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Radioactive waste

Radioactive waste is a type of hazardous waste that contains radioactive material. Radioactive waste is a by-product of nuclear power generation and other applications of nuclear fission or nuclear technology, such as research and medicine. Radioactive waste is regulated by government agencies in order to protect human health and the environment. In modern nuclear plants over 96 % of spent fuel is recycled back into MOX fuel. Radioactivity of the remaining 4% fission products decreases over time, so it has to be isolated and confined in appropriate disposal facilities for a sufficient period until it no longer poses a threat; the time radioactive waste must be stored for depends on the type of radioactive isotopes. Current approaches to radioactive waste storage have been segregation and storage for short-lived waste, near-surface disposal for low and some intermediate-level waste, burial in a deep geological repository or transmutation for the high-level waste. A summary of the amounts of radioactive waste and management approaches for most developed countries are presented and reviewed periodically as part of the International Atomic Energy Agency Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management.

Radioactive waste comprises a number of radionuclides: unstable configurations of elements that decay, emitting ionizing radiation, harmful to humans and the environment. These isotopes emit different types and levels of radiation, which last for different periods of time; the radioactivity of all radioactive waste weakens with time. All radionuclides contained in the waste have a half-life — the time it takes for half of the atoms to decay into another nuclide — and all radioactive waste decays into non-radioactive elements. Since radioactive decay follows the half-life rule, the rate of decay is inversely proportional to the duration of decay. In other words, the radiation from a long-lived isotope like iodine-129 will be much less intense than that of a short-lived isotope like iodine-131; the two tables show some of the major radioisotopes, their half-lives, their radiation yield as a proportion of the yield of fission of uranium-235. The energy and the type of the ionizing radiation emitted by a radioactive substance are important factors in determining its threat to humans.

The chemical properties of the radioactive element will determine how mobile the substance is and how it is to spread into the environment and contaminate humans. This is further complicated by the fact that many radioisotopes do not decay to a stable state but rather to radioactive decay products within a decay chain before reaching a stable state. Exposure to radioactive waste may cause health impacts due to ionizing radiation exposure. In humans, a dose of 1 sievert carries a 5.5% risk of developing cancer, regulatory agencies assume the risk is linearly proportional to dose for low doses. Ionizing radiation can cause deletions in chromosomes. If a developing organism such as a fetus is irradiated, it is possible a birth defect may be induced, but it is unlikely this defect will be in a gamete or a gamete-forming cell; the incidence of radiation-induced mutations in humans is small, as in most mammals, because of natural cellular-repair mechanisms, many just now coming to light. These mechanisms range from DNA, mRNA and protein repair, to internal lysosomic digestion of defective proteins, induced cell suicide—apoptosisDepending on the decay mode and the pharmacokinetics of an element, the threat due to exposure to a given activity of a radioisotope will differ.

For instance iodine-131 is a short-lived beta and gamma emitter, but because it concentrates in the thyroid gland, it is more able to cause injury than caesium-137 which, being water soluble, is excreted through urine. In a similar way, the alpha emitting actinides and radium are considered harmful as they tend to have long biological half-lives and their radiation has a high relative biological effectiveness, making it far more damaging to tissues per amount of energy deposited; because of such differences, the rules determining biological injury differ according to the radioisotope, time of exposure and sometimes the nature of the chemical compound which contains the radioisotope. Radioactive waste comes from a number of sources. In countries with nuclear power plants, nuclear armament, or nuclear fuel treatment plants, the majority of waste originates from the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear weapons reprocessing. Other sources include medical and industrial wastes, as well as occurring radioactive materials that can be concentrated as a result of the processing or consumption of coal and gas, some minerals, as discussed below.

Waste from the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle is alpha-emitting waste from the extraction of uranium. It contains radium and its decay products. Uranium dioxide concentrate from mining is a thousand or so times as radioactive as the granite used in buildings, it is refined from yellowcake converted to uranium hexafluoride gas. As a gas, it undergoes enrichment to increase the U-235 content from 0.7% to about 4.4%. It is turned into a hard ceramic oxide for assembly as reactor fuel elements; the main by-product of enrichment is depleted uranium, principally the U-238 isotope, with a U-235 content of ~0.3%. It is stored, either as UF6 or as U3O8; some is used in applications where its high density makes it valuable such as anti-tank shells, on at least one occasion a sailboat keel. It is used with plutonium for making mixed oxide fue

MS Fest

MS Fest was a music festival, held annually in Launceston, Tasmania Australia since 2006 until 2011 when the MS Society unsuccessfully attempted to establish a new event under the brand. Hobart, Tasmania, it was a single day event, held in March on a Saturday. The festival started in 2006 with a concert at Launceston’s Regatta Ground to mark the 50th anniversary of the MS Society; the event sold out, became known as one of Tasmania’s premier music events. In 2007 the event operation and funding was taken over by Launceston based events company Opcon and relocated to Inveresk Showground to accommodate a larger crowd. There was a main stage, featuring rock and hip hop, a secondary stage, the Ministry of Sound arena, which featured DJ and electronic music throughout the day. In 2010, the festival returned to Inveresk Showground and sold over 13,000 tickets, the largest number of ticket sales to date. Over the years of operation Opcon attempted to negotiate an arrangement with the MS Society Of Tasmania that would be sustainable and respectful of the huge financial risk the company was undertaking to deliver the event.

In 2011 the MS Society Of Tasmania announced that instead of negotiating a sustainable position with Opcon they would take the MS Fest brand and operate a new event, relocating to the Hobart TCA Grounds at Hobart for the 2012 show. The MS Society and its new operator commented "The commercial environment in Launceston for the event changed and MS Fest’s future became unsound; this and the opportunity to host the event at such an iconic and pristine venue such as the TCA grounds in Hobart made this the clear and sensible choice for MS Tasmania. We look forward to people making a weekend of it and travelling down for a great show." However, mere days before it was scheduled to begin, the 2012 festival was cancelled due to lack of ticket sales and the overwhelming success of Opcons rebranded festival, Breath Of Life continuing in Launceston. The MS Society Of Tasmania accrued huge loses with the failed 2012 event losing all the funds which have been delivered to the charity over the successful years of operation by Opcon.

As of now nowhere is no immediate future for the MS Fest at this point, but organisers hope to resurrect it in the not-too-distant future. The 2006 festival was the first installment of MS Fest, held on Saturday, 11 March 2006 at the Royal Park Regatta Grounds, Launceston; the line-up of artists included: The 2007 event saw Silverchair’s first Tasmanian performance in 7 years. The event was staged at Inveresk Showgrounds, Launceston, on Saturday, 10 March 2007, it featured a main stage and a Ministry of Sound arena, which featured DJs and electronic acts throughout the day. The event was emceed by Jabba. Artists who performed at the 2007 event include: The 2008 installment took place on Saturday, 16 February 2008; the 2008 event was the biggest so far, with over 11,000 in attendance. The artists who performed are: The first installment of the line-up was announced on 15 September 2009. Line-up announced via the festival's Facebook page on Friday 18 November 2011; the festival was cancelled in early 2012 due to poor weather predictions.

As of now, there is no immediate future for the MS Fest, but it will be resurrected in the near future. MS Fest official website MS Fest official MySpace


Venset is a village in the municipality of Fauske in Nordland county, Norway. Venset lies on the north shore of Skjerstad Fjord about 17 kilometers west of the town of Fauske and about 6 kilometres south of the village of Valnesfjord. Norwegian County Road 530 passes through the village; the route was part of Norwegian National Road 80 which runs from the town of Fauske to the town of Bodø until 2011 when the Røvik Tunnel came into service. In 1858, the farmer Mons Petter brought the ore that he had found near the village of Sulitjelma to Venset, where it was examined by the merchant Bernhard Koch; this led to the establishment of Sulitjelma Mines, which began operations in 1891

Richard Abel Smith

Colonel Richard Francis Abel Smith was a British Army officer. He was the son of Colonel Sir Henry Abel Smith and his wife Lady May Cambridge, née Princess May of Teck, a great-great-granddaughter of Queen Victoria and a niece of Queen Mary, he was born at Kensington Palace in England. Richard was the second of the only boy, he was 312th in the line of succession to the British Throne as a great-great-grandson of Queen Victoria. Abel Smith was educated at Eton College, Berkshire, England, he was commissioned into the Royal Horse Guards. He was Aide-de-Camp to the Governor of Cyprus between 1957 and 1960, he was a military instructor between 1963 at Sandhurst. He commanded the Sherwood Rangers Yeomanry squadron of the Royal Yeomanry between 1967 and 1969, he held the office of Deputy Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire between 1970 and 1991 and High Sheriff of Nottinghamshire in 1978. He gained the rank of Honorary Colonel in 1979 in the service of the Sherwood Rangers Yeomanry Regiment, he held the office of Vice Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire between 1991 and 1999.

He married Marcia Kendrew on 28 April 1960 in St. Mary Abbott's Church, London, England, they had one daughter. They had four children. Amelia May Beaumont, they have twins: Matilda Alice Murray Archibald Peregrine Murray George Wentworth Beaumont. Richard Christian Beaumont Michael Patrick Beaumont, he died of a stroke at home in Blidworth Dale, England on 23 December 2004. He was buried on 18 January 2005 in St James, Nottinghamshire, England

Music Maker (label)

Music Maker Relief Foundation is an American non-profit, based in Hillsborough, North Carolina. Music Maker Relief Foundation was founded in 1994 by Tim and Denise Duffy to "help the true pioneers and forgotten heroes of Southern music gain recognition and meet their day-to-day needs. Music Maker presents these musical traditions to the world so American culture will flourish and be preserved for future generations." In 1989, while completing his studies for a master's degree in Folklore at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Tim Duffy was documenting blues musician James "Guitar Slim" Stephens for the university's Southern Folklife Collection. Stephens's health was in decline, shortly before his death, he advised Duffy to locate a musician named Guitar Gabriel. After his graduation, Duffy began working as a substitute teacher at a middle school in Winston-Salem, hearing an assortment of folkloric tales about Guitar Gabriel from students, until one student volunteered that Gabriel was her neighbor, living in the government housing projects of Winston-Salem.

That evening, Duffy followed the student's directions to a "drink house" in the neighborhood, where he met Gabriel's nephew, who took him to meet Gabriel. Duffy forged a close friendship with Gabriel, the two began recording and performing under the name Guitar Gabriel & Brothers in the Kitchen, releasing the album Do You Know What it Means to Have a Friend? on their own Karibu label in 1991. Gabriel had been inactive in the music industry since the 1970 release of his album My South, My Blues on the Gemini label, he was impoverished. He required daily assistance from Duffy, who provided transportation to medical appointments and food for Gabriel and his wife. Through Gabriel and Denise Duffy made field recordings of other local blues musicians, such as Captain Luke, Macavine Hayes, Mr. Q. and Willa Mae Buckner. They needed regular assistance. Duffy thought. Tim Duffy's father, Allen Duffy, a lawyer, had represented and won a case for audio pioneer Mark Levinson, allowing him to continue working in the hi-fi industry.

Levinson heard about Tim Duffy's field recordings, some reminiscent of the work of John and Alan Lomax, invited Duffy to visit his stereo showroom in New York. After hearing the recordings, as well as the stories of the many destitute musicians, Levinson offered to remaster the tapes, which became an eight-artist CD anthology of traditional North Carolina blues entitled A Living Past. Levinson became a crusader for the cause, solicited funds and industry connections from his friends and colleagues, which, in 1994, resulted in the incorporation of the Music Maker Relief Foundation. In 1995, Tim Duffy met Eric Clapton in a Manhattan bistro, sharing some of his field recordings, as well as the philosophy and goals of the foundation, after which Clapton became a supporter, introducing artists such as B. B. King, Pete Townshend, Bonnie Raitt, Ron Wood, Lou Reed and Rosanne Cash, all of whom donated to the Music Maker Relief Foundation. Duffy was invited to the Los Angeles studio where B. B. King's album Deuces Wild was recorded and where he met Taj Mahal, who contributed to the foundation's growth and success.

By 1996, after receiving several sizable donations, Music Maker Relief Foundation had established the Musician Sustenance, Musical Development, Cultural Access Programs, which provide food, monetary assistance, transportation to doctor's appointments and to pick up medications, home repairs, performance bookings in professional venues, such as the Lincoln Center and Carnegie Hall, as well as European tours and music festivals worldwide. The success of the programs is due, in large part, to Taj Mahal, who by 1997 had become an advisory board member, artistic consultant, co-producer for many of the artists' records. Taj Mahal headlined blues festivals in support of Music Maker, was instrumental in securing advertising in mainstream print media, as well as the creation of the "Fishin' Blues Tournament", which raises funds for the foundation. Over the next several years, many new donors and contributors were involved, allowing Duffy to expand the roster of the label, to release over one hundred albums, the proceeds of which the artists keep, in their entirety.

Many of the label's artists have been documented in the collaborative work of artists Harvey Pekar and Gary Dumm, who have contributed artwork since 2003, whose work was featured in a 2010 calendar, created as a fundraiser for Music Maker Relief Foundation. In 2006, Tim Duffy saw the Carolina Chocolate Drops performing at the Shakori Hills Grassroots Festival of Music and Dance in Silk Hope, North Carolina. Duffy signed a management deal with the group and released their debut record, Dona Got a Ramblin' Mind on the Music Maker Label. During Duffy's time as manager the Carolina Chocolate Drops won a Grammy Award in 2010 for Best Traditional Folk Album with their first album on Nonesuch Records, Genuine Negro Jig; the Chocolate Drops second release with Nonesuch, Leaving Eden was nominated for a Grammy. In 2014, the Music Maker Relief Foundation celebrated its 20th anniversary with an exhibit of 28 photographs of Music Maker artists; the exhibit was previewed at the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts.

A double-disc compilation album and 144-page photo book is set to be released in honor of the foundation's anniversary. On October 27, 2014 PBS NewsHour aired segment on the Music Maker Relief Foundation, showing William R. Ferris say, "They provide a model for what our nation should be doing; the New Deal under FDR

Granite Springs, Virginia

Granite Springs is an unincorporated community in Spotsylvania County, in the U. S. state of Virginia. It is marked by the United States Geological Survey as the intersection of Belmont Road, Lawyers Road, Granite Springs Road. Nearby, communities of Paytes and Belmont border on the north and west along with the Orange County line serving as a northwestern boundary, Plentiful Creek forms the south and eastern boundaries. While Granite Springs is marked at the southern terminus of Granite Springs Road with Lawyers Road, Granite Springs Road turns from its east-west direction from this intersection to become a north-south road and receives a different route number, 680. From this turn, it begins to parallel eventually reconverges with Lawyers Road, it is believed by locals that the heart of the Granite Springs community extends the entirety of the area between Lawyers Road and Granite Springs Road, to encompass the Fox Run subdivision, Cedar Plantation, several single family homes along Granite Springs Road and Lawyers Road.

Route 664 begins at the intersection with Lawyers Road as a paved road, but becomes a dirt road after 0.1 miles. Pavement does not begin again until the bend in the road that renames it to Route 680, it has a bridge with a weight limit of 2 Tons. A gravesite and monument to Dr. Robert Llewellen Powell, in the form of an obelisk is located at 8401 Lawyers Road, on the eastern side of the road. Dr. Powell was the brother of a former Virginia Commonwealth's Attorney. A small family cemetery exists at the intersection of Granite Springs Lawyers Road. Fletcher's Store, long abandoned, stands at the intersection of Lawyers Road. There is another "Fletcher's Store", still in operation, at Belmont. Plentiful Creek, which serves as the community's eastern and southern border, is a freshwater spring/stream that winds its way from sources just south of Post Oak Road and parallels Granite Springs Road before crossing Lawyers Road, empties into Lake Anna, it is thought. Fox Run Subdivision. Intersects with Granite Springs Road.

Cedar Plantation. Intersects with Granite Springs Road. Paytes, Virginia: Marked at the intersections of Lawyers Road and West Catharpin Road, extends east to the fork of West Catharpin Road and Post Oak Road. Belmont, Spotsylvania County, further south along Route 652. Bells Crossroad, at the intersection of Lawyers Road and Stubbs Bridge Road, not to be confused with Bells Crossroads, in nearby Louisa County, Virginia. Orange Springs, a historic home, farm complex, former resort spa in nearby Orange County, Virginia, is accessible via Orange Springs Road, after heading south on Belmont Road from Granite Springs. Heading west on Route 653 from Belmont, it becomes Route 629 at Danton and the farm entrance is located on Route 629 before it intersects with US 522. Orange Springs was visited by President James Madison and is on the National Register of Historical Places. Lake Anna State Park, located off of Lawyers Road