A radio-controlled model is a model, steerable with the use of radio control. All types of model vehicles have had RC systems installed in them, including cars, boats and helicopters and scale railway locomotives. Radio control has been around since Nikola Tesla demonstrated a remote control boat in 1898. World War II saw increased development in radio control technology; the Luftwaffe used controllable winged bombs for targeting Allied ships. During the 1930s the Good brothers Bill and Walt pioneered vacuum tube based control units for R/C hobby use, their "Guff" radio controlled. Ed Lorenze published a design in Model Airplane News, built by many hobbyists. After WW2, in the late 1940s to mid 1950 many other R/C designs emerged and some were sold commercially, Berkeley's Super Aerotrol, was one such example. Simple'on-off' systems, these evolved to use complex systems of relays to control a rubber powered escapement's speed and direction. In another more sophisticated version developed by the Good brothers called TTPW, information was encoded by varying the signal's mark/space ratio.
Commercial versions of these systems became available. The tuned reed system brought new sophistication, using metal reeds to resonate with the transmitted signal and operate one of a number of different relays. In the 1960s the availability of transistor-based equipment led to the rapid development of proportional servo-based "digital proportional" systems, achieved with discrete components, again driven by amateurs but resulting in commercial products. In the 1970s, integrated circuits made the electronics small and cheap enough for the 1960s-established multi-channel digital proportional systems to become much more available. In the 1990s miniaturised equipment became available, allowing radio control of the smallest models, by the 2000s radio control was commonplace for the control of inexpensive toys. At the same time the ingenuity of modellers has been sustained and the achievements of amateur modelers using new technologies has extended to such applications as gas-turbine powered aircraft, aerobatic helicopters and submarines.
Before radio control, many models would use simple burning fuses or clockwork mechanisms to control flight or sailing times. Sometimes clockwork controllers would control and vary direction or behaviour. Other methods included tethering to a central point, round the pole control for electric model aircraft and control lines for internal combustion powered aircraft; the first general use of radio control systems in models started in the late 1940s with single-channel self-built equipment. Remote control systems used escapement, mechanical actuation in the model. Commercial sets used ground standing transmitters, long whip antennas with separate ground poles and single vacuum tube receivers; the first kits had dual tubes for more selectivity. Such early systems were invariably super regenerative circuits, which meant that two controllers used in close proximity would interfere with one another; the requirement for heavy batteries to drive tubes meant that model boat systems were more successful than model aircraft.
The advent of transistors reduced the battery requirements, since the current requirements at low voltage were reduced and the high voltage battery was eliminated. Low cost systems employed a superregenerative transistor receiver sensitive to a specific audio tone modulation, the latter reducing interference from 27 MHz Citizens' band radio communications on nearby frequencies. Use of an output transistor further increased reliability by eliminating the sensitive output relay, a device subject to both motor-induced vibration and stray dust contamination. In both tube and early transistor sets the model's control surfaces were operated by an electromagnetic escapement controlling the stored energy in a rubber-band loop, allowing simple rudder control and sometimes other functions such as motor speed, kick-up elevator. In the late 1950s, RC hobbyists had mastered tricks to manage proportional control of the flight control surfaces, for example by switching on and off reed systems, a technique called "skillful blipping" or more humorously "nervous proportional".
By the early 1960s transistors had replaced the tube and electric motors driving control surfaces were more common. The first low cost "proportional" systems did not use servos, but rather employed a bidirectional motor with a proportional pulse train that consisted of two tones, pulse width modulated; this system, another known as "Kicking Duck/Galloping Ghost", was driven with a pulse train that caused the rudder and elevator to "wag" though a small angle, with the average position determined by the proportions of the pulse train. A more sophisticated and unique proportional system was developed by Hershel Toomin of Electrosolids corporation called the Space Control; this benchmark system used two tones, pulse width and rate modulated to drive 4 proportional servos, was manufactured and refined by Zel Ritchie, who gave the technology to the Dunhams of Orbit in 1964. The system was imitated, others tried their hand at developing what was known as analog proportional, but these early analog proportional radios were expensive, putting them out of the reach for most modelers.
Single-channel gave way to multi channel devices (at signific
The Kingdom of Tahiti was a monarchy founded by paramount chief Pōmare I, with the aid of English missionaries and traders, European weaponry, unified the islands of Tahiti, Moʻorea, Mehetia and at its peak included the Tuamotus, Tubuai and other islands of eastern Polynesia. Its leaders were Christian following the baptism of Pomare II, its progressive rise and recognition by Europeans allowed Tahiti to remain free from a planned Spanish colonization as well as English and earlier French claims to the islands. The Kingdom was one of a number of independent Polynesian states in Oceania, alongside Raiatea, Bora Bora, Samoa, Tonga and Niue in the 19th century; the Kingdom is known for bringing a period of peace and cultural and economic prosperity to the islands over the reign of the five Tahitian monarchs. Tahiti and its dependencies were made a French protectorate in 1842 and annexed as a colony of France in 1880; the monarchy was abolished by France shortly thereafter. Pōmare I was born at Pare, ca.
1743. He was the second son of Teu Tunuieaiteatua by Tetupaia-i-Hauiri, he reigned under the regency of his father. He succeeded on the death of his father as Ariʻi-rahi of Porionuʻu 23 November 1802. In terms of European encroachment in the period encompassing the period of Pomare I. "The attempt at colonization by the Spaniards in 1774 was followed by the settlement of thirty persons brought in 1797 by the missionary ship Duff. Though befriended by Pomare I, they had many difficulties from the constant wars, at length they fled with Pomare II to Eimeo and to New South Wales, they returned in 1812 when Pomare renounced heathenism."Pomare was the Tahitian chieftain most friendly to the British. The additional British captains arriving at Tahiti accepted his claim to hegemony, they helped him in his battles. Captain Cook gave him the advantage in a number of battles with rival forces during his last stay in Tahiti, circa 1779. British missionaries arrived, sent by a non-denominational Protestant group called the London Missionary Society.
Pomare befriended the missionaries, the missionaries favored both peace and Pomare, with the British unwilling to apply force to create order among the islands, the missionaries were unable to stop the warring. As king, Pōmare I succeeded in uniting the different chiefdoms of Tahiti into a single kingdom, composed of the islands of Tahiti itself, Moʻorea, Mehetiʻa, the Tetiʻaroa group, his service as the first king of unified Tahiti ended when he abdicated in 1791, but he remained the regent of Tahiti from 1791 until 1803. He had two sons and three daughters. By now, islanders were passing to each other diseases that had arrived with the Europeans: diseases for which they had undeveloped immunities. Many islanders were dying. In 1803, Pomare died, his son, became head of the family, with the title Pomare II. Tū Tūnuiʻēʻaiteatua Pōmare II reigned 1803–1821; the missionaries remained. Despite their pacifism, they wanted to see Pomare II successful in uniting the islanders under his rule. Pōmare II, King of Tahiti was the second king of Tahiti between 1782 and 1821.
He was installed by his father Pōmare I at Tarahoi, 13 February 1791. He ruled under regency from 1782 to 1803. Recognised as supreme sovereign and Ariʻi-maro-ʻura by the ruler of Huahine, he was subsequently forced to take refuge in Moʻorea 22 December 1808, but returned and defeated his enemies at the Battle of Te Feipī, he was thereafter recognized as undisputed King of Moʻorea and its dependencies. Other chieftains on Tahiti became fed up with what they saw as Pomare's pretensions of power, in 1808 they drove him from Tahiti to the nearby island of Eimeo; these other chieftains hostile towards the missionaries, which caused the missionaries to leave Tahiti for other islands. Pomare organized military support from his kinsmen on the islands of Bora Bora and Huahine. Warring resumed, with Pomare winning the decisive Battle of Te Fe’i Pī, on 12 November 1815, his victory was a victory for the Christians. And, in victory Pomare surprised the Tahitians, he pardoned all. When defeated warriors returned from the hills, they found their homes had not been set afire and that their wives and children had not been slaughtered.
The warfare culture of the islanders had been changed by the influence that the missionaries had on Pomare II. Centralized authority among chiefs was not traditional in Tahiti, but the missionaries welcomed Pomare's new power. Distress from disease, civil war and death won for them serious attention to their teachings, they launched a campaign to teach the islanders to read, so they could read scripture. There were mass conversions in hope of the supernatural protections; the missionaries told the islanders. The climate was suitable to exposing the skin to the greater cool of open air, but for the missionaries cool was no consideration. Little clothing for them was indecent exposure. Another lifestyle promoted by the missionaries was manufacturing, the missionaries setting up a sugar refinery and a textile factory. In 1817, Tahiti acquired its first printing press, and, in 1819, cotton and coffee crops were planted. Pomare II asked the missionaries for advice on laws, the missionaries, being monarchists and wanting Pomare to be a proper monarch, advised him that the laws would have to be his, not theirs.
They did make suggestions, in September 1819, Pomare produced Tahiti's first written law. There was protection of life and property, observance of Sa
Angeles the City of Angeles, or referred to as Angeles City, is a 1st class urbanized city in the region of Central Luzon, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 411,634 people, it is bordered by Mabalacat to the north, Mexico to the east, San Fernando to the southeast, Bacolor to the south, Porac to the southwest and west. Though the city administers itself autonomously from Pampanga, it is the province's commercial and financial hub. Angeles is served by the Clark International Airport in Clark Freeport Zone. Being home of the former Clark Air Base, it was affected by the fallout from the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991; the economy of Angeles was dependent on the American base at that time. In 1993, a full cleanup and removal of volcanic ash deposits began and the former U. S. base was transformed into the Clark Special Economic Zone. The creation of CSEZ has helped to offset the loss of income and jobs generated by the presence of the U. S. base in the city. Today and Clark form the hub for business, industry and tourism in the Philippines as well as a leisure, fitness and gaming center of Central Luzon.
Angeles ranked 15th in a survey by MoneySense magazine as one of the "Best Places to Live in the Philippines" in its March–April 2008 issue. Angeles is 17 kilometres from the provincial capital, San Fernando; the name Ángeles is derived from the Spanish El Pueblo de los Ángeles in honour of its patron saints, Los Santos Ángeles Custodios, the name of its founder, Don Ángel Pantaleón de Miranda. In 1796, the gobernadorcillo or town head of San Fernando, Don Ángel Pantaleón de Miranda, his wife, Doña Rosalía de Jesús, along with some followers, staked out a new settlement, which they named Culiát because of the abundance of vines of that name in the area; the new settlers cultivated the area for rice and sugar farming. Don Ángel built his first house with light materials at the northwest corner of the intersection of Sapang Balen and the road going towards the town of Porac, it was donated to the Catholic Church and became a cemetery called "Campo Santong Matua". On 12 May 1812, the new settlers tried to make Culiat a self-governing town but the friars resisted the move, led by Fray José Pometa.
Ten years on 11 February 1822, Don Ángel filed a petition for the township of Culiat to secede from San Fernando, but it was denied. This was followed by another petition within the same year, jointly signed by Don Ángel, his son-in-law, Mariano Henson, the latter's father, Severino Henson, he donated 35 hectares for the construction of the first Catholic church, a convent and a primary school while Doña Agustina Henson de Nepomuceno, the niece of who would become the first gobernadorcillo of Angeles in 1830, Don Ciriaco de Miranda, gave land for the new public market. Don Ángel paid the complete amount required by law just for the secession of Culiat from San Fernando. There were only 160 taxpayers but the law required that it should have at least 500 taxpayers. Located some 10 miles north of Pampanga's capital, Culiat became a barrio of San Fernando for 33 years and on 8 December 1829, became a separate municipality; the newly-autonomous town was renamed "El Pueblo de los Ángeles" in honor of its patron saints, the Holy Angels, the name of its founder, Don Ángel, coinciding with the rise of new barrios such as Santo Cristo, Cutcut and Pulong Anunas.
The progressive barrios developed some new industries like a wine distillery. The transition of Angeles from a jungle clearing to a barrio, to a town and to a city took 168 years and in all that time, it survived locusts' infestations, epidemics, volcanic eruptions and typhoons to become one of the fast rising towns in the country; when it received its first official municipal charter, the town contained some 661 people, 151 houses and an area of 38.65 km². On 17 March 1899, General Emilio Aguinaldo transferred the seat of the First Philippine Republic to Angeles, it became the site of celebrations for the first anniversary of Philippine independence, proclaimed a year earlier in Kawit, Cavite. Events included a parade, led by the youngest Filipino generals, Gregorio del Pilar and Manuel Tinio, with General Aguinaldo viewing the proceedings from the Pamintuan Residence, the Presidential Palace from May to July 1899. Aguinaldo's sojourn was short, for in July of this same year he transferred his government to the province of Tarlac following Angeles' occupation by the American forces.
On 10 August 1899, U. S. forces began the attack on Angeles confident in capturing it in a few days. However, the Filipino Army defending the town refused to give in so and fiercely fought back and for three months, they battled the Americans in and around the town, it was only after the battle on 5 November 1899 that the town fell into American hands. The Battle of Angeles was considered to be the longest in the history of the Filipino-American War in Pampanga; this led to the establishment of an American camp in Barrio Talimundoc, located next to the railroad station, in order to establish control over the central plains of Luzon. In January 1900, General Frederick D. Grant or