A radio clock or radio-controlled clock is a clock or watch, automatically synchronized to a time code transmitted by a radio transmitter connected to a time standard such as an atomic clock. Such a clock may be synchronized to the time sent by a single transmitter, such as many national or regional time transmitters, or may use the multiple transmitters used by satellite navigation systems such as GPS; such systems may be used to automatically set clocks or for any purpose where accurate time is needed. RC clocks may include any feature available for a clock, such as alarm function, display of ambient temperature and humidity, broadcast radio reception, etc. One common style of radio-controlled clock uses time signals transmitted by dedicated terrestrial longwave radio transmitters, which emit a time code that can be demodulated and displayed by the radio controlled clock; the radio controlled clock will contain an accurate time base oscillator to maintain timekeeping if the radio signal is momentarily unavailable.
Other radio controlled clocks use the time signals transmitted by dedicated transmitters in the shortwave bands. Systems using dedicated. GPS satellite receivers internally generate accurate time information from the satellite signals. Dedicated GPS timing receivers are accurate to better than 1 microsecond. Other broadcast services may include timekeeping information of varying accuracy within their signals. Radio clocks synchronized to a terrestrial time signal can achieve an accuracy within a hundredth of a second relative to the time standard limited by uncertainties and variability in radio propagation; some timekeepers watches such as some Casio Wave Ceptors which are more than desk clocks to be used when travelling, can synchronise to any one of several different time signals transmitted in different regions. Radio clocks depend on coded time signals from radio stations; the stations vary in broadcast frequency, in geographic location, in how the signal is modulated to identify the current time.
In general, each station has its own format for the time code. Descriptions A current list of times signal stations is published by the BIPM as an appendix to their annual report. Many other countries can receive these signals, but success depends on the time of day, atmospheric conditions, interference from intervening buildings. Reception is better if the clock is placed near a window facing the transmitter. There is a propagation delay of 1 ms for every 300 km the receiver is from the transmitter. A number of manufacturers and retailers sell radio clocks that receive coded time signals from a radio station, which, in turn, derives the time from a true atomic clock. One of the first radio clocks was offered by Heathkit in late 1983, their model GC-1000 "Most Accurate Clock" received shortwave time signals from radio station WWV in Fort Collins, Colorado. It automatically switched between WWV's 5, 10, 15 MHz frequencies to find the strongest signal as conditions changed through the day and year.
It kept time during periods of poor reception with a quartz-crystal oscillator. This oscillator was disciplined, meaning that the microprocessor-based clock used the accurate time signal received from WWV to trim the crystal oscillator; the timekeeping between updates was thus more accurate than the crystal alone could have achieved. Time down to the tenth of a second was shown on an LED display; the GC-1000 sold for US$250 in kit form and US$400 preassembled, was considered impressive at the time. Heath Company was granted a patent for its design. In the 2000s radio-based "atomic clocks" became common in retail stores. Clocks may have other features such as weather station functionality; these use signals transmitted by the appropriate transmitter for the country in which they are to be used. Depending upon signal strength they may require placement in a location with a unobstructed path to the transmitter and need fair to good atmospheric conditions to update the time. Inexpensive clocks keep track of the time between updates, or in their absence, with a non-disciplined quartz-crystal clock, with the accuracy typical of non-radio-controlled quartz timepieces.
Some clocks include indicators to alert users to possible inaccuracy when synchronization has not been successful. Attached to other broadcast stations Broadcast stations in many countries have carriers synchronized to a standard phase and frequency, such as the BBC Radio 4 longwave service on 198 kHz, some transmit sub-audible or inaudible time-code information, like the Radio France longwave transmitter on 162 kHz. Attached time signal systems use audible tones or phase modulation of the carrier wave. Teletext Digital text pages embedded in television video provide accurate time. Many modern TV sets and VCRs with TTX decoders can obtain accurate time from Teletext and set the internal clock; however the TTX time can vary up to 5 minutes. Many digital radio and digital television schemes include provisions for time-code transmission. Digi
Rothman Healthcare Corporation provides Electronic Health Record solutions for hospital application platforms. The company offers software for generating patient health scores; the Rothman Index is named in honor of Florence Rothman. In 2003, Florence underwent an operation to replace a heart valve at Sarasota Memorial Hospital. Although her health improved after the operation it worsened until she died 10 days after the operation, her sons Michael and Steven Rothman determined that it was the overall system of care that failed her by not detecting her gradual health deterioration. Their solution was to develop a simple measure of a patient’s overall condition that can be plotted versus time to show a doctor or a nurse whether a patient is recovering or deteriorating, they worked with Sarasota Memorial Hospital by analyzing thousands of patient records in the Electronic Health Record to develop the Rothman Index. The Rothman Index captures data found in a hospital's electronic health record and displays the progression of a patient's health over time.
The Rothman Index generates a updated health score synthesizing routine vital signs, nursing assessments, lab results, for display in a user-friendly graphical format, summarizing thousands of pages of patient data at a glance. The Rothman Index detects subtle declines in health. Rapid response teams and nurses have the ability to see multiple patient graphs simultaneously; this allows for a summarized understanding of a whole unit. The Rothman Index solution has been contracted by Sarasota Memorial Hospital, Blessing Hospital, Orlando Health, The Methodist Hospital System in Houston, Yale – New Haven Hospital, Shannon Health in Texas and Shands HealthCare & the University of Florida as well as other hospitals. In 2011, Rothman Healthcare becomes PeraHealth, Inc
The Our Lady of Kazan Orthodox Cathedral, is a Russian Orthodox cathedral located in historic old town of Havana, under the jurisdiction of the Russian Orthodox Church. The temple was built on the shores of Havana Harbour in Old Havana, on the corner of San Pedro Ave. and Santa Clara. The first service of the Russian Orthodox Church in Cuba began in 2001. At first they were held in the Russian trade delegation - at the embassy, - in the Catholic Church; the first agreement for the project dates back to 2002. Starting preparations began for the work, whose construction was initiated on November 14, 2004 at the initiative of Cuban leader Fidel Castro, according to his memoirs, "offered to build the Cathedral of Russian Orthodox Church in the capital of Cuba as a monument to Russian-Cuban friendship"; the first stone of the temple was laid in November 2004 by Metropolitan Kirill of Smolensk and Kaliningrad, following an agreement by the Cuban authorities with the Russian Orthodox Church. The project was developed by architect Alexey Vorontsov and approved by the official historian of Havana, Eusebio Leal, who travelled to Moscow to discuss the matter and met with Patriarch Alexy II of Moscow.
Foreman construction was the Cuban engineer Pedro Rodriguez Sanchez. The construction was carried on means of the Cuban authorities, with the participation of a multidisciplinary team of designers, architects. From Moscow, had been delivered some elements of decoration of the temple and the church plate. Built in the style of a composition of types of circular towers, the Cathedral is crowned by an imposing central golden cupola, surrounded another four smaller copper-colored ones, all the shape of an onion bulb and integrated into a Byzantine structure; the Cathedral was built based on traditional materials such as concrete and bricks. It comprises three works: church and bell tower; the pieces of the six cupolas were brought to the Cuban capital from Russia and were installed by local specialists. The temple’s first floor is set aside for administrative areas, the father’s rooms, public bathroom, meeting room, computer room and technical area. Meanwhile, the top floor houses the church as such, with capacity for 500 persons, accessed through two granite stairways.
The principal entrance is through San Pedro Street and the back part of the temple, the back of the altar, through Avenida del Puerto. The Cathedral takes up an area of 1,200 meters facing the bay of Havana; the church was consecrated October 19, 2008 in a ceremony ministered by Metropolitan Kirill Gundyaev in the presence of Heads of State of Cuba Raul Castro and hundreds of Orthodox believers, including employees of the Russian embassy in Havana and missions. The temple in Havana was conceived and built as a monument to Russian-Cuban friendship, as an expression of gratitude to our people, who made an enormous contribution to the preservation of Cuba as an independent state in developing its economic potential. Www.orthodoxcuba.com