The Appalachian Mountains called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed 480 million years ago during the Ordovician Period, they once reached elevations similar to those of the Alps and the Rocky Mountains before experiencing natural erosion. The Appalachian chain is a barrier to east–west travel, as it forms a series of alternating ridgelines and valleys oriented in opposition to most highways and railroads running east–west. Definitions vary on the precise boundaries of the Appalachians; the United States Geological Survey defines the Appalachian Highlands physiographic division as consisting of thirteen provinces: the Atlantic Coast Uplands, Eastern Newfoundland Atlantic, Maritime Acadian Highlands, Maritime Plain, Notre Dame and Mégantic Mountains, Western Newfoundland Mountains, Blue Ridge and Ridge, Saint Lawrence Valley, Appalachian Plateaus, New England province, the Adirondack areas. A common variant definition does not include the Adirondack Mountains, which geologically belong to the Grenville Orogeny and have a different geological history from the rest of the Appalachians.
The mountain range is in the United States but it extends into southeastern Canada, forming a zone from 100 to 300 mi wide, running from the island of Newfoundland 1,500 mi southwestward to Central Alabama in the United States. The range covers parts of the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, which comprise an overseas territory of France; the system is divided into a series of ranges, with the individual mountains averaging around 3,000 ft. The highest of the group is Mount Mitchell in North Carolina at 6,684 feet, the highest point in the United States east of the Mississippi River; the term Appalachian refers to several different regions associated with the mountain range. Most broadly, it refers to the entire mountain range with its surrounding hills and the dissected plateau region; the term is used more restrictively to refer to regions in the central and southern Appalachian Mountains including areas in the states of Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, as well as sometimes extending as far south as northern Alabama and western South Carolina, as far north as Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, parts of southern upstate New York.
The Ouachita Mountains in Arkansas and Oklahoma were part of the Appalachians as well but became disconnected through geologic history. While exploring inland along the northern coast of Florida in 1528, the members of the Narváez expedition, including Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, found a Native American village near present-day Tallahassee, Florida whose name they transcribed as Apalchen or Apalachen; the name was soon altered by the Spanish to Apalachee and used as a name for the tribe and region spreading well inland to the north. Pánfilo de Narváez's expedition first entered Apalachee territory on June 15, 1528, applied the name. Now spelled "Appalachian," it is the fourth-oldest surviving European place-name in the US. After the de Soto expedition in 1540, Spanish cartographers began to apply the name of the tribe to the mountains themselves; the first cartographic appearance of Apalchen is on Diego Gutierrez's map of 1562. The name was not used for the whole mountain range until the late 19th century.
A competing and more popular name was the "Allegheny Mountains", "Alleghenies", "Alleghania". In the early 19th century, Washington Irving proposed renaming the United States either Appalachia or Alleghania. In U. S. dialects in the southern regions of the Appalachians, the word is pronounced, with the third syllable sounding like "latch". In northern parts of the mountain range, it is pronounced or. There is great debate between the residents of the regions as to which pronunciation is the more correct one. Elsewhere, a accepted pronunciation for the adjective Appalachian is, with the last two syllables "-ian" pronounced as in the word "Romanian"; the whole system may be divided into three great sections: Northern: The northern section runs from the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador to the Hudson River. It includes the Long Range Mountains and Annieopsquotch Mountains on the island of Newfoundland, Chic-Choc Mountains and Notre Dame Range in Quebec and New Brunswick, scattered elevations and small ranges elsewhere in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, the Longfellow Mountains in Maine, the White Mountains in New Hampshire, the Green Mountains in Vermont, The Berkshires in Massachusetts and Connecticut.
The Metacomet Ridge Mountains in Connecticut and south-central Massachusetts, although contained within the Appalachian province, is a younger system and not geologically associated with the Appalachians. The Monteregian Hills, which cross the Green Mountains in Quebec, are unassociated with the Appalachians. Central: The central section goes from the Hudson Valley to the New River running through Virginia and West Virginia, it comprises the Valley Ridges between the Allegheny Front of the Allegheny Plateau and the Great Appalachian Valley, the New York–New Jersey Highlands, the Taconic Mountains in New York, a large portion of the Blue Ridge. Southern: The southern section runs from the New River onwards, it consists of the prolongation of the Blue Ridge, divided into the Western Blue Ridge Front and the Eastern Blue Ridge Front, the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, the Cumberland Plateau. The Adirondack Mountains in New Y
Alpha Sigma Alpha
Alpha Sigma Alpha is a United States National Panhellenic sorority founded on November 15, 1901 at the Virginia State Female Normal School in Farmville, Virginia. Once a sorority for teacher's/educational colleges, Alpha Sigma Alpha became a full member of the National Panhellenic Conference in 1951, and, as a social sorority, now admits members without limits based on major. There are over 175 chapters of Alpha Sigma Alpha nationwide with more than 120,000 members, it is partnered with philanthropic organizations Special Olympics and Girls on the Run. In the fall of 1901, at Longwood University, five friends, Virginia Lee Boyd-Noell, Juliette Jefferson Hundley-Gilliam, Calva Hamlet Watson-Wootton, Louise Burks Cox-Carper, Mary Williamson-Hundley decided to rush the local women's fraternities on campus. However, rather than accepting bids that would separate the group, they decided to form their own sorority. On November 15, 1901, Alpha Sigma Alpha was chartered; the charter stated "The purpose of the association shall be to cultivate friendship among its members, in every way to create pure and elevating sentiments, to perform such deeds and to mold such opinions as will tend to elevate and ennoble womanhood in the world."In the year after the charter was signed the founders announced the Sorority's first hymn, "Blest Be the Tie that Binds", first open motto, "to one another faithful".
The first colors were crimson and silver, the flower was the white carnation, the jewel was the emerald. The first membership badge of the Sorority was a shield topped with a jewel set crown, with the Greek letters ΑΣΑ inscribed in gold on a black background. On February 13, 1903, Alpha Sigma Alpha was chartered in the Circuit Court of Prince Edward County, VA, by Judge George Jefferson Hundley, the father of one of the founding members; this chartering began the organization's legal existence, the first of many steps toward expanding the sorority and making Alpha Sigma Alpha a national sorority. Alpha Sigma Alpha expanded installing 13 chapters in its first decade, began having issues due to the anti-sorority sentiment of the time, causing one of the chapters to be disbanded only months after its instatement. Despite the anti-sorority attitude, Alpha Sigma Alpha's first six chapters held its first National Convention at the Hotel Richmond in Richmond, VA over the 1905 Thanksgiving weekend.
During the convention, the first National Council was elected and the sorority created its magazine, to be published three times a year. This first publication was first printed in 1906. In 1908, the magazine's name was changed to the Aegis of Alpha Sigma Alpha. In 1911, Alpha Sigma Alpha became a professional sorority within the field of education. Soon after, Alpha Sigma Alpha's chapters began to struggle with function. Alpha Sigma Alpha first contacted Ida Shaw Martin – founder and former national president of Delta Delta Delta and author of the Sorority Handbook – for assistance in 1912. By that year, only four of the 13 chapters established since the sorority's founding were left, by the next, only one active chapter existed, the original Alpha chapter. Shaw Martin suggested ASA contact a local sorority at Miami, installed as an ASA chapter. Shaw Martin's assistance led to her induction as an honorary member and the sorority's expansion at teacher's colleges; the sorority would absorb many more local chapters over the next few years.
As the sorority began to stabilize, it held a convention to reorganize itself over Thanksgiving in 1914. At this convention, the sorority adopted a constitution and modified its symbols and ritual. Here, Shaw Martin was elected national president, the sorority renamed its magazine to its current name, The Phoenix, which became a weekly publication edited by Shaw Martin, it functioned "as the central medium linking the various parts of the Sorority... it consisted of instructions and discussions of Sorority rulings and policy, chapter newsletters and excerpts from articles on morals and ethics for fraternal organizations."In 1915 the sorority founded the Association of Education Sororities with Sigma Sigma Sigma to develop common standards for the formation and expansion of educational sororities. Although Shaw Martin petitioned the National Panhellenic Conference in 1920, this request was rejected on the basis that women could not hold dual membership in two NPC organizations. In 1947, the six sororities of the AES voted to dissolve it and petitioned to join the NPC.
On November 27, 1951, Alpha Sigma Alpha was welcomed as a full member of the NPC. From that point on, Alpha Sigma Alpha could establish a chapter at any university recognized by the NPC, no longer limited to those specific to the education profession. Since Alpha Sigma Alpha has partnered with various nonprofits in the name of philanthropy, its philanthropic efforts began in 1958 when it established scholarships for intellectually disabled students and those in special needs education. In 1976, the sorority's national headquarters announced a partnership with the Special Olympics. Since it has taken several other projects under its wing; the sorority added the S. June Smith Center, a day care center for intellectually disabled students, as a philanthropic partner in 1990. In 1998, the sorority moved its national headquarters to Indianapolis and opened a new building a decade in September 2008, it adopted an official mascot that year, a ladybug named Dot. Continuing its involvement with the Specia
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua
Women's colleges in the United States
Women's colleges in the United States are single-sex U. S. institutions of higher education that only admit female students. They are liberal arts colleges. There were 34 active women's colleges in the United States in the fall of 2018, down from a peak of 281 such colleges in the 1960s. See also: Timeline of black women's colleges Education for girls and women was provided within the family, by locals dame schools and public elementary schools, at female seminaries found in every colony, but limited to young ladies from families with the means to pay tuition and, still more limited by the focus on providing ladylike accomplishments rather than academic training; these seminaries or academies were small and ephemeral established founded by a single woman or small group of women, they failed to outlive their founders. In evaluating the many claims of various colleges to have been the "first" women's college, it is necessary to understand that a number of these 18th- or early 19th-century female seminaries grew into academic, degree-granting colleges, while others became notable private high schools.
However, to have been a female seminary at an early date is not the same thing as to have been a women's college at that date. Wesleyan College, chartered in 1836 as a full college for women that could grant degrees equivalent to those men were receiving at the time, was the first true "women's college" in the United States. Institutions of higher education for women, were founded during the early 19th century, many as teaching seminaries; as noted by the Women's College Coalition: The formal education of girls and women began in the middle of the 19th century and was intimately tied to the conception that society had of the appropriate role for women to assume in life. Republican education prepared girls for their future role as wives and mothers and taught religion, dancing, etcetera. Academic education prepared girls for their role as community leaders and social benefactors and had some elements of the education offered boys. Seminaries educated women for the only acceptable occupation: teaching.
Only unmarried women could be teachers. Many early women's colleges began as female seminaries and were responsible for producing an important corps of educators. Irene Harwarth, Mindi Maline, Elizabeth DeBra further note that, "women's colleges were founded during the mid- and late-19th century in response to a need for advanced education for women at a time when they were not admitted to most institutions of higher education." Early proponents of education for women were Sarah Pierce. Lyon was involved in the development of both Hartford Female Ipswich Female Seminary, she was involved in the creation of Wheaton Female Seminary in 1834. In 1837, Lyon founded Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, it was chartered as a college in 1888. Harwarth, DeBra note that, "Mount Holyoke's significance is that it became a model for a multitude of other women's colleges throughout the country.". Both Vassar College and Wellesley College were patterned after Mount Holyoke. Wesleyan College in Macon, Georgia was the first college chartered for women, receiving its charter in 1836.
Vassar College was the first of the Seven Sisters to be chartered as a college in 1861. In 1840, the first Catholic women's college Saint Mary-of-the-Woods College was founded by Saint Mother Theodore Guerin of the Sisters of Providence in Indiana as an academy becoming the college; the college became co-educational in 2015. Some early women's colleges, such as Oread Institute chartered as a college for women in Worcester, Massachusetts 1849, the Baltimore Female College founded 1849 at St. Paul Street and East Saratoga Street in downtown Baltimore relocating to Park Avenue/Park Place and Wilson Street in the Bolton Hill neighborhood under its longtime president Dr. Nathan C. Brooks, a noted classics scholar, however failed to survive. Another early women's school was the Moravian College, founded as a female seminary in 1742 in Germantown and moved to Bethlehem, Pennsylvania it was called the Bethlehem Female Seminary, it began to grant undergraduate degrees in 1863 and became the Moravian Seminary and College for Women in 1913.
In 1954, it combined with the boys school, Moravian College and Theological Seminary and became coeducational. The Moravians of Salem, North Carolina began. While there were a few coeducational colleges all colleges and universities at that time were for men; the first accepted coordinate college, H. Sophie Newcomb Memorial College, was founded in 1886, followed a year by Evelyn College for Women, the coordinate college for Princeton University; the model was duplicated at other prestigious universities. Notable 19th-century coordinate colleges included Barnard and Radcliffe College. Twentieth-century examples include William Smith College and Kirkland College associated with Hamilton College. While the majority of women's colleges are private institutio
The Allegheny Mountain Range, informally the Alleghenies and spelled Alleghany and Allegany, is part of the vast Appalachian Mountain Range of the Eastern United States and Canada and posed a significant barrier to land travel in less technologically advanced eras. The barrier range has a northeast–southwest orientation and runs for about 400 miles from north-central Pennsylvania, through western Maryland and eastern West Virginia, to southwestern Virginia; the Alleghenies comprise the rugged western-central portion of the Appalachians. They rise to 4,862 feet in northeastern West Virginia. In the east, they are dominated by a steep escarpment known as the Allegheny Front. In the west, they slope down into the associated Allegheny Plateau, which extends into Ohio and Kentucky; the principal settlements of the Alleghenies are Altoona, State College, Johnstown, Pennsylvania. The name is derived from the Allegheny River, which drains only a small portion of the Alleghenies in west-central Pennsylvania.
The meaning of the word, which comes from the Lenape Indians, is not definitively known but is translated as "fine river". A Lenape legend tells of an ancient tribe called the "Allegewi" who lived on the river and were defeated by the Lenape. Allegheny is the early French spelling, Allegany is closer to the early English spelling; the word "Allegheny" was once used to refer to the whole of what are now called the Appalachian Mountains. John Norton used it around 1810 to refer to the mountains in Georgia. Around the same time, Washington Irving proposed renaming the United States either "Appalachia" or "Alleghania". In 1861, Arnold Henry Guyot published the first systematic geologic study of the whole mountain range, his map labeled the range as the "Alleghanies", but his book was titled On the Appalachian Mountain System. As late as 1867, John Muir—in his book A Thousand Mile Walk to the Gulf—used the word "Alleghanies" in referring to the southern Appalachians. There was no general agreement about the "Appalachians" versus the "Alleghanies" until the late 19th century.
From northeast to southwest, the Allegheny Mountains run about 400 miles. From west to east, at their widest, they are about 100 miles. Although there are no official boundaries to the Allegheny Mountains region, it may be defined to the east by the Allegheny Front. To the west, the Alleghenies grade down into the dissected Allegheny Plateau; the westernmost ridges are considered to be the Laurel Highlands and Chestnut Ridge in Pennsylvania, Laurel Mountain and Rich Mountain in West Virginia. The mountains to the south of the Alleghenies—the Appalachians in westernmost Virginia, eastern Kentucky, eastern Tennessee—are the Cumberlands; the Alleghenies and the Cumberlands both constitute part of the Ridge and Valley Province of the Appalachians. The eastern edge of the Alleghenies is marked by the Allegheny Front, sometimes considered the eastern terminus of the Allegheny Plateau; this great escarpment follows a portion of the Eastern Continental Divide in this area. A number of impressive gorges and valleys drain the Alleghenies: to the east, Smoke Hole Canyon, to the west the New River Gorge and the Blackwater and Cheat Canyons.
Thus, about half the precipitation falling on the Alleghenies makes its way west to the Mississippi and half goes east to Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic seaboard. The highest ridges of the Alleghenies are just west of the Front, which has an east/west elevational change of up to 3,000 feet. Absolute elevations of the Allegheny Highlands reach nearly 5,000 feet, with the highest elevations in the southern part of the range; the highest point in the Allegheny Mountains is Spruce Knob, on Spruce Mountain in West Virginia. Other notable Allegheny highpoints include Thorny Flat on Cheat Mountain, Bald Knob on Back Allegheny Mountain, Mount Porte Crayon, all in West Virginia. There are few sizable cities in the Alleghenies; the four largest are: Altoona, State College and Cumberland. In the 1970s and'80s, the Interstate Highway System was extended into the northern portion of the Alleghenies, the region is now served by a network of federal expressways—Interstates 80, 70/76 and 68. Interstate 64 traverses the southern extremity of the range, but the Central Alleghenies have posed special problems for highway planners owing to the region's rugged terrain and environmental sensitivities This region is still served by a rather sparse secondary highway system and remains lower in population density than surrounding regions.
In the telecommunications field, a unique impediment to development in the central Allegheny region is the United States National Radio Quiet Zone, a large rectangle of land—about 13,000 square miles —that straddles the border area of Virginia and West Virginia. Created in 1958 by the Federal Communications Commission, the NRQZ restricts all omni
Sigma Sigma Sigma
Sigma Sigma Sigma known as Tri Sigma, is a national American women's sorority. Sigma Sigma Sigma is a member of the National Panhellenic Conference, an umbrella organization encompassing 26 national sororities or women's fraternities, which focus on service, scholarship programming and social activities. Once a sorority for teacher's/educational colleges, Tri Sigma became a full member in 1951 and, as a social sorority, now admits members without limits based on major; the sorority counts a membership of more than 125,000 women, hosts chapters on more than 112 college campuses, maintains over 90 alumnae chapters. The sorority's own headquarters are located in Virginia; the State Female Normal School in Farmville, Virginia was the state's first institution to open its doors to teacher education. Eight students, Margaret Batten, Louise Davis, Martha Trent Featherston, Isabella Merrick, Sallie Michie, Lelia Scott, Elizabeth Watkins, Lucy Wright started the sorority in 1898. Scott and Wright led the first meetings of their secret society, the S.
S. S. Club, in 1897. On April 20, 1898, these women announced the founding of the Greek letter society known as Sigma Sigma Sigma. At the same time, Lucy Wright's roommate, Julia Tyler, worked to form Kappa Delta sorority. In the fall of 1898, Zeta Tau Alpha was founded, followed by the founding of Alpha Sigma Alpha in 1901; these four sororities were all founded at the State Female Normal School and were henceforth referred to as the Farmville Four. In its first decade, Tri Sigma recognized the need for both legal recognition as a social body and a written record of organization. Therefore, they filed documents with the Commonwealth of Virginia and received their Charter of Incorporation on February 12, 1903. Tri Sigma's first constitution was adopted by its first chapter, the Alpha Chapter, in April 1903. In the first decade since the sorority's inception, the founders took steps to lay the groundwork of the sorority's foundation, including joining the Association of Education Sororities. In 1915, Tri Sigma absorbed the two remaining chapters of Sigma Delta Chi sorority.
Additional collegiate chapters were established and all members met at a convention. As the sorority grew, the national nature of Tri Sigma solidified with the standardization of a ceremony for new members and the creation of a program to celebrate the day that Sigma Sigma Sigma was founded, Founder's Day. James Miller Leake, a member of Kappa Sigma Fraternity, was the only man permitted to wear the badge of the sorority and is counted as a member of Tri Sigma due to his help with drafting the constitution and writing the initiation ritual. Though Leake is the only man counted as a member, other men have names recorded with credit for assisting in its founding; these include three men from Kappa Sigma at Hampden Sydney College: H. W. Cole, who assisted with the constitution, Garret G. Gooch and Alex J. Boyer and Robert Miller. Marvin Smithey offered legal services to secure the first charter. In 1951, Sigma Sigma Sigma became a full member of the National Panhellenic Conference and has so far chaired the NPC once, with Mary K. Barbee serving as Chairman from 1981–1983.
The NPC rotates chairs every two years between its member organizations in the chronological order of each group's join date. Each initiated member receives the latest edition of Tri Sigma's story, The Years Remembered of Sigma Sigma Sigma, The Path from Farmville, which chronicles the beginnings of each collegiate chapter as well as the evolution of the national organization. Members receive a lifetime subscription to their national magazine, The Triangle of Sigma Sigma Sigma, published three times a year; the sorority now counts more than 125,000 women as members. The official colors are white; the pearl was designated as the official jewel in 1909. The official flower is the purple violet; the coat-of-arms came into use in 1902, designed by Harriet Henkins of the sorority's Alpha chapter. All the symbols on the shield may be used for jewelry, recognition pins and formal clothing. From the upper left to lower right is the "bar" or "band" displaying three Greek sigmas. Above the band in the right third are spreading wings joined by a centered circle, above these is an equilateral triangle on, engraved a single Sigma.
Below the wings are clasped hands and in the lower left third is a flaming urn. On the banner below the shield are the words in Greek of the sorority's open motto, "Faithful Unto Death". Adopted in 1903, the badge of the sorority is an equilateral gold triangle bordered with pearls, with a small semi circular indentation on each side. On the gold triangle is a raised black enamel triangle bearing a gold sigma in each corner. In the center of the badge is another symbol of the sorority, a skull and crossbones; the Sigma Sigma Sigma Foundation is a non-profit corporation formed in 1992. It distributes funds for charitable and miscellaneous purposes, including programs that support: enhancing the leadership skills of modern-day women, providing grants and scholarships to students, supporting play therapy programs for hospitalized children; the organization centers its latter philanthropic efforts around the theme “Sigma Serves Children,” through the Robbie Page Memorial. On September 15, 1951, Robbie Page, the son of Tri Sigma's National President, died of bulbar polio, a disease which at that time had no cure or vaccine.
The sorority adopted this fund as its official philanthropy in 1954. In its early years
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S