A radio telescope is a specialized antenna and radio receiver used to receive radio waves from astronomical radio sources in the sky. Radio telescopes are the main observing instrument used in radio astronomy, which studies the radio frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted by astronomical objects, just as optical telescopes are the main observing instrument used in traditional optical astronomy which studies the light wave portion of the spectrum coming from astronomical objects. Radio telescopes are large parabolic antennas similar to those employed in tracking and communicating with satellites and space probes, they may be linked together electronically in an array. Unlike optical telescopes, radio telescopes can be used in the daytime as well as at night. Since astronomical radio sources such as planets, stars and galaxies are far away, the radio waves coming from them are weak, so radio telescopes require large antennas to collect enough radio energy to study them, sensitive receiving equipment.
Radio observatories are preferentially located far from major centers of population to avoid electromagnetic interference from radio, radar, motor vehicles, other man-made electronic devices. Radio waves from space were first detected by engineer Karl Guthe Jansky in 1932 at Bell Telephone Laboratories in Holmdel, New Jersey using an antenna built to study noise in radio receivers; the first purpose-built radio telescope was a 9-meter parabolic dish constructed by radio amateur Grote Reber in his back yard in Wheaton, Illinois in 1937. The sky survey he did with it is considered the beginning of the field of radio astronomy; the first radio antenna used to identify an astronomical radio source was one built by Karl Guthe Jansky, an engineer with Bell Telephone Laboratories, in 1932. Jansky was assigned the job of identifying sources of static that might interfere with radio telephone service. Jansky's antenna was an array of dipoles and reflectors designed to receive short wave radio signals at a frequency of 20.5 MHz.
It was mounted on a turntable that allowed it to rotate in any direction, earning it the name "Jansky's merry-go-round". It had a diameter of 100 ft and stood 20 ft tall. By rotating the antenna, the direction of the received interfering radio source could be pinpointed. A small shed to the side of the antenna housed an analog pen-and-paper recording system. After recording signals from all directions for several months, Jansky categorized them into three types of static: nearby thunderstorms, distant thunderstorms, a faint steady hiss of unknown origin. Jansky determined that the "faint hiss" repeated on a cycle of 23 hours and 56 minutes; this period is the length of an astronomical sidereal day, the time it takes any "fixed" object located on the celestial sphere to come back to the same location in the sky. Thus Jansky suspected that the hiss originated outside of the Solar System, by comparing his observations with optical astronomical maps, Jansky concluded that the radiation was coming from the Milky Way Galaxy and was strongest in the direction of the center of the galaxy, in the constellation of Sagittarius.
An amateur radio operator, Grote Reber, was one of the pioneers of what became known as radio astronomy. He built the first parabolic "dish" radio telescope, 9 metres in diameter, in his back yard in Wheaton, Illinois in 1937, he repeated Jansky's pioneering work, identifying the Milky Way as the first off-world radio source, he went on to conduct the first sky survey at high radio frequencies, discovering other radio sources. The rapid development of radar during World War II created technology, applied to radio astronomy after the war, radio astronomy became a branch of astronomy, with universities and research institutes constructing large radio telescopes; the range of frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum that makes up the radio spectrum is large. This means that the types of antennas that are used as radio telescopes vary in design and configuration. At wavelengths of 30 meters to 3 meters, they are either directional antenna arrays similar to "TV antennas" or large stationary reflectors with moveable focal points.
Since the wavelengths being observed with these types of antennas are so long, the "reflector" surfaces can be constructed from coarse wire mesh such as chicken wire. At shorter wavelengths parabolic "dish" antennas predominate; the angular resolution of a dish antenna is determined by the ratio of the diameter of the dish to the wavelength of the radio waves being observed. This dictates the dish size. Radio telescopes that operate at wavelengths of 3 meters to 30 cm are well over 100 meters in diameter. Telescopes working at wavelengths shorter than 30 cm range in size from 3 to 90 meters in diameter; the increasing use of radio frequencies for communication makes astronomical observations more and more difficult. Negotiations to defend the frequency allocation for parts of the spectrum most useful for observing the universe are coordinated in the Scientific Committee on Frequency Allocations for Radio Astronomy and Space Science; some of the more notable frequency bands used by radio telescopes include: Every frequency in the United States National Radio Quiet Zone Channel 37: 608 to 614 MHz The "Hydrogen line" known as the "21 centimeter line": 1420.40575177 MHz, used by many radio telescopes including The Big Ear in its discovery of the Wow!
Signal 1406 MHz and 430 MHz The Waterhole: 1,420 to 1,666 MHz The Arecibo Observatory has se
The 861 argument is a statutory argument used by tax protesters in the United States, which interprets a portion of the Internal Revenue Code as invalidating certain applications of income tax. The argument has uniformly been held by courts to be incorrect, persons who have cited the argument as a basis for refusing to pay income taxes have been penalized, in some cases jailed. Internal Revenue Code section 861, entitled "Income from sources within the United States", is a provision of the Internal Revenue Code which delineates that some kinds of income shall be treated as income from sources within the United States, namely income of nonresident alien individuals, certain foreign corporations, but it is not an exhaustive list of taxable income—the definitions in the section apply only to that section; the language of Section 861 is cited by tax protesters who claim that the statute excludes some portion of the income of U. S. citizens and resident aliens from taxation. Under the tax protesters' section 861 argument, only income derived from "taxable activities" listed in that section becomes "taxable income".
The list of taxable activities is located in Section 861 regulations. Proponents of this argument state that individuals with domestic income must go to the Section 861 regulations to determine if the activities that generate their income are taxable or not. Protesters state; the argument is that since the domestic activities of residents of the United States are not shown to be taxable in that section, the domestic income derived from such activities does not become taxable "gross income" through the rest of the tax code. Tax protesters argue that the Internal Revenue Service is misapplying section 861 to them, citing the case of Gould v. Gould; the text of that case reads in part: In the interpretation of statutes levying taxes it is the established rule not to extend their provisions, by implication, beyond the clear import of the language used, or to enlarge their operations so as to embrace matters not pointed out. In case of doubt they are construed most against the government, in favor of the citizen.
Tax protesters argue that Gould v. Gould nullifies what tax protesters view as an attempt by the IRS to tax beyond the explicit provisions of the law. Section 861 did not exist in the year 1917, when the Gould case was decided, the Court was neither presented with nor decided the issue of whether domestic or foreign income is not taxable; the terms "domestic income" and "foreign income" do not appear in the case, the court's main ruling in Gould v. Gould—that alimony was not taxable to the recipient under the Revenue Act of 1913—was overturned by a subsequent Act of Congress, the current version of, found in the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 at 26 U. S. C. § 71. The income taxes imposed on U. S. citizens and resident aliens are imposed under Subchapter A of Chapter 1 of the Code. The income tax is imposed on the "taxable income" of individuals; the federal courts have ruled that the argument that Section 861 excludes income of U. S. citizens and resident aliens from taxation is without legal merit.
See Aiello v. Commissioner; the argument that United States citizens and residents are not subject to tax on their wages, etc. derived from sources within the United States, variations of this argument, have been identified as frivolous Federal tax return positions for purposes of the $5,000 frivolous tax return penalty imposed under Internal Revenue Code section 6702. The earliest reported case in which section 861 is raised as a limitation on the income tax is the 1993 case of Solomon v. Commissioner. In that case, the protester's primary argument was that "the State of Illinois is not part of the United States", that he was therefore a resident alien, subject to taxation only under the provisions of §861; the court ruled: etitioner's position is not bolstered by the regulations under section 861. To the contrary, section 861 and provides that interest from the United States and compensation for labor or personal services performed in the United States are items of gross income which shall be treated as income from sources within the United States.
In Solomon, the court stated: The record in this case establishes that petitioner had no interest in disputing either the deficiencies or the additions to tax determined by respondent. Furthermore, it is clear that petitioner instituted this action to delay the assessment and collection of his Federal income taxes. Rather, petitioner has raised only the tired, discredited arguments which are characterized as tax protester rhetoric. A petition to the Tax Court is frivolous if it is contrary to established law and unsupported by a reasoned, colorable argument for change in the law.… Based upon the established law, petitioner's position is frivolous and groundless. Taxpayers with genuine controversies were delayed. Accordingly, we will require petitioner to pay a penalty to the United States in the amount of $5,000. More recent attempts to avoid payment of taxes using the 861 argument have not contended that the protesters were non-citizens, but that the provision should be read as extending to all taxes.
These efforts have resulted in a number of high-profile convictions of its proponents. Larken Rose, a noted advocate of the 861 argument, used th
Giulio Carlo Argan was an Italian art historian and politician. Argan was born in Turin and studied in the University of Turin, graduating in 1931. In 1928 he entered the National Fascist Party. In the 1930 he worked for the National Antiquity and Arts Directorate, first in Turin and in Modena and Rome, where he collaborated to the creation of the Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione ed il Restauro and directed the magazine Le Arti, his career was boosted by the friendship of the Fascist leader Cesare Maria De Vecchi national Minister of Education. In 1938 he published a manual of art for high schools, while in the 1940s he collaborated to the magazine Primato and directed by Giuseppe Bottai, another Fascist gerarca. After World War II, he taught in universities Palermo and, from 1959, in Rome. Argan co-founded the publishing house Il Saggiatore and he was a member of the Superior Council of Antiquities and Fine Arts, in which he remained until 1974. In 1968 he published his most famous work, Storia dell'Arte Italiana.
In 1973 he founded Italy's oldest institution in the field of industrial design. He was the first Communist mayor of Rome, between 1976 and 1979, he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1992. He died in Rome. Fra Angelico: Biographical and Critical Study, The Taste of Our Time Vol. 10 Editions d'Art Albert Skira, Geneva, 127 pp. Studi e note Botticelli: Biographical and Critical Study, The Taste of Our Time Vol. 19 Editions d'Art Albert Skira, Geneva, 147 pp. Salvezza e caduta nell’arte moderna Europe of the Capitals 1600-1700. Art, History Editions d'Art Albert Skira, Geneva, 236 pp. Progetto e destino Storia dell'arte italiana Storia dell’arte come storia della città Da Hogarth a Picasso Forma Naturae for Antonio Papasso Classico Anticlassico Immagine e persuasione Progetto e oggetto Italian site about the life and works of Giulio Carlo Argan