SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Radio

Radio is the technology of signaling and communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 300 gigahertz, they are generated by an electronic device called a transmitter connected to an antenna which radiates the waves, received by a radio receiver connected to another antenna. Radio is widely used in modern technology, in radio communication, radio navigation, remote control, remote sensing and other applications. In radio communication, used in radio and television broadcasting, cell phones, two-way radios, wireless networking and satellite communication among numerous other uses, radio waves are used to carry information across space from a transmitter to a receiver, by modulating the radio signal in the transmitter. In radar, used to locate and track objects like aircraft, ships and missiles, a beam of radio waves emitted by a radar transmitter reflects off the target object, the reflected waves reveal the object's location. In radio navigation systems such as GPS and VOR, a mobile receiver receives radio signals from navigational radio beacons whose position is known, by measuring the arrival time of the radio waves the receiver can calculate its position on Earth.

In wireless radio remote control devices like drones, garage door openers, keyless entry systems, radio signals transmitted from a controller device control the actions of a remote device. Applications of radio waves which do not involve transmitting the waves significant distances, such as RF heating used in industrial processes and microwave ovens, medical uses such as diathermy and MRI machines, are not called radio; the noun radio is used to mean a broadcast radio receiver. Radio waves were first identified and studied by German physicist Heinrich Hertz in 1886; the first practical radio transmitters and receivers were developed around 1895-6 by Italian Guglielmo Marconi, radio began to be used commercially around 1900. To prevent interference between users, the emission of radio waves is regulated by law, coordinated by an international body called the International Telecommunications Union, which allocates frequency bands in the radio spectrum for different uses. Radio waves are radiated by electric charges undergoing acceleration.

They are generated artificially by time varying electric currents, consisting of electrons flowing back and forth in a metal conductor called an antenna, thus accelerating. In transmission, a transmitter generates an alternating current of radio frequency, applied to an antenna; the antenna radiates the power in the current as radio waves. When the waves strike the antenna of a radio receiver, they push the electrons in the metal back and forth, inducing a tiny alternating current; the radio receiver connected to the receiving antenna detects this oscillating current and amplifies it. As they travel farther from the transmitting antenna, radio waves spread out so their signal strength decreases, so radio transmissions can only be received within a limited range of the transmitter, the distance depending on the transmitter power, antenna radiation pattern, receiver sensitivity, noise level, presence of obstructions between transmitter and receiver. An omnidirectional antenna transmits or receives radio waves in all directions, while a directional antenna or high gain antenna transmits radio waves in a beam in a particular direction, or receives waves from only one direction.

Radio waves travel through a vacuum at the speed of light, in air at close to the speed of light, so the wavelength of a radio wave, the distance in meters between adjacent crests of the wave, is inversely proportional to its frequency. The other types of electromagnetic waves besides radio waves; the wide use of radio waves for telecommunication is due to their desirable propagation properties stemming from their large wavelength. Radio waves have the ability to pass through the atmosphere and most building materials, by diffraction can bend around obstructions, unlike other electromagnetic waves they tend to be scattered rather than absorbed by objects larger than their wavelength. In radio communication systems, information is carried across space using radio waves. At the sending end, the information to be sent is converted by some type of transducer to a time-varying electrical signal called the modulation signal; the modulation signal may be an audio signal representing sound from a microphone, a video signal representing moving images from a video camera, or a digital signal consisting of a sequence of bits representing binary data from a computer.

The modulation signal is applied to a radio transmitter. In the transmitter, an electronic oscillator generates an alternating current oscillating at a radio frequency, called the carrier wave because it serves to "carry" the information through the air; the information signal is used to modulate the carrier, varying some aspect of the carrier wave, impressing the information on the carrier. Different radio systems use different modulation methods: AM – in an AM transmitter, the amplitude of the radio carrier wave is varied by the modulation signal. FM – in an FM transmitter, the frequency of the radio carrier wave is varied by the modulation signal. FSK – used in wireless digital devices to transmit digital signals, the frequency of the carrier wave is shifted periodically between two frequencies that represent the two binary digits

Urhunden Prizes

Urhunden Prizes have been given out each year by the Svenska Seriefrämjandet since 1987. There are three categories, Best Swedish Album of the Year, Best Foreign Album of the Year, the "Unghunden" for best children's comics; the award is named after the comic strip "Urhunden" by "O. A.". 1987: Alger by Gunnar Krantz 1988: Gas by Joakim Pirinen 1989: Ensamma Mamman by Cecilia Torudd 1990: Arne Anka by Charlie Christensen 1991: Medan Kaffet Kallnar by Ulf Lundkvist 1992: Arne Anka Del II by Charlie Christensen 1993: Uti vår hage 3 by Krister Petersson 1994: Arne Anka Del III by Charlie Christensen 1995: Vakuumneger by Max Andersson 1996: Garagedrömmar by Mats Kjellblad 1997: Baron Bosse Story by Ulf Lundkvist 1998: Hjärteblod by Anders Westerberg 1999: Allt för Konsten 2000: Rocky by Martin Kellerman 2001: För Fin för Denna Världen by Daniel Ahlgren 2002: Fröken Märkvärdig och Karriären by Joanna Rubin Dranger 2003: Sjunde Våningen by Åsa Grennvall 2004: Klas Katt Går till Sjöss by Gunnar Lundkvist 2005: Amatörernas Afton by Anneli Furmark 2006: Pojken i skogen by Mats Jonsson 2007: Jag är din flickvän nu by Nina Hemmingsson 1987: Operation Istanbul by Vittorio Giardino 1988: Maus by Art Spiegelman 1989: Den Skrattande Solen by Gilbert Hernandez 1990: Blues i Brallan by Baru 1991: Sirenens Sång by François Bourgeon 1992: Watchmen by Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons 1993: Maus II by Art Spiegelman 1994: Ernie 1 by Bud Grace 1995: 1945 by Niels Roland, Morten Hesseldahl and Henrik Rehr 1996: Serier: Den Osynliga Konsten by Scott McCloud 1997: Den Stora Kokapplöpningen by Jeff Smith 1998: Karu Cell by Kati Kovács 1999: Ed the Happy Clown by Chester Brown 2000: Pappas Flicka by Debbie Drechsler 2001: Vänta Lite... by Jason 2002: Holmenkollen by Matti Hagelberg 2003: Ghost World by Daniel Clowes 2004: Allt för konsten 4 2005: Persepolis Book 1 by Marjane Satrapi 2006: V for Vendetta by Alan Moore and David Lloyd 2007: Broderier by Marjane Satrapi 1994: Rune Andréasson 1995: Peter Madsen, Henning Kure, Per Vadmand and Hans Rancke-Madsen 1996: Måns Gahrton and Johan Unenge 1997: Magnus Knutsson 1998: Don Rosa 1999: Bryan Talbot 2000: Bokfabriken 2001: Carlsen Comics 2002: Mats Källblad 2003: Kamratposten 2004: Bamse-redaktionen 2005: Johan Andreasson 2006: Helena Magnusson 2007: Ulf Granberg 2009: Jan Lööf Adamson Award Winners' List on the official website of the prizes

Clayton Hall tram stop

Clayton Hall in the Clayton area of Manchester, England, is a tram stop on the East Manchester Line of Transport for Greater Manchester's light-rail Metrolink system. The station opened on 11 February 2013, after a three-day free trial for local residents; the station was constructed as part of Phase 3a of the Metrolink's expansion. Services are every 12 minutes on all routes. Clayton Hall is served by buses stopping nearby on Ashton New Road. Stagecoach Manchester services 216 and 231 both run between Manchester and Ashton with the 216 replicating the tram route to Droylsden before continuing via Audenshaw, while the 231 runs via Littlemoss and Smallshaw; the 231 is operated by First Greater Manchester during the evening. Stagecoach's 171 service runs between Newton Heath and East Didsbury via Openshaw and Levenshulme, while M Travel's 188 service runs via Openshaw and Gorton on its route between Manchester and Ryder Brow. Clayton Hall Stop Information Clayton Hall area map Light Rail Transit Association