A mouse, plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate. The best known mouse species is the common house mouse, it is a popular pet. In some places, certain kinds of field mice are locally common, they are known to invade homes for shelter. Species of mice are found in Rodentia, are present throughout the order. Typical mice are found in the genus Mus. Mice are distinguished from rats by their size; when someone discovers a smaller muroid rodent, its common name includes the term mouse, while if it is larger, the name includes the term rat. Common terms rat and mouse are not taxonomically specific. Scientifically, the term mouse is not confined to members of Mus for the deer mouse. Domestic mice sold as pets differ in size from the common house mouse; this is attributable both to different conditions in the wild. The best-known strain, the white lab mouse, has more uniform traits that are appropriate to its use in research.
Cats, wild dogs, birds of prey and certain kinds of arthropods have been known to prey upon mice. Because of its remarkable adaptability to any environment, the mouse is one of the most successful mammalian genera living on Earth today. Mice, in certain contexts, can be considered vermin which are a major source of crop damage, causing structural damage and spreading diseases through their parasites and feces. In North America, breathing dust that has come in contact with mouse excrement has been linked to hantavirus, which may lead to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Nocturnal animals, mice compensate for their poor eyesight with a keen sense of hearing, rely on their sense of smell to locate food and avoid predators. Mice build long intricate burrows in the wild; these have long entrances and are equipped with escape tunnels or routes. In at least one species, the architectural design of a burrow is a genetic trait. Order Dasyuromorphia marsupial mice, smaller species of Dasyuridae order Rodentia suborder Castorimorpha family Heteromyidae Kangaroo mouse, genus Microdipodops Pocket mouse, tribe Perognathinae Spiny pocket mouse, genus Heteromys suborder Anomaluromorpha family Anomaluridae flying mouse suborder Myomorpha family Cricetidae Brush mouse, Peromyscus boylii Florida mouse Golden mouse American Harvest mouse, genus Reithrodontomys family Muridae typical mice, the genus Mus Field mice, genus Apodemus Wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus Yellow-necked mouse, Apodemus flavicollis Large Mindoro forest mouse Big-eared hopping mouse Luzon montane forest mouse Forrest's mouse Pebble-mound mouse Bolam's mouse Eurasian Harvest mouse, genus Micromys Mice are common experimental animals in laboratory research of biology and psychology fields because they are mammals, because they share a high degree of homology with humans.
They are the most used mammalian model organism, more common than rats. The mouse genome has been sequenced, all mouse genes have human homologs; the mouse has 2.7 billion base pairs and 20 pairs of chromosomes. They can be manipulated in ways that are illegal with humans, although animal rights activists object. A knockout mouse is a genetically modified mouse that has had one or more of its genes made inoperable through a gene knockout. Reasons for common selection of mice are small size, inexpensive varied diet maintained, can reproduce quickly. Several generations of mice can be observed in a short time. Mice are very docile if raised from birth and given sufficient human contact. However, certain strains have been known to be quite temperamental. Mice and rats have the same organs in the same places, with the difference of size. Many people buy mice as companion pets, they can be playful and can grow used to being handled. Like pet rats, pet mice should not be left unsupervised outside as they have many natural predators, including birds, lizards and dogs.
Male mice tend to have a stronger odor than the females. However, mice are as pets they never need bathing. Well looked-after mice can make ideal pets; some common mouse care products are: Cage – Usually a hamster or gerbil cage, but a variety of special mouse cages are now available. Most should have a secure door. Food – Special pelleted and seed-based food is available. Mice can eat most rodent food Bedding – Usually made of hardwood pulp, such as aspen, sometimes from shredded, uninked paper or recycled virgin wood pulp. Using corn husk bedding is avoided because it promotes Aspergillus fungus, can grow mold once it gets wet, rough on their feet. In nature, mice are herbivores, consuming any kind of fruit or grain from plants. However, mice adapt well to urban areas and are known for eating all types of food scraps. In captivity, mice are fed commercial pelleted mouse diet; these diets are nutritionally complete. Mice are a staple in the diet of many small carnivores. Humans have eaten mice since prehistoric times and still eat them as a delicacy throughout eastern Zambia and northern Malawi, where they are a seasonal source of protein.
Mice are no longer consumed by humans elsewhere. However, in Victorian Britain, fried mice were still given to children as a folk remedy for bed-wetting. Prescribed cures in Ancient Egypt included mice as medicine. In Ancient Egypt, when infant
A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
The Commodore 64 known as the C64 or the CBM 64, is an 8-bit home computer introduced in January 1982 by Commodore International. It has been listed in the Guinness World Records as the highest-selling single computer model of all time, with independent estimates placing the number sold between 10 and 17 million units. Volume production started in early 1982, marketing in August for US$595. Preceded by the Commodore VIC-20 and Commodore PET, the C64 took its name from its 64 kilobytes of RAM. With support for multicolor sprites and a custom chip for waveform generation, the C64 could create superior visuals and audio compared to systems without such custom hardware; the C64 dominated the low-end computer market for most of the 1980s. For a substantial period, the C64 had between 30% and 40% share of the US market and two million units sold per year, outselling IBM PC compatibles, Apple computers, the Atari 8-bit family of computers. Sam Tramiel, a Atari president and the son of Commodore's founder, said in a 1989 interview, "When I was at Commodore we were building 400,000 C64s a month for a couple of years."
In the UK market, the C64 faced competition from the BBC Micro and the ZX Spectrum, but the C64 was still one of the two most popular computers in the UK. Part of the Commodore 64's success was its sale in regular retail stores instead of only electronics or computer hobbyist specialty stores. Commodore produced many of its parts in-house to control costs, including custom integrated circuit chips from MOS Technology, it has been compared to the Ford Model T automobile for its role in bringing a new technology to middle-class households via creative and affordable mass-production. 10,000 commercial software titles have been made for the Commodore 64 including development tools, office productivity applications, video games. C64 emulators allow anyone with a modern computer, or a compatible video game console, to run these programs today; the C64 is credited with popularizing the computer demoscene and is still used today by some computer hobbyists. In 2011, 17 years after it was taken off the market, research showed that brand recognition for the model was still at 87%.
In January 1981, MOS Technology, Inc. Commodore's integrated circuit design subsidiary, initiated a project to design the graphic and audio chips for a next generation video game console. Design work for the chips, named MOS Technology VIC-II and MOS Technology SID, was completed in November 1981. Commodore began a game console project that would use the new chips—called the Ultimax or the Commodore MAX Machine, engineered by Yash Terakura from Commodore Japan; this project was cancelled after just a few machines were manufactured for the Japanese market. At the same time, Robert "Bob" Russell and Robert "Bob" Yannes were critical of the current product line-up at Commodore, a continuation of the Commodore PET line aimed at business users. With the support of Al Charpentier and Charles Winterble, they proposed to Commodore CEO Jack Tramiel a true low-cost sequel to the VIC-20. Tramiel dictated. Although 64-Kbit dynamic random-access memory chips cost over US$100 at the time, he knew that DRAM prices were falling, would drop to an acceptable level before full production was reached.
The team was able to design the computer because, unlike most other home-computer companies, Commodore had its own semiconductor fab to produce test chips. The chips were complete by November, by which time Charpentier and Tramiel had decided to proceed with the new computer; the product was code named the VIC-40 as the successor to the popular VIC-20. The team that constructed it consisted of Yash Terakura, Shiraz Shivji, Bob Russell, Bob Yannes and David A. Ziembicki; the design and some sample software were finished in time for the show, after the team had worked tirelessly over both Thanksgiving and Christmas weekends. The machine used the same case, same-sized motherboard, same Commodore BASIC 2.0 in ROM as the VIC-20. BASIC served as the user interface shell and was available on startup at the READY prompt; when the product was to be presented, the VIC-40 product was renamed C64. The C64 made an impressive debut at the January 1982 Consumer Electronics Show, as recalled by Production Engineer David A. Ziembicki: "All we saw at our booth were Atari people with their mouths dropping open, saying,'How can you do that for $595?'"
The answer was vertical integration. Commodore had a reputation for announcing products that never appeared, so sought to ship the C64. Production began in spring 1982 and volume shipments began in August; the C64 faced a wide range of competing home computers, but with a lower price and more flexible hardware, it outsold many of its competitors. In the United States the greatest competitors were the Atari 8-bit 400, the Atari 800, the Apple II; the Atari 400 and 800 had been designed to accommodate stringent FCC emissions requirements and so were expensive to
Commodore MAX Machine
The Commodore MAX Machine known as Ultimax in the United States and VC-10 in Germany, is a home computer designed and sold by Commodore International in Japan, beginning in early 1982, a predecessor to the popular Commodore 64. The Commodore 64 manual mentions the machine by name, suggesting that Commodore intended to sell the machine internationally, it is considered a rarity. Software was loaded from plug-in cartridges and the unit had a membrane keyboard and 2.0 KiB of RAM internally and 0.5 KiB of color RAM. It used a television set for a display, it used the same chipset and 6510 CPU as the Commodore 64, the same SID sound chip, compatible ROM cartridge architecture so that MAX cartridges will work in the C-64. The MAX compatibility mode in C-64 was frequently used for "freezer" cartridges, as a convenient way to take control of the running program, it was possible to use a tape drive for storage, but it lacked the serial and user ports necessary to connect a disk drive, printer, or modem.
It was intended to sell for around 200 USD. Although the MAX had better graphics and sound capability, Commodore's own VIC-20, which sold for around the same amount of money, was much more expandable, had a much larger software library, had a better keyboard—all of which made it more attractive to consumers. Unlike the C-64, the MAX never sold well and was discontinued. Commodore 64 Commodore 64 Games System Commodore MAX Machine / Ultimax at the Wayback Machine The UltiMax machine The MAX Machine, the odd one out
Rally-X is a driving game set in an overhead, scrolling maze, released in arcades by Namco, licensed in 1980 to Midway Manufacturing Co. for US manufacture and distribution in 1981. It was the first game with background music; the only contemporary home port was for MSX, released on March 30, 1984. The object of the game is to collect the flags scattered around the maze while avoiding collision with enemy cars. A radar shows the locations of the flags, but not maze walls; the player drives a blue car around a scrolling maze. The car automatically moves in whichever direction the joystick is pushed, but if it runs into a wall, it will turn and continue. In every round, ten flags are scattered around the maze; the player must collect all of them to move on to the next round. The flags increase in value as they are collected: the first is 100 points, the second is 200, the third is 300, so on. There are special flags — if the player collects one of them, the value earned from flags doubles for the rest of the round.
If the player dies, the next flag value is set back to 100 and the double bonus is lost. By collecting the special as the first flag with all 10 flags in one run, the maximum points the player can obtain from each round is 11000; the player will obtain a fuel bonus after the round is complete, it varies depending on how much fuel is remaining according to the fuel gauge. Several red cars chase the blue one around the maze, contact with any of them results in losing a life when hit; the number of these cars begins at three and increases in number throughout each normal round to eight. The first five appear at the bottom of the maze, the next three will appear at the top of the maze. However, the player has a smoke screen. If a red car runs into a cloud of smokescreen, it will be momentarily stunned; the amount of time stunned decreases with each level, but will still always cause the red car to chase the blue car using an alternate route. Using the smokescreen uses a small amount of fuel, using it more than once every 30 seconds will ensure that it runs out before the round finishes.
The car has a limited amount of fuel, consumed with time, though it is sufficient to last until all ten flags have been collected. When fuel runs out, the car moves slowly and the smoke screen no longer works, so it quickly falls victim to the red cars. If the player should clear any round without any fuel remaining, they will not receive a fuel bonus as a result. There are stationary rocks that the player must avoid; the rocks are randomly distributed throughout the maze, increasing in number. Unlike the cars and flags, their positions are not shown on the radar, so the player has to be careful for them; the rocks will kill the player on contact, so the player has to be careful not to get trapped between rocks and the red cars. If this happens there is no escape. On the third stage and every fourth stage after that, a bonus stage will start; the player must collect the red cars, are unable to move. If the player runs out of fuel, the red cars will start moving. If a player hits a red car or a rock, the challenging stage ends but the player will not lose a life.
Once the player has run out of lives, the game will be over. In 1980, Battlezone and Pac-Man were shown alongside Rally-X at a trade show sponsored by the Amusement Machine Operators of America, it was believed. Defender went on to sell more than 60,000 units — more than disproving these projections — and cemented its place in video game history. Meanwhile, Pac-Man went on to sell more than 350,000 worldwide arcade units, it became the highest-grossing video game of all time; the game's sequel, New Rally-X, offers a different color scheme and easier gameplay. A new flag called the "Lucky Flag" was added, which awards the player bonus points for the amount of fuel remaining when collected, after which the car is refueled, the round continues if there are still flags remaining. New Rally-X became more popular than the original game; the compilation arcade game Namco Classic Collection Vol. 2, includes a version of the game with enhanced graphics and gameplay called Rally-X Arrangement. Namco Museum Remix, released on October 23, 2007 for the Nintendo Wii features a revamped version of the game, known as Rally-X Remix, included in Namco Museum Megamix.
Another revamped sequel, Rally-X Rumble, was released on Apple's iOS platform on August 17, 2011. Rally-X was included in Namco Museum Volume 1 for the Sony PlayStation in 1995, Namco Museum 50th Anniversary in 2005, the Pac-Man's Arcade Party 30th Anniversary compilation arcade game in 2010. A carbon copy of this game was included in the compilation title Namco Classic Collection Vol. 2 in 1996. Rally-X was included as part of Microsoft Revenge of Arcade. Jakks Pacific ported Rally-X to its Namco Collection TV game. Golden age of video arcade games Rally-X at the Killer List of Videogames Rally-X at the Arcade History database
Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents. Species of rats are found throughout the order Rodentia, but stereotypical rats are found in the genus Rattus. Other rat genera include Neotoma and Dipodomys. Rats are distinguished from mice by their size; when someone discovers a large muroid rodent, its common name includes the term rat, while if it is smaller, its name includes the term mouse. The common terms rat and mouse are not taxonomically specific. In other words, rat is not a scientific term; the best-known rat species are the brown rat. This group known as the Old World rats or true rats, originated in Asia. Rats are bigger than most Old World mice, which are their relatives, but weigh over 500 grams in the wild; the term rat is used in the names of other small mammals that are not true rats. Examples include the North American pack rats, a number of species loosely called kangaroo rats, others. Rats such as the bandicoot rat are murine rodents related to true rats but are not members of the genus Rattus.
Male rats are called bucks. A group of rats is referred to as a mischief; the common species are opportunistic survivors and live with and near humans. They may cause substantial food losses in developing countries. However, the distributed and problematic commensal species of rats are a minority in this diverse genus. Many species of rats are island endemics, some of which have become endangered due to habitat loss or competition with the brown, black, or Polynesian rat. Wild rodents, including rats, can carry many different zoonotic pathogens, such as Leptospira, Toxoplasma gondii, Campylobacter; the Black Death is traditionally believed to have been caused by the microorganism Yersinia pestis, carried by the tropical rat flea, which preyed on black rats living in European cities during the epidemic outbreaks of the Middle Ages. Another zoonotic disease linked to the rat is foot-and-mouth disease. Rats become sexually reach social maturity at about 5 to 6 months of age; the average lifespan of rats varies by species.
The black and brown rats diverged from other Old World rats in the forests of Asia during the beginning of the Pleistocene. The characteristic long tail of most rodents is a feature, extensively studied in various rat species models, which suggest three primary functions of this structure: thermoregulation, minor proprioception, a nocifensive-mediated degloving response. Rodent tails—particularly in rat models—have been implicated with a thermoregulation function that follows from its anatomical construction; this particular tail morphology is evident across the family Muridae, in contrast to the bushier tails of Sciuridae, the squirrel family. The tail is hairless and thin skinned but vascularized, thus allowing for efficient countercurrent heat exchange with the environment; the high muscular and connective tissue densities of the tail, along with ample muscle attachment sites along its plentiful caudal vertebrae, facilitate specific proprioceptive senses to help orient the rodent in a three-dimensional environment.
Lastly, murids have evolved a unique defense mechanism termed degloving that allows for escape from predation through the loss of the outermost integumentary layer on the tail. However, this mechanism is associated with multiple pathologies that have been the subject of investigation. Multiple studies have explored the thermoregulatory capacity of rodent tails by subjecting test organisms to varying levels of physical activity and quantifying heat conduction via the animals' tails. One study demonstrated a significant disparity in heat dissipation from a rat's tail relative to its abdomen; this observation was attributed to the higher proportion of vascularity in the tail, as well as its higher surface-area-to-volume ratio, which directly relates to heat's ability to dissipate via the skin. These findings were confirmed in a separate study analyzing the relationships of heat storage and mechanical efficiency in rodents that exercise in warm environments. In this study, the tail was a focal point in measuring heat modulation.
On the other hand, the tail's ability to function as a proprioceptive sensor and modulator has been investigated. As aforementioned, the tail demonstrates a high degree of muscularization and subsequent innervation that ostensibly collaborate in orienting the organism; this is accomplished by coordinated flexion and extension of tail muscles to produce slight shifts in the organism's center of mass, etc. which assists it with achieving a state of proprioceptive balance in its environment. Further mechanobiological investigations of the constituent tendons in the tail of the rat have identified multiple factors that influence how the organism navigates its environment with this structure. A particular example is that of a study in which the morphology of these tendons is explicated in detail. Namely, cell viability tests of tendons of the rat's tail demonstrate a higher proportion of living fibroblasts that produce the collagen for these fibers; as in humans, these tendons contain a high density of golgi tendon organs that help the animal assess stretching of muscle in situ and adjust accordingly by relaying the information to higher cortical areas associated with balance and movement.
A maze is a path or collection of paths from an entrance to a goal. The word is used to refer both to branching tour puzzles through which the solver must find a route, to simpler non-branching patterns that lead unambiguously through a convoluted layout to a goal; the pathways and walls in a maze are fixed, but puzzles in which the walls and paths can change during the game are categorised as mazes or tour puzzles. Mazes have been built with walls and rooms, with hedges, corn stalks, hay bales, paving stones of contrasting colors or designs, brick, or in fields of crops such as corn or, maize. Maize mazes can be large. Indoors, mirror mazes are another form of maze, in which many of the apparent pathways are imaginary routes seen through multiple reflections in mirrors. Another type of maze consists of a set of rooms linked by doors. Players enter at one spot, exit at another, or the idea may be to reach a certain spot in the maze. Mazes can be printed or drawn on paper to be followed by a pencil or fingertip.
Mazes can be built with snow. Maze generation is the act of designing the layout of walls within a maze. There are many different approaches to generating mazes, with various maze generation algorithms for building them, either by hand or automatically by computer. There are two main mechanisms used to generate mazes. In "carving passages", one marks out the network of available routes. In building a maze by "adding walls", one lays out a set of obstructions within an open area. Most mazes drawn on paper are done by drawing the walls, with the spaces in between the markings composing the passages. Maze solving is the act of finding a route through the maze from the start to finish; some maze solving methods are designed to be used inside the maze by a traveler with no prior knowledge of the maze, whereas others are designed to be used by a person or computer program that can see the whole maze at once. The mathematician Leonhard Euler was one of the first to analyze plane mazes mathematically, in doing so made the first significant contributions to the branch of mathematics known as topology.
Mazes containing no loops are known as "standard", or "perfect" mazes, are equivalent to a tree in graph theory. Thus many maze solving algorithms are related to graph theory. Intuitively, if one pulled and stretched out the paths in the maze in the proper way, the result could be made to resemble a tree. Mazes are used in psychology experiments to study spatial navigation and learning; such experiments use rats or mice. Examples are: Barnes maze Morris water maze Oasis maze Radial arm maze Elevated plus maze T-maze Ball-in-a-maze puzzles Dexterity puzzles which involve navigating a ball through a maze or labyrinth. Block maze A maze in which the player must clear the maze pathway by positioning blocks. Blocks may be added. Hamilton maze A maze. Linear or railroad maze A maze in which the paths are laid out like a railroad with switches and crossovers. Solvers are constrained to moving only forward. A railroad maze will have a single track for entrance and exit. Logic mazes These are like standard mazes except they use rules other than "don't cross the lines" to restrict motion.
Loops and traps maze A maze. The doors can lead to the correct path or create traps that divert you from the correct path and lead you to the starting point; the player may not return through a door through which he has entered, so dead ends may be created. The path is a series of loops interrupted by doors. Through the use of reciprocal doors, the correct path can intersect the incorrect path on a single plane. A graphical variant of this maze type is an arrow maze. Mazes in higher dimensions It is possible for a maze to have three or more dimensions. A maze with bridges is three-dimensional, some natural cave systems are three-dimensional mazes; the computer game Descent uses three-dimensional mazes. Any maze can be mapped into a higher dimension without changing its topology. Number maze A maze in which numbers are used to determine jumps that form a pathway, allowing the maze to criss-cross itself many times. Picture maze A standard maze. Turf mazes and mizmazes A pattern like a long rope folded up, without any crossings.
Numerous mazes of different kinds have been drawn, published in books and periodicals, used in advertising, in software, sold as art. In the 1970s there occurred a publishing "maze craze" in which numerous books, some magazines, were commercially available in nationwide outlets and devoted to mazes of a complexity, able to challenge adults as well as children; some of the best-selling books in the 1970s and early 1980s included those produced by Vladimir Koziakin and Glory Brightfield, Dave Phillips, Larry Evans, Greg Bright. Koziakin's works were predominantly of the standard two-dimensional "trace a line between the walls" variety; the works of the Brightfields had a similar two-dimensional form but used a variety of graphics-oriented "path obscuring" techniques. Although the routing was comparable to or simpler than Koziakin's mazes, the Brightfields' mazes did not allow the various pathway options to be discerned by the roving eye