 and related species in Sal Island, Cape Verde Archipelago. Visaya 1: 31-43. Tucker J. K.. Recent cone species database. September 4, 2009 Edition Tucker J. K. & Tenorio M. J. Systematic classification of Recent and fossil conoidean gastropods. Hackenheim: Conchbooks. 296 Puillandre N. Duda T. F. Meyer C. Olivera B. M. & Bouchet P.. One, four or 100 genera? A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 The Conus Biodiversity website http://www.coneshells-am.ru/ Cone Shells - Knights of the Sea "Africonus antoniomonteiroi".
Gastropods.com. Retrieved 15 January 2019
Rainey-Skarland Cabin known as Rainey's Cabin, Skarland's Cabin and Ivar's Cabin, is a historic log cabin on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks in College, Alaska. A single-story three-room log structure with massive stone fireplace on one gable end, it is used today as extended lodging for a permanent or visiting anthropology faculty member or student; the cabin was built in 1936 on a ridge overlooking the school for Froelich Rainey, the first professor of the university's Anthropology Department. During his tenure the cabin played a significant role as a social center of the university, hosting a number of pioneering archaeologists and anthropologists, including J. Louis Giddings and Frederica de Laguna; when Rainey left in 1942 the university bought the cabin to use as faculty housing. Beginning in the late 1940s it was occupied by a successor as department chairman, former student Ivar Skarland, who continued Rainey's social practices. Upon Skarland's sudden death in 1965, university students requested that the cabin, ski trails, a residence hall be named in his memory, resulting in the Rainey-Skarland Cabin.
Today, student lives there. The building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975. A major 1982 renovation was highlighted by roof replacement and installation of an alarm system. National Register of Historic Places listings in Fairbanks North Star Borough, Alaska
The ALCO RSC-2 was a diesel-electric locomotive of the road switcher type that rode on three-axle trucks, having an A1A-A1A wheel arrangement. 91 locomotives were produced — Used in much the same manner as its four-axle counterpart, the ALCO RS-2, though the wheel arrangement lowered the axle load for operation on light rail such as are found on branch lines. The Milwaukee Road was the first railroad to take delivery of the RSC-2 assigning them to their Valley Division in November 1946; this was done in order to study the effects of an all-diesel roster. The experiment was deemed a success and soon all steam locomotives were gone from the Valley Division. RSC-2s would faithfully serve the Milwaukee Road for many years, until being replaced in turn by the EMD SDL39. ALCO exported these units to the state railway of Portugal, where Portuguese Railways designated them Série 1500; these locomotives were built for the Iberian track gauge of. The last units in Portugal served in regular passenger service into the first decade of the 21st century.
Of these, five are still running today, 70 years after their arrival. Five units were exported to the Algerian National Railways where they were used in passenger train service. Marre, Louis A.. Diesel Locomotives: The First 50 Years. Waukesha, WI: Kalmbach Publishing Co. ISBN 0-89024-258-5
Alexei Yurievich Gorshkov is a Russian ice dancing coach. Gorshkov coaches near Moscow, his notable senior dance teams are: Albena Denkova / Maxim Staviski Oksana Domnina / Maxim Shabalin Ekaterina Riazanova / Ilia Tkachenko Nóra Hoffmann / Maxim Zavozin Anastasia Platonova / Andrei MaximishinNotable junior-level dance teams: Natalia Romaniuta / Daniil Barantsev Anastasia Gorshkova / Ilia Tkachenko Maria Monko / Ilia Tkachenko Evgenia Kosigina / Nikolai Moroshkin Alexei Gorshkov has two daughters, one of whom is former competitive ice dancer Anastasia Gorshkova