Landing Ship Medium
Landing Ship Medium were amphibious assault ships of the United States Navy in World War II. Of comparable size to Landing Ship and the Landing Craft, there were 558 LSM made for the USN between 1944 and 1945; the majority of vessels built on this versatile frame were regular transports however there were several dozen that were converted during construction for specialized roles. Most vessels of this type were scrapped during the Cold War, but several were sold by the United States Department of Defense to foreign nations or private shipping companies. One LSM, USS LSM-45 survived in its original configuration until around 2010, it was in storage at Marine Station Camp Lejeune in Jacksonville, NC. It was slated to become the centerpiece of the Museum of the Marine, but due to changed plans was scrapped between 2010 and 2014. USS LSM-188 USS LSM-189 USS LSM-190 USS LSM-191 USS LSM-192 USS LSM-193 USS LSM-194 USS LSM-195 USS LSM-196 USS LSM-197 USS LSM-198 USS LSM-199 USS Big Black River reclassified USS Big Horn River USS Blackstone River USS Black Warrior River reclassified USS Broadkill River reclassified USS Canadian River USS Chariton River USS Charles River USS Clarion River reclassified USS Clark Fork River USS Cumberland River USS Desplaines River reclassified USS Elk River reclassified USS Escalanteo River USS Flambeau River USS Gila River USS Grand River USS Green River USS Greenbrier River USS Gunnison River reclassified and renamed USS Targeteer USS Holston River USS James River USS John Day River USS Lamiolle River reclassified USS Laramie River reclassified USS Maurice River USS Owyhee River reclassified USS Pearl River USS Pee Dee River USS Pit River USS Powder River USS Raccoon River USS Rainy River USS Red River reclassified USS Republican River USS Saint Croix River USS St. Francis River reclassified USS St. Johns River USS St. Joseph's River USS St. Marys River USS St. Regis River USS Salmon Falls River USS Smoky Hill River reclassified USS Smyrna River USS Snake River USS Thames River USS Trinity River USS White River reclassified USS Gypsy, authorized as LSM-549 USS Mender, authorized as LSM-550 USS Salvager, authorized as LSM-551 reclassified to YMLC-3 USS Windlass, authorized as LSM-552 reclassified to YMLC-4 Landing Ship, Infantry Mark 8 Landing Craft Tank LSM-LSMR: WWII Amphibious Forces, Turner Publishing Co..
Combat information center
A combat information center or action information centre is a room in a warship or AWACS aircraft that functions as a tactical center and provides processed information for command and control of the near battlespace or area of operations. Within other military commands, rooms serving similar functions are known as command centers. Regardless of the vessel or command locus, each CIC organizes and processes information into a form more convenient and usable by the commander in authority; each CIC funnels communications and data received over multiple channels, organized, evaluated and arranged to provide ordered timely information flow to the battle command staff under the control of the CIC officer and his deputies. CICs are depicted in film and television treatments with large maps, numerous computer consoles and radar and sonar repeater displays or consoles, as well as the ubiquitous grease-pencil annotated polar plot on an edge-lighted transparent plotting board. At the time the CIC concept was born, the projected map-like polar display with the ship at the center was making its way into radar displays displacing the A-scope, a time-delayed blip showing a range on an oscilloscope Cathode ray tube.
Such polar plots are used in navigation and military action management to display time-stamped range and bearing information to the CIC decision makers. A single'mark' bears little actionable decision-making information by itself. A succession of such data tells much more, including whether the contact is closing or opening in range, an idea of its speed and direction, the relation to other contacts and their ranges and behaviors. Harvesting such data sets from the polar plots and computers allows the CIC crew to plot the data on a chart or map at the correct range and bearing, to calculate the course and speed of the contact giving the set a vast expansion to include future positions, given unchanged relative courses and relative speeds. A CIC in a naval context brings together and manages information on the warship's status and its surroundings, supplies this to the commanding officer, who would be present on the nearby bridge or where plots can be viewed and, if one is aboard, a flag officer who might have their own separate flag bridge and fleet CIC.
CICs or operations centers in other command contexts have the same function: information ordering and presentation to the decision makers whether it is to a prime minister, general, or local police chief. The types and controls over the collection of information, the communications systems may vary, but the task or mission of providing clarification of the situation and options to the commander remain the same whether the CIC is located on a submarine, surface ship, or airplane; some control and coordination functions may be delegated to the CIC staff or directly to the CIC officer, such as overseeing the mode and prioritization of sensor resources such as radar monitoring, targeting, or sonar activities. On US aircraft carriers this area is called the combat direction center; the United States developed their Command Information Center concept circa the winter of 1942–1943 and implemented it in a surge of refitting and retraining during 1943 after post-battle action analyses of battles in 1942 from the battle of the Coral Sea through the losses at Ironbottom Sound during the protracted Solomon Islands campaign.
In British usage this area may be known as an Aircraft Direction Room. The British Aircraft Direction Room evolved from the Fighter Direction Office, a primitive means of controlling an aircraft carrier's aircraft through radio and radar. In September, 1942, HMS Victorious underwent a refit that included installation of an aircraft direction room; the idea of such a centralised control room can be found in science fiction as early as The Struggle for Empire. Early versions were used in the Second World War. D. and influenced by the works of his friend and collaborator Robert Heinlein, a retired American naval officer. After the numerous losses during the various naval battles off Guadalcanal during the war of attrition, part and parcel of the Solomon Islands campaign and the Battle of Guadalcanal, the United States Navy employed operational analysis, determined many of their losses were due to procedure and disorganization, implemented the Combat Information Centers, building on what was called "radar plot" according to an essay CIC Yesterday and Today by the Naval Historical Center.
That same article points out that in 1942 radar, radar procedure, battle experiences and the operations room all grew up together as needs developed and experience was gained and training spread, all in fits and starts, beginning with the earliest radar uses in the Pacific battles starting with the Coral Sea, when radar gave rise to the first tentative attempt to vector an Air CAP to approaching Japanese flights, maturing some before the Battle of Midway, where post-battle analysis of Coral Sea's results had given more confidence in the ability and to the process and the desire was bolstered by new procedures giving their measure of added confidence. The Naval History & Heritage Command essay notes that growing the responsibility of the nascent CIC organizat
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II. Germany's military air arms during World War I, the Luftstreitkräfte of the Army and the Marine-Fliegerabteilung of the Navy, had been disbanded in May 1920 as a result of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles which stated that Germany was forbidden to have any air force. During the interwar period, German pilots were trained secretly in violation of the treaty at Lipetsk Air Base. With the rise of the Nazi Party and the repudiation of the Versailles Treaty, the Luftwaffe was established on 26 February 1935, just over a fortnight before open defiance of the Versailles Treaty through German re-armament and conscription would be announced on March 16; the Condor Legion, a Luftwaffe detachment sent to aid Nationalist forces in the Spanish Civil War, provided the force with a valuable testing ground for new tactics and aircraft. As a result of this combat experience, the Luftwaffe had become one of the most sophisticated, technologically advanced, battle-experienced air forces in the world when World War II broke out in 1939.
By the summer of 1939, the Luftwaffe had twenty-eight Geschwader. The Luftwaffe operated Fallschirmjäger paratrooper units; the Luftwaffe proved instrumental in the German victories across Poland and Western Europe in 1939 and 1940. During the Battle of Britain, despite inflicting severe damage to the RAF's infrastructure and, during the subsequent Blitz, devastating many British cities, the German air force failed to batter the beleaguered British into submission. From 1942, Allied bombing campaigns destroyed the Luftwaffe's fighter arm. From late 1942, the Luftwaffe used its surplus ground and other personnel to raise Luftwaffe Field Divisions. In addition to its service in the West, the Luftwaffe operated over the Soviet Union, North Africa and Southern Europe. Despite its belated use of advanced turbojet and rocket propelled aircraft for the destruction of Allied bombers, the Luftwaffe was overwhelmed by the Allies' superior numbers and improved tactics, a lack of trained pilots and aviation fuel.
In January 1945, during the closing stages of the Battle of the Bulge, the Luftwaffe made a last-ditch effort to win air superiority, met with failure. With dwindling supplies of petroleum and lubricants after this campaign, as part of the entire combined Wehrmacht military forces as a whole, the Luftwaffe ceased to be an effective fighting force. After the defeat of Germany, the Luftwaffe was disbanded in 1946. During World War II, German pilots claimed 70,000 aerial victories, while over 75,000 Luftwaffe aircraft were destroyed or damaged. Of these, nearly 40,000 were lost entirely; the Luftwaffe had only two commanders-in-chief throughout its history: Hermann Göring and Generalfeldmarschall Robert Ritter von Greim for the last two weeks of the war. The Luftwaffe was involved in Nazi war crimes. By the end of the war, a significant percentage of aircraft production originated in concentration camps, an industry employing tens of thousands of prisoners; the Luftwaffe's demand for labor was one of the factors that led to the deportation and murder of hundreds of thousands of Hungarian Jews in 1944.
The Luftwaffe High Command organized Nazi human experimentation, Luftwaffe ground troops committed massacres in Italy and Poland. The Imperial German Army Air Service was founded in 1910 with the name Die Fliegertruppen des deutschen Kaiserreiches, most shortened to Fliegertruppe, it was renamed Luftstreitkräfte on 8 October 1916. The air war on the Western Front received the most attention in the annals of the earliest accounts of military aviation, since it produced aces such as Manfred von Richthofen and Ernst Udet, Oswald Boelcke, Max Immelmann. After the defeat of Germany, the service was dissolved on 8 May 1920 under the conditions of the Treaty of Versailles, which mandated the destruction of all German military aircraft. Since the Treaty of Versailles forbade Germany to have an air force, German pilots trained in secret. Civil aviation schools within Germany were used, yet only light trainers could be used in order to maintain the façade that the trainees were going to fly with civil airlines such as Deutsche Luft Hansa.
To train its pilots on the latest combat aircraft, Germany solicited the help of the Soviet Union, isolated in Europe. A secret training airfield was established at Lipetsk in 1924 and operated for nine years using Dutch and Soviet, but some German, training aircraft before being closed in 1933; this base was known as 4th squadron of the 40th wing of the Red Army. Hundreds of Luftwaffe pilots and technical personnel visited and were trained at Soviet air force schools in several locations in Central Russia. Roessing, Fosse, Heini, Makratzki and many other future Luftwaffe aces were trained in Russia in joint Russian-German schools that were set up under the patronage of Ernst August Köstring; the first steps towards the Luftwaffe's formation were undertaken just months after Adolf Hitler came to power. Hermann Göring, a World War I ace, became National Kommissar for aviation with former Luft Hansa director Erhard Milch as his deputy. In April 1933 the Reich Aviation Ministry was established; the RLM was in charge of production of aircraft.
Göring's control over all aspects of aviation became absolute. On 25 March 1933 the German Air Sports Association absorbed all private and national organizations, while retaining its'sports' title. On 15 May 1933, all military aviation organizations in th
The Ohio class of nuclear-powered submarines is the sole class of ballistic missile submarines in service with the United States Navy. Fourteen of the eighteen boats are SSBNs, along with U. S. Air Force strategic bombers and intercontinental ballistic missiles, constitute the nuclear-deterrent triad of the U. S; the remaining four have been converted from their initial roles as SSBNs to cruise missile submarines. The Ohio-class boats, each displacing 18,750 tons submerged, are the third largest submarines in the world, behind the 48,000-ton Typhoon class and 24,000-ton Borei class of the Russian Navy; the Ohio class replaced the Benjamin Franklin- and Lafayette-class SSBNs. The lead submarine of this class is the USS Ohio; the 14 Trident II SSBNs together carry about half of U. S. active strategic thermonuclear warheads. Although the Trident missiles have no preset targets when the submarines go on patrol, they can be given targets from the United States Strategic Command based in Nebraska, using secure and constant radio communications links, including low frequency systems.
All the Ohio-class submarines, except for USS Henry M. Jackson, are named for U. S. states, which U. S. Navy tradition had reserved for battleships and cruisers; the Ohio-class boats are the largest submarines built for the U. S. Navy. Two Russian Navy classes have larger total displacements: the Soviet-designed Typhoon-class submarines have over twice the total displacement, Russia's Borei-class submarines have 25% greater displacement, but the Ohio-class boats carry more missiles than either: 24 Trident missiles apiece, versus 16 by the Borei class and 20 by the Typhoon class; the Ohio class submarine was designed for extended strategic deterrent patrols. Each submarine is assigned two complete crews, called the Blue crew and the Gold crew, each serving 70- to 90-day deterrent patrols. To decrease the time in port for crew turnover and replenishment, three large logistics hatches have been installed to provide large-diameter resupply and repair access; these hatches allow rapid transfer of supply pallets, equipment replacement modules, machinery components, speeding up replenishment and maintenance of the submarines.
Moreover, the "stealth" ability of the submarines was a quantum leap over all previous ballistic-missile subs. Ohio was undetectable in her sea trials in 1982, giving the U. S. Navy advanced flexibility; the class's design allows the boat to operate for about 15 years between major overhauls. These submarines are reported to be as quiet at their cruising speed of 20 knots or more than the previous Lafayette-class submarines at 6 knots, although exact information remains classified. Fire control for their Mark 48 torpedoes is carried out by Mark 118 Mod 2 system, while the Missile Fire Control system is a Mark 98; the Ohio-class submarines were constructed from sections of hull, with each four-deck section being 42 ft in diameter. The sections were produced at the General Dynamics Electric Boat facility, Quonset Point, Rhode Island, assembled at its shipyard at Groton, Connecticut; the US Navy has a total of 18 Ohio-class submarines which consist of 14 ballistic missile submarines, four cruise missile submarines.
The SSBN submarines are known as "Trident" submarines, provide the sea-based leg of the U. S. nuclear triad. Each SSBN submarine is armed with up to 24 Trident II submarine-launched ballistic missiles; each SSGN is capable of carrying 154 Tomahawk cruise missiles, plus a complement of Harpoon missiles to be fired through their torpedo tubes. As part of the New START treaty, four tubes on each SSBN will be deactivated, leaving each ship with only 20 available for warloads; the Ohio class was designed in the 1970s to carry the concurrently-designed Trident submarine-launched ballistic missile. The first eight Ohio-class submarines were armed at first with 24 Trident I C4 SLBMs. Beginning with the ninth Trident submarine, the remaining boats were equipped with the larger, three-stage Trident II D5 missile; the Trident I missile carries eight multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles, while the Trident II missile carries 12, in total delivering more destructive power than the Trident I missile and with greater accuracy.
Starting with Alaska in 2000, the Navy began converting its remaining ballistic missile submarines armed with C4 missiles to carry D5 missiles. This task was completed in mid-2008; the first eight submarines had their home ports at Bangor, Washington, to replace the submarines carrying Polaris A3 missiles that were being decommissioned. The remaining 10 submarines had their home ports at Kings Bay, replacing the Poseidon and Trident Backfit submarines of the Atlantic Fleet. In 1994, the Nuclear Posture Review study determined that, of the 18 Ohio SSBNs the U. S. Navy would be operating in total, 14 would be sufficient for the strategic needs of the U. S; the decision was made to convert four Ohio-class boats into SSGNs capable of conducting conventional land attack and special operations. As a result, the four oldest boats of the class—Ohio, Michigan and Georgia—progressively entered the conversion process in late 2002 and were returned to active service by 2008; the boats could thereafter carry 154 Tomahawk cruise missiles and 66 special operations personnel, among other capabilities and upgrades.
The cost to refit the four boats was around US$1 billion per vessel. During the conversion of the first four submarines to SSGNs, five of the submarines, Kentucky, Nebraska and Louisiana, were transferred from Kings Bay to Bangor. Further transfers occur as the strategic weap
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers. They were developed in the late 19th century by Fernando Villaamil for the Spanish Navy as a defense against torpedo boats, by the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, these "torpedo boat destroyers" were "large and powerfully armed torpedo boats designed to destroy other torpedo boats". Although the term "destroyer" had been used interchangeably with "TBD" and "torpedo boat destroyer" by navies since 1892, the term "torpedo boat destroyer" had been shortened to "destroyer" by nearly all navies by the First World War. Before World War II destroyers were light vessels with little endurance for unattended ocean operations. After the war, the advent of the guided missile allowed destroyers to take on the surface combatant roles filled by battleships and cruisers; this resulted in larger and more powerful guided missile destroyers more capable of independent operation.
At the start of the 21st century, destroyers are the global standard for surface combatant ships, with only two nations operating the heavier class cruisers, with no battleships or true battlecruisers remaining. Modern guided missile destroyers are equivalent in tonnage but vastly superior in firepower to cruisers of the World War II era, are capable of carrying nuclear tipped cruise missiles. At 510 feet long, a displacement of 9,200 tons, with armament of more than 90 missiles, guided missile destroyers such as the Arleigh Burke-class are larger and more armed than most previous ships classified as guided missile cruisers; some European navies, such as the French, Spanish, or German, use the term "frigate" for their destroyers, which leads to some confusion. The emergence and development of the destroyer was related to the invention of the self-propelled torpedo in the 1860s. A navy now had the potential to destroy a superior enemy battle fleet using steam launches to fire torpedoes. Cheap, fast boats armed with torpedoes called torpedo boats were built and became a threat to large capital ships near enemy coasts.
The first seagoing vessel designed to launch the self-propelled Whitehead torpedo was the 33-ton HMS Lightning in 1876. She was armed with two drop collars to launch these weapons, these were replaced in 1879 by a single torpedo tube in the bow. By the 1880s, the type had evolved into small ships of 50–100 tons, fast enough to evade enemy picket boats. At first, the threat of a torpedo boat attack to a battle fleet was considered to exist only when at anchor. In response to this new threat, more gunned picket boats called "catchers" were built which were used to escort the battle fleet at sea, they needed significant seaworthiness and endurance to operate with the battle fleet, as they became larger, they became designated "torpedo boat destroyers", by the First World War were known as "destroyers" in English. The anti-torpedo boat origin of this type of ship is retained in its name in other languages, including French, Portuguese, Greek, Dutch and, up until the Second World War, Polish. Once destroyers became more than just catchers guarding an anchorage, it was realized that they were ideal to take over the role of torpedo boats themselves, so they were fitted with torpedo tubes as well as guns.
At that time, into World War I, the only function of destroyers was to protect their own battle fleet from enemy torpedo attacks and to make such attacks on the battleships of the enemy. The task of escorting merchant convoys was still in the future. An important development came with the construction of HMS Swift in 1884 redesignated TB 81; this was a large torpedo boat with three torpedo tubes. At 23.75 knots, while still not fast enough to engage enemy torpedo boats reliably, the ship at least had the armament to deal with them. Another forerunner of the torpedo boat destroyer was the Japanese torpedo boat Kotaka, built in 1885. Designed to Japanese specifications and ordered from the Glasgow Yarrow shipyards in 1885, she was transported in parts to Japan, where she was assembled and launched in 1887; the 165-foot long vessel was armed with four 1-pounder quick-firing guns and six torpedo tubes, reached 19 knots, at 203 tons, was the largest torpedo boat built to date. In her trials in 1889, Kotaka demonstrated that she could exceed the role of coastal defense, was capable of accompanying larger warships on the high seas.
The Yarrow shipyards, builder of the parts for Kotaka, "considered Japan to have invented the destroyer". The first vessel designed for the explicit purpose of hunting and destroying torpedo boats was the torpedo gunboat. Small cruisers, torpedo gunboats were equipped with torpedo tubes and an adequate gun armament, intended for hunting down smaller enemy boats. By the end of the 1890s torpedo gunboats were made obsolete by their more successful contemporaries, the torpedo boat destroyers, which were much faster; the first example of this was HMS Rattlesnake, designed by Nathaniel Barnaby in 1885, commissioned in response to the Russian War scare. The gunboat was armed with torpedoes and designed for hunting and destroying
Bombing of Helsinki in World War II
The capital of Finland, Helsinki was bombed several times during World War II. Between 1939–1944 Finland was subjected to a number of bombing campaigns by the Soviet Union; the largest raids were three raids in February 1944, which have been called The Great Raids Against Helsinki. In the autumn of 1939, Helsinki was protected by the 1st Anti Aircraft Regiment consisting of four heavy anti-aircraft batteries of three to four guns each, one light AA battery and one AA machine gun company; the air defense of Helsinki was strengthened from spring 1943 onwards under the lead of Colonel Pekka Jokipaltio. During the Continuation War, Germany provided two early warning radars and four gun laying radars to Helsinki, further, 18 effective German heavy 88 mm AA guns were placed in Helsinki; the new six-gun batteries were grouped in Santahamina. By February 1944 Helsinki was protected by heavy AA-batteries. Air defenses included 77 heavy AA-guns, 41 light AA-guns, 36 search lights, 13 acoustic locators and 6 radars in addition to visual spotters and the Finnish Navy's anti-aircraft units.
Germany provided some night fighter support against the Soviet air raids. The air defense command system was based on the German system and was quite effective – key personnel had trained in Germany. Due to manpower shortages, the air defense used 16-year-old boy volunteers from Suojeluskunta to man the guns and young girls of the Lotta Svärd organization to man search lights; the Germans had based a night fighter unit, consisting of 12 modified Bf 109G-6 nightfighters in Helsinki on 12 February 1944 and the German night fighter direction vessel Togo cruised in the Gulf of Finland between Tallinn and Helsinki. Helsinki's air defenses prioritized stopping bombers from reaching the city over the destruction of air targets. In a special type of barrage, several batteries would fire a wall of flak in front of the approaching bombers in an attempt to scare them into dropping their payloads too early and breaking away. AA shells had been jury-rigged by drilling the fuze-hole larger and filling the extra space with magnesium mixed with aluminium, turning their explosion from a dull red to a searing white.
The bombing of Finland was conducted by the long-range bombing and reconnaissance group of the Soviet Air Force, the Aviatsiya Dalnego Deystviya. This group was directly subordinated to Stavka. During the February bombings of 1944 the ADD was reinforced with other units; the ADD commander was Marshal Aleksandr Golovanov. Bombing raids were sometimes done by the VVS and the BF; the Soviet bomber fleet was diverse. The majority of the aircraft were twin-engined Ilyushin-4, Lisunov Li-2, North American B-25 Mitchell and Douglas A-20 bombers; the B-25s and the A-20s had been supplied to the Soviet Union as Lend Lease material from the United States. The Lisunov Li-2 was a Soviet bomber version of the American Douglas DC-3. There were some heavy four-engined bombers participating in the bombings, e.g. the Petlyakov Pe-8. Before the war, Helsinki had quite an extensive civil defense system. By a city decree of 1934, bomb shelters were constructed in all high-rise building basements; these were basement rooms with reinforced walls in order to withstand nearby bomb impacts.
All buildings were required to have an appointed civil protection supervisor, not in the reserves or the armed forces, as such was unfit for military service. This person was tasked to see. There were a few larger shelters built into solid rock, but it was not possible to fit all the citizens of Helsinki into these; some hospitals were equipped with subterranean shelters where patients could be relocated during air raids. Others, such as the Children's hospital, were moved outside the city. One hospital was underground, below the Finnish Red Cross building. Three hours after Soviet forces had crossed the border and started the Winter War, Soviet planes bombed Helsinki; the most intensive bombing raids were during the first few days. Helsinki was bombed a total of eight times during the Winter War; some 350 bombs fell on the city, resulting in the deaths of 97 people and the wounding of 260. In all, 55 buildings were destroyed; the Soviet bombings led to harsh reactions abroad. U. S. President Roosevelt asked the Soviets not to bomb Finnish cities.
Molotov replied to Roosevelt: "Soviet aircraft have not been bombing cities, but airfields, you can't see that from 8,000 kilometers away in America." Helsinki fared somewhat better during the Continuation War since Soviet bombers focused on German forces in the Baltic states. Helsinki was bombed 39 times during the Continuation War. 245 people were killed and 646 wounded, the majority in the three big raids of 1944. During daytime Sunday, on 8 November 1942, a lone Petlyakov Pe-2 was on a reconnaissance mission over Helsinki; the plane dropped only a single aerial bomb at the intersection between the streets of Yrjönkatu and Roobertinkatu. 51 were killed and 120 injured. Close by was a movie theater, where the film The Three Musketeers was playing at the time; because of this, the victims were children and youth. In February 1944, the Soviet Union launched three massive bombing raids against Helsinki; the aim was to force the Finns to the peace table. The raids were conducted on the nights of 16-17 and 26 -- 27 February.
Joseph Stalin had obtained British and American support for this measure at the Tehran conference in 1943. In this manner, the USSR hoped to force Finland to break its ties with Germany and agree to a peace settlement. Finnish air defense forces counted 2,121 bombers in the three raids of Feb