Racism is the belief that groups of humans possess different behavioral traits corresponding to physical appearance, can be divided based on the superiority of one race over another. It may mean prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against other people because they are of a different race or ethnicity. Modern variants of racism are based in social perceptions of biological differences between peoples; these views can take the form of social actions, practices or beliefs, or political systems in which different races are ranked as inherently superior or inferior to each other, based on presumed shared inheritable traits, abilities, or qualities. In terms of political systems that support the expression of prejudice or aversion in discriminatory practices or laws, racist ideology may include associated social aspects such as nativism, otherness, hierarchical ranking, supremacism. While the concepts of race and ethnicity are considered to be separate in contemporary social science, the two terms have a long history of equivalence in popular usage and older social science literature.
"Ethnicity" is used in a sense close to one traditionally attributed to "race": the division of human groups based on qualities assumed to be essential or innate to the group. Therefore and racial discrimination are used to describe discrimination on an ethnic or cultural basis, independent of whether these differences are described as racial. According to a United Nations convention on racial discrimination, there is no distinction between the terms "racial" and "ethnic" discrimination; the UN Convention further concludes that superiority based on racial differentiation is scientifically false, morally condemnable unjust and dangerous. The Convention declared that there is no justification for racial discrimination, anywhere, in theory or in practice. Racism is a modern concept, arising in the European age of imperialism, the subsequent growth of capitalism, the Atlantic slave trade, of which it was a major driving force, it was a major force behind racial segregation in the United States in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and South Africa under apartheid.
Racism has played a role in genocides such as the Holocaust, the Armenian genocide, colonial projects like the European colonization of the Americas and Asia. Indigenous peoples have been—and are—often subject to racist attitudes. In the 19th century, many scientists subscribed to the belief that the human population can be divided into races; the term racism is a noun describing the state of being racist, i.e. subscribing to the belief that the human population can or should be classified into races with differential abilities and dispositions, which in turn may motivate a political ideology in which rights and privileges are differentially distributed based on racial categories. The origin of the root word "race" is not clear. Linguists agree that it came to the English language from Middle French, but there is no such agreement on how it came into Latin-based languages. A recent proposal is that it derives from the Arabic ra's, which means "head, origin" or the Hebrew rosh, which has a similar meaning.
Early race theorists held the view that some races were inferior to others and they believed that the differential treatment of races was justified. These early theories guided pseudo-scientific research assumptions. Today, most biologists and sociologists reject a taxonomy of races in favor of more specific and/or empirically verifiable criteria, such as geography, ethnicity, or a history of endogamy. To date, there is little evidence in human genome research which indicates that race can be defined in such a way as to be useful in determining a genetic classification of humans. An entry in the Oxford English Dictionary defines racialism as "n earlier term than racism, but now superseded by it", cites the term "racialism" in a 1902 quote; the revised Oxford English Dictionary cites the shortened term "racism" in a quote from the following year, 1903. It was first defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "he theory that distinctive human characteristics and abilities are determined by race".
By the end of World War II, racism had acquired the same supremacist connotations associated with racialism: racism now implied racial discrimination, racial supremacism, a harmful intent. As its history indicates, the popular use of the word racism is recent; the word came into widespread usage in the Western world in the 1930s, when it was used to describe the social and political ideology of Nazism, which treated "race" as a given political unit. It is agreed that racism existed before the coinage of the word, but there is not a wide agreement on a single definition of what racism is and what it is not. Today, some scholars of racism prefer to use the concept in the plural racisms, in order to emphasize its many different forms that do not fall under a single definition, they argue that different forms of
Liberty Hill site in San Pedro, Los Angeles, California was the site of the 1923 strike by the Marine Transport Workers Industrial Union 510 a part of the Industrial Workers of the World. The strike was called to draw attention to the worker's low wages and poor working conditions, it was to draw attention to some union activists, arrested and lockup for violating the California Criminal Syndicalism Act passed on April 30, 1919 by Governor William Stephens, which criminalized syndicalism. The strike tied up 90 ships in Port of Los Angeles San Pedro; the Liberty Hill site was designated a California Historic Landmark on March 3, 1997. On May 15, 1923 writer Upton Sinclair spoke to 3,000 striking longshoremen at Liberty Hill. Sinclair used street theater to highlight ongoing suppression of freedom of speech by the LAPD, Sinclair began his address by reading the Bill of Rights. Within moments, he was arrested; the strike did not achieve its goal, but did start a movement that found success in the 1930s, the Congress of Industrial Organizations.
The California Criminal Syndicalism Act was found unconstitutional in 1968. The Liberty Hill Foundation was started in 1976, it name. " Marker on the site reads: NO. 1021 LIBERTY HILL SITE - In 1923 the Marine Transport Workers Industrial Union 510, a branch of the Industrial Workers of the World, called a strike that immobilized 90 ships here in San Pedro. The union protested low wages, bad working conditions, the imprisonment of union activists under California's Criminal Syndicalism Law. Denied access to public property and their supporters rallied here at this site they called "Liberty Hill." Writer Upton Sinclair was arrested for reading from the Bill of Rights to a large gathering. The strike laid a foundation for success in the 1930s; the Syndicalism Law was ruled unconstitutional in 1968." California Historical Landmarks in Los Angeles County
Juicio Final was a professional wrestling supercard produced by Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre, which took take place on May 31, 2019 at Arena México in Mexico City, Mexico. The 2019 Juicio Final event was the fifteenth event promoted under the Juicio Final chronology; the main event, a Lucha de Apuesta, saw Último Guerrero defeat Máscara Año 2000, forcing him to have all his hair shaved off as a result of his loss. The seven-match show featured an additional Lucha de Apuesta where Mexican female wrestler La Amapola defeated Japanese women's wrestling star Kaho Kobayashi. On the show, Los Guerreros Laguneros defeated Diamante Azul and Valiente to win the CMLL World Tag Team Championship and Virus defeated Metálico in a Lucha de Apuesta where the loser was forced to retire from wrestling. For decades Arena México, the main venue of the Mexican professional wrestling promotion Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre, would close down in early December and remain closed into either January or February to allow for renovations as well as letting Circo Atayde occupy the space over the holidays.
As a result, CMLL held a "end of the year" supercard show on the first or second Friday of December in lieu of their normal Super Viernes show. 1955 was the first year. Until 2000 the Jucio Final name was always used for the year end show, but since 2000 has at times been used for shows outside of December, it is not an annually recurring show, but instead held intermittently sometimes several years apart and not always in the same month of the year either. All Juicio Final shows have been held in Arena México in Mexico City, Mexico, CMLL's main venue, its "home"; the Juicio Final event featured seven professional wrestling matches with different wrestlers involved in pre-existing scripted feuds and storylines. Wrestlers portrayed heels or faces as they participated in a series of tension-building events, which culminated in a wrestling match or series of matches