Radio Television of Serbia is the public broadcaster in Serbia. It broadcasts and produces news and sports programming through radio and the Internet. RTS is a member of the European Broadcasting Union. Radio Television of Serbia has four organizational units - radio, music production, record label, it is financed through monthly subscription fees and advertising revenue. Radio Belgrade began its broadcasts in 1929; the first news announcer in 1929 was Jelena Bilbija. The first radio program in Serbia was broadcast in February 1924, when released radio signal was transmitted from the transmitter in Belgrade suburb of Rakovica. After five years, on March 24, 1929 Radio Belgrade began with regular broadcasting of its program from the building of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Radio Television Belgrade, consisting of Radio Belgrade and Television Belgrade was established as a result of the decision by the Executive Council of the Socialist Republic of Serbia on 13 February 1958; this came after the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia's government decision of 1956 to invest in a television network.
The first televised broadcast was on 23 August 1958, an edition of the Dnevnik news programme with Miloje Orlović, Branislav Surutka, Olga Nađ, Olivera Živković and Vera Milovanović. The first RTB program was broadcast from a new TV Studio build there. From 1961, RTS began to use quadruplex video tape recording equipment; the Sixties saw dramatic development in all genres of TV programs. TVB became famous by its sitcoms (directed and written by Radivoje-Lola Djukić, Novak Novak and others. TVB had excellent documentary programs and quizzes. By 1970, the entire territory of Serbia was covered by the RTS signal. On 31 December 1971, TVB started broadcasting in PAL color system on its second network. A new AM broadcast equipment in Zvečka, with 2000 kW transmitter was erected in 1976. After the political turmoil in the 1970s the program of RTB became more sterile, however, in the 1980s it reached the zenith. In 1989, preparation for the formation of the RTS system began; that same year, 3K TVB started broadcasting as alternative TV channel.
Along with it, Radio 101 started broadcasting in Vojvodina. Radio 101 was the more commercial youth radio, carrying turbo-folk hits, it was intended to complement the more alternative Belgrade 202. In 1990, a few regional studios started broadcasting regional programming via a window in place of "Beogradska hronika". In 1991, all public broadcasters started their merger into RTS; the establishment of Slobodan Milošević's regime led to one of RTS's most troubled eras in its history. Hundreds of journalists were fired for not complying with Milošević's propaganda. During the protests of 9 March 1991 the regime's opposition attacked the RTS building, calling it a "TV Bastille". In 1992 Radio Television Belgrade, together with Radio Television Novi Sad, Radio Television Pristina and many local government owned radio stations, became part of RTS, a centralized and monitored media network intended to be a propaganda tool for Milošević and his government; the most notorious of the network's TV programming during the Milošević era was Dnevnik, used to glorify the "wise politics of Slobodan Milošević" and to attack "servants of Western powers, forces of chaos and despair", or the Serbian opposition.
Serbian media during Milošević's era was accused by The New York Times of embracing Serbian nationalism and promoting xenophobia toward other ethnic groups in the former Yugoslavia. Serbian state media during the wars featured reports which demonized Croats; the negative media depictions of said ethnic groups are examples of Milošević's state media promoting mass hysteria and to anger Serbs to support the Yugoslav Wars. The station drew little attention to Serbian war crimes committed against Serbs. Reports about Serbs being massacred by Bosniaks and/or Croats were broadcast daily in order to inflame the Serb and Montenegrin populace. Examples include the U. S. embassy reporting of falsified stories created by state media of Bosnians and Croats killing nuns and babies. During the Bosnian war, when Sarajevo was under siege, RTS newscasts showed a still photo from Sarajevo in the 1980s, untouched, in order to create the image that the city was not under siege. During the Kosovo war, Serbian state media denied the Gornje Obrinje massacre and the Vučitrn massacre, committed by Serb paramilitaries and Serbian police against Albanian civilians on 26 September 1998 and 2–3 May 1999, respectively.
A Serbian television report described the BBC accounts of atrocities committed by Serbian police in Kosovo as "lies and manipulation." In addition, RTS never reported the 800,000 Kosovar Albanians expelled by Serbian police and paramilitaries in Operation Horseshoe, except when a convoy of fleeing Kosovars was killed by NATO bombs. On 23 April 1999, NATO bombed the RTS headquarters in downtown Belgrade, killing sixteen people technicians. In 2002, Dragoljub Milanović, the general manager of RTS, was sentenced to ten years in prison because he had failed to order the workers in the building to evacuate, despite knowing that the building would be bombed. Amnesty International has described the NATO attack as a war crime. On 5 October 2000, the RTS building was demolished and burned during the revolution against Slobodan Miloš
Umbellularia californica is a large hardwood tree native to coastal forests of California, as well as to coastal forests extending into Oregon. It is endemic to the California Floristic Province, it is the sole species in the genus Umbellularia. The tree was known as Oreodaphne californica. In Yuki, it is called pōl’-cum ōl. In Oregon, this tree is known as Oregon myrtle, while in California it is called California bay laurel, which may be shortened to California bay or California laurel, it has been called pepperwood, cinnamon bush, peppernut tree, headache tree, mountain laurel, balm of heaven. The tree's pungent leaves have a similar flavor to bay leaves, though stronger, it may be mistaken for bay laurel; the dry wood has a color range from blonde to brown. It is sought after by luthiers and woodworkers; the tree is a host of the pathogen. This tree inhabits redwood forests, California mixed woods, yellow pine forest, oak woodlands. Bays occur in oak woodlands only close to the coast, or in extreme northern California where moisture is sufficient.
During the Miocene, oak-laurel forests were found in Southern California. Typical tree species included oaks ancestral to present-day California oaks, an assemblage of trees from the laurel family, including Nectandra, Ocotea and Umbellularia. Only one native species from the laurel family, Umbellularia californica, remains in California today. In the north, it reaches its distributional limit through southwest Oregon to Newport, Lincoln County, Oregon, on the coast, extending from there south through California to San Diego County, it is found in the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains. It occurs at altitudes from sea level up to 1600 m. An isolated, more northern occurrence of the species can be found in Tacoma, around Snake Lake near the Tacoma Nature Center. There are two recorded instances of trees growing in coastal British Columbia, it is an evergreen tree growing to 30 m tall with a trunk up to 80 cm thick. The largest recorded tree is in Mendocino County and measured 108 feet in height and 119 feet in spread.
The fragrant leaves are smooth-edged and lance-shaped, 3–10 cm long and 1.5–3 cm broad, similar to the related bay laurel, though narrower, without the crinkled margin of that species. The flowers are yellow or yellowish-green, produced in small umbels. Unlike other "bay laurels" of the genus Laurus, Umbellularia has perfect flowers; the fruit known as "California bay nut", is a round and green berry 2–2.5 cm long and 2 cm broad spotted with yellow, maturing purple. Under the thin, leathery skin, it consists of an oily, fleshy covering over a single hard, thin-shelled pit, resembles a miniature avocado. Umbellularia is in fact related to the avocado's genus Persea, within the family Lauraceae; the fruit ripens around October–November in the native range. Umbellularia has long been valued for its many uses by Native Americans throughout the tree's range, including the Cahuilla, Ohlone, Miwok, Yuki and Salinan people; the Concow tribe call the plant sō-ē’-bä. Poultices of Umbellularia leaves were used to treat rheumatism and neuralgias.
A tea was made from the leaves to treat stomach aches, sore throats, to clear up mucus in the lungs. The leaves were steeped in hot water to make an infusion, used to wash sores; the Pomo and Yuki tribes of Mendocino County treated headaches by placing a single leaf in the nostril or bathing the head with a laurel leaf infusion. The chemical responsible for the headache-inducing effects of Umbellularia is known as umbellulone. Both the flesh and the inner kernel of the fruit have been used as food by Native Americans; the fatty outer flesh of the fruit, or mesocarp, is palatable raw for only a brief time. Native Americans dried the fruits in the sun and ate only the lower third of the dried mesocarp, less pungent; the hard inner seed underneath the fleshy mesocarp, like the pit of an avocado, cleaves in two when its thin shell is cracked. The pit itself was traditionally roasted to a dark chocolate-brown color, removing much of the pungency and leaving a spicy flavor. Roasted, shelled "bay nuts" were eaten whole, or ground into powder and prepared as a drink which resembles unsweetened chocolate.
The flavor, depending on roast level, has been described variously as "roast coffee," "dark chocolate" or "burnt popcorn". The powder might be used in cooking or pressed into cakes and dried for winter storage, it has been speculated. The leaf can be used in cooking, but is spicier and "headier" than the Mediterranean bay leaf, should be used in smaller quantity. Umbellularia leaf imparts a somewhat stronger camphor/cinnamon flavor compared to the Mediterranean bay; some modern-day foragers and wild food enthusiasts have adopted Native American practices regarding the edible roasted fruit, the bay nut. Umbellularia californica is used in woodworking, it is considered a tonewood, used to construct the sides of acoustic guitars. The wood is hard and fine, is made into bowls and other small items and sold as "myrtlewood", it is grown as an ornamental tree, both in its native area, further north up the Pacific coast to Vancouver in Canada, an
Kim Su-jin is a South Korean curler. She plays lead for Team Kim Min-ji, she is a 2018 Pacific-Asia Curling champion. Kim joined the Kim Min-ji rink in 2006. In her first World Curling Tour event as a member of the team, they won the 2016 Hub International Crown of Curling; the Kim team represented Korea at the 2017 World Junior Curling Championships, where they posted a 5-4 round robin record, tied with Switzerland for fourth. They would beat the Swiss in a tiebreaker, before losing two straight games against Canada to finish in 4th place; this team represented Korea at the 2018 World Junior Curling Championships, where they finished with a 4-5 record, missing the playoffs. The team began the 2018-19 curling season by winning the Hokkaido Bank Curling Classic, they went on to win gold at the 2018 Pacific-Asia Curling Championships, earning South Korea a berth at the 2019 World Women's Curling Championship. She and her team represented South Korea at the first three legs of the 2018–19 Curling World Cup.
In the first leg, they finished with a 1-5 record. In the Second Leg, they made it all the way to the final falling just short to Japan's Satsuki Fujisawa 7-6, they improved on this performance by winning the Third Leg against Sweden's Anna Hasselborg rink. In the Grand Final, the team finished with a 2-4 record, her team, still junior eligible represented Korea at the 2019 World Junior Curling Championships. They finished the round robin with a 6-3 record, tied with three other teams for the second best record. However, they missed the playoffs due to tiebreaker rules; the following month, the team represented Korea at the 2019 Winter Universiade. This time their 6-3 record was enough to make the playoffs, where they made it all the way to the final before losing to Sweden; that month, the team had yet another international event to play in, the 2019 World Championship. The team was better on this stage, finishing the round robin with a 9-3 record, in second place. In the playoffs, they lost to Switzerland's Silvana Tirinzoni rink in the semifinal, but rebounded to win the bronze medal game against Seina Nakajima of Japan.
It was the first medal won by Korea at the Women's World Championship. The team ended their season with a 1–3 record at the 2019 Champions Cup Grand Slam of Curling event. Team Kim lost the final of the 2020 Korean Women's Curling Championship the following season in June 2019 to the Gim Un-chi rink after Kim missed her last shot and gave up a steal of two in the tenth end; this meant. The team won the Tour Challenge Tier 2 event after a strong 9–2 win over Jestyn Murphy; this qualified them for the Canadian Open in Saskatchewan. There, they defeated higher ranked teams such as three time Scotties champion Rachel Homan, 2013 world champion Eve Muirhead and 2020 Scotties champion Kerri Einarson, they made it all the way to the final before losing to the Anna Hasselborg rink in an extra end. They made it all the way to the final of the 2020 World Junior Curling Championships, where they lost to Canada's Mackenzie Zacharias. Kim Su-jin on the World Curling Federation database Kim Su-jin on the World Curling Tour database Kim Su-jin on the CurlingZone database