Radiohead are an English rock band formed in Abingdon, Oxfordshire in 1985. The band consists of Thom Yorke, brothers Jonny Greenwood and Colin Greenwood, Ed O'Brien and Philip Selway, they have worked with producer Nigel Godrich and cover artist Stanley Donwood since 1994. After signing to EMI in 1991, Radiohead released their debut single "Creep" in 1992, it became a worldwide hit after the release of Pablo Honey. Their popularity and critical standing rose in the United Kingdom with the release of their second album, The Bends. Radiohead's third album, OK Computer, brought them international fame. Kid A and Amnesiac, recorded marked a dramatic change in style, incorporating influences from experimental electronic music, 20th-century classical music and jazz. Kid A divided listeners but was named the best album of the decade by Rolling Stone and The Times. Hail to the Thief mixed rock and electronic music with lyrics inspired by the War on Terror, was Radiohead's final album for EMI, their subsequent releases have pioneered alternative release platforms such as pay-what-you-want and BitTorrent.
Their eighth album, The King of Limbs, an exploration of rhythm, was developed using extensive looping and sampling. A Moon Shaped Pool prominently featured Jonny Greenwood's orchestral arrangements. Jonny Greenwood, Selway, O'Brien have released solo works. Radiohead had sold more than 30 million albums worldwide by 2011, their work places in both listener polls and critics' lists of the best music of the 1990s, 2000s, 2010s. They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2019; the members of Radiohead met while attending Abingdon School, an independent school for boys in Abingdon, Oxfordshire. Guitarist and singer Thom Yorke and bassist Colin Greenwood were in the same year, guitarist Ed O'Brien and drummer Philip Selway the year above, multi-instrumentalist Jonny Greenwood, brother of Colin, two years below. In 1985, they formed On a Friday, the name referring to their usual rehearsal day in the school's music room. Jonny was the last to join, first on harmonica and keyboards, but soon became lead guitarist.
According to Colin, the band members picked their instruments because they wanted to play together, rather than through an interest in the particular instrument: "It was more of a collective angle, if you could contribute by having someone else play your instrument, cool." At one point, On a Friday featured a saxophone section. The band disliked the school's strict atmosphere—the headmaster once charged them for using a rehearsal room on a Sunday—and found solace in the school's music department, they credited their music teacher for introducing them to jazz, film scores, postwar avant-garde music, 20th-century classical music. Oxfordshire and the Thames Valley had an active independent music scene in the late 1980s, but it centred on shoegazing bands such as Ride and Slowdive. On the strength of an early demo, On a Friday were offered a record deal by Island Records, but the members decided they were not ready and wanted to go to university first. Although all but Jonny had left Abingdon by 1987 to attend university, On a Friday continued to rehearse on weekends and holidays.
At the University of Exeter, Yorke played with the band Headless Chickens, performing songs including future Radiohead material. He met artist Stanley Donwood, who created artwork for Radiohead. In 1991, On a Friday regrouped, sharing a house on the corner of Magdalen Road and Ridgefield Road, Oxford; as On a Friday continued to perform in Oxford, record labels and producers became interested. Chris Hufford, Slowdive's producer and co-owner of Oxford's Courtyard Studios, attended an early On a Friday concert at the Jericho Tavern. Impressed, he and his partner Bryce Edge became On a Friday's managers. In late 1991, after a chance meeting between Colin and EMI A&R representative Keith Wozencroft at Our Price, the record shop where Colin worked, On a Friday signed a six-album recording contract with EMI. At the label's request, the band changed their name. Radiohead recorded their debut release, the Drill EP, with Chris Hufford and Bryce Edge at Courtyard Studios. Released in May 1992, its chart performance was poor.
The band enlisted Paul Kolderie and Sean Slade, who had worked with US indie bands Pixies and Dinosaur Jr. to produce their debut album, recorded in an Oxford studio in 1992. With the release of the "Creep" single that year, Radiohead began to receive attention in the British music press, not all of it favourable. Radiohead released their debut album, Pablo Honey, in February 1993, it stalled at number 22 in the UK charts, as "Creep" and its follow-up singles "Anyone Can Play Guitar" and "Stop Whispering" failed to become hits. "Pop Is Dead", a non-album single sold poorly. S
United States v. Lee, 455 U. S. 252, was a United States Supreme Court case establishing precedent regarding the limits of free exercise of religious conscience by employers. The appellant, an Amish employer, sued the Federal Government of the United States following an assessment for unpaid Social Security taxes, claiming that the imposition of such taxes violated his freedom of conscience; the District Court had found in favor of the appellant. Chief Justice Warren Burger delivered the opinion of the Court, with Justices Brennan, Marshall, Powell, O'Connor and Justice Stevens separately concurring; the Court's opinion held that the tax imposed on employers to support the social security system must be uniformly applicable to all, except if the United States Congress explicitly provides otherwise. The Court's majority opinion explained its reasoning: The conclusion that there is a conflict between the Amish faith and the obligations imposed by the social security system is only the beginning and not the end of the inquiry.
Not all burdens on religion are unconstitutional. See, e. g. Prince v. Massachusetts, 321 U. S. 158. S. 145. The state may justify a limitation on religious liberty by showing that it is essential to accomplish an overriding governmental interest... Congress and the courts have been sensitive to the needs flowing from the Free Exercise Clause, but every person cannot be shielded from all the burdens incident to exercising every aspect of the right to practice religious beliefs; when followers of a particular sect enter into commercial activity as a matter of choice, the limits they accept on their own conduct as a matter of conscience and faith are not to be superimposed on the statutory schemes which are binding on others in that activity. Granting an exemption from social security taxes to an employer operates to impose the employer's religious faith on the employees. Lee was cited during oral arguments in Burwell v. Hobby Lobby, a case about how the contraception requirement in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act affected held for-profit corporations.
Religious Freedom Restoration Act Rains, Mark Stanley. "United States v. Lee: An Insensitive Approach to the Free Exercise of Religion". Tulsa Law Journal. 18: 305–37. Duthu, N. Bruce. "United States v. Lee: Limitations on the Free Exercise of Religion". Loyola Law Review. 28: 1216–24. Stevens, John V.. "United States v. Lee, a Second Look". Journal of Church and State. 26: 455–72. Doi:10.1093/jcs/26.3.455. Patrick, John J.. "Document 43: United States v. Lee". Constitutional Debates on Freedom of Religion: A Documentary History. Pp. 116–9. ISBN 978-0-313-30140-7. Ferrara, Peter J.. "Social Security and Taxes". In Kraybill, Donald B.. The Amish and the State. Pp. 125–43. ISBN 978-0-8018-7430-7. Guinn, David E. ed.. "Socioeconomic Regulation". Faith on Trial: Communities of Faith, the First Amendment, the Theory of Deep Diversity. Pp. 123–5. ISBN 978-0-7391-1764-4. Vile, John R.. "United States v. Lee, 455 U. S. 252. Ed. 2d 127". Essential Supreme Court Decisions: Summaries of Leading Cases in U. S. Constitutional Law. P. 237.
ISBN 978-1-4422-0386-0. Text of United States v. Lee, 455 U. S. 252 is available from: Justia Library of Congress Oyez
Diamond Rio is an American country music band. The band was founded in 1982 as an attraction for the Opryland USA theme park in Nashville and was known as the Grizzly River Boys the Tennessee River Boys, it was founded by Matt Davenport, Danny Gregg, Ty Herndon, the last of whom became a solo artist in the mid-1990s. After undergoing several membership changes in its initial years, the band has consisted of the same six members since 1989: Marty Roe, Gene Johnson, Jimmy Olander, Brian Prout, Dan Truman, Dana Williams. After assuming the name Diamond Rio, the band was signed to Arista Nashville and debuted in 1991 with the single "Meet in the Middle", which made them the first band to send a debut single to No. 1 on the Billboard Hot Country Songs charts. The band charted 32 more singles between and 2006, including four more that reached No. 1: "How Your Love Makes Me Feel", "One More Day", "Beautiful Mess", "I Believe". Diamond Rio has recorded nine studio albums, four Greatest Hits compilations, an album of Christmas music.
Three of the band's albums have achieved RIAA platinum certification in the United States. In addition, Diamond Rio has received four Group of the Year awards from the Country Music Association, two Top Vocal Group awards from the Academy of Country Music, one Grammy Award; the band is known for its vocal harmonies, varied instrumentation, near-exclusive use of only its own membership on recordings instead of session musicians. Their sound was defined by mainstream country and rock influences, but albums drew more influence from Christian country music and country pop. In 1982, Matt Davenport and Danny Gregg founded a band at Opryland USA, a former country music-based amusement park in Nashville, Tennessee; the band was first named the Grizzly River Boys, after a new river rafting ride at the park, but changed names to the Tennessee River Boys due to its members disliking the original name. Intended to promote the park through a one-time television special, the band proved popular enough that it became one of many regular performers there.
Davenport, Ty Herndon alternated as lead vocalists, with Davenport playing bass guitar and Gregg on rhythm guitar. The group "swapped lead voices, told jokes, balanced old-school country concert shtick with a contemporary sound." Herndon left the group in 1983 to compete on the talent show Star Search, became a solo artist for Epic Records between 1995 and the early 2000s. Herndon was temporarily replaced by Anthony Crawford and Virgil True before his role was taken over by Marty Roe, who had toured nationally with the Christian band Windsong, worked in the park by doing impersonations of Larry Gatlin. Following Herndon's departure, DeLonibus and Mummert quit as well, with Dan Truman and Jimmy "J. J." Whiteside taking their places. Beard quit shortly afterward and became a session musician, former Mel McDaniel sideman Jimmy Olander took his place; the band, through the assistance of Bill Anderson's drummer Len "Snuffy" Miller, submitted demos to various Nashville record labels with no success.
By 1985, the Tennessee River Boys had quit working at Opryland. According to Roe, while the band enjoyed playing at the park, they felt that their status as a theme park attraction discredited them as "real musicians" to those in the Nashville community. For the next few years, they played at small venues such as high school auditoriums, worked no more than four concerts a month, they competed on Star Search, but were eliminated in the first round. Frustrated by the sporadic touring schedules, Whiteside quit the group and was replaced by Brian Prout, who performed in Hot Walker Band and Heartbreak Mountain. Around 1986, Deal and Gregg both left the group, the latter due to health complications from a serious illness he had developed as a teenager, they chose to operate as a quintet, with Davenport as the sole lead vocalist and Roe and Prout singing harmony. Johnson debuted at a concert in Clewiston, Florida, in May 1987. At this point, the band members supplemented their incomes with outside jobs: Johnson continued to work in carpentry, as he had done before joining the band, while Olander and Roe mowed lawns, Prout drove tour buses.
In 1988, the band caught the attention of Keith Stegall, a singer-songwriter who would become known for his work as Alan Jackson's record producer. Stegall produced demos for the Tennessee River Boys, but noted that Davenport could not record the lead vocal and bass parts at the same time, as they would be difficult to separate in the control room; as a result, Stegall had Roe sing a "scratch" vocal track live with the other musicians, which would be replaced by Davenport's voice in post-production. Upon hearing Roe sing the "scratch" track, Stegall convinced the other members that Roe should be the lead vocalist instead. Due to his discomfort outside the lead role and his wife's dissatisfaction with his career, Davenport quit in late 1988, becoming the last founding member to leave; the group had to find a replacement, as they were scheduled to appear on the talk show Nashville Now on Januar
The Filipino Academy of Movie Arts and Sciences, in behalf of the Santiago family, bestowed the Dr. Ciriaco Santiago Memorial Award to performers and directors of productions that have gained international recognition for their cinematic excellence; the Dr. Ciriaco Santiago Memorial Award is given in honor of Dr. Ciriaco Santiago, studio chief of Premiere Productions; the earliest record of its awarding was in the 7th FAMAS Awards in 1959, when Susan Roces received it for representing the country in the 1959 San Francisco Pacific Film Festival. The Santiago family provided the award. However, the family became uninterested in awarding the annual special award, so it was last given in the 50th FAMAS Awards in 2002. 1959 Susan Roces 1962 Lamberto Avellana 1964 Eddie Romero. 1968 Emmanuel Rojas. 1971 Eddie Romero 1972 Atty. Espiridion Laxa 1973 Dr. Jose Perez 1974 Joseph Estrada 1976 Teodoro Valencia 1980 Jessie Ejercito 1982 Lily Monteverde 1987 Eddie Romero 1999 Monique Wilson 2000 Gary Valenciano 2001 Donita Rose 2002 Geneva Cruz The Unofficial Website of the Filipino Academy of Movie Arts and Sciences
Coral reefs in India are one of the most ancient and dynamic ecosystems of India. The coral reefs not only provide a sanctuary to a myriad of marine life but play a key role in protecting the coastline from erosion. India has about 7517 km of coastline including islands but mainland coast is 6100 km. Andaman and Nicobar IslandsSituated in the Bay of Bengal fringing reefs of about 572 islands, most of these islands have a healthy biodiversity. Gulf of KutchExclusively consists of fringing reefs; the reefs are less developed due to large range of temperature and high salinity. The harbours have less biodiversity; the entire Gulf of Kutch is known as a marine national park. Gulf of MannarFringing reefs with a chain of 21 islands from Rameswaram in the north to Thoothukudi in the south; this part of the gulf forms part of the Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve. LakshadweepExclusively coral atolls with 36 islands, of which 10 are inhabited; the islands range from less than 1 km to about 9 km in length, do not exceed 2 km in width.
OthersTarkarli in Malwan, Maharashtra is a smaller reef. There are some coral reefs around small inlets in the western part of the Gulf of Khambat. Angria Bank is a coral reef off Vijaydurg in Maharashtra. There is a coral reef in Netrani Island in Karnataka. Shell reef in Gulf of Kutch is a shell shaped reef made from bio rock and decorated with coral in the deep waters of Gulf of Kutch, off the coast of Gujarat, it helps Coral Polyps to get healed 20% faster than usual. Near coast of Odish, Tourism in India Coral Reefs in India – National Biodiversity Authority of India Official website – National Institute of Oceanography
James Ernest is an American game designer and juggler, best known as the owner and lead designer of Cheapass Games. Prior to founding Cheapass Games, Ernest worked as a juggler at various venues, including Camlann Medieval Village, as a freelancer with Wizards of the Coast, he worked for Carbonated Games. He has created games for other publishers including Rio Grande Games and WizKids. In 2005, Paizo Publishing created Titanic Games with Mike Selinker. Ernest's games include Unexploded Cow, Kill Doctor Lucky, The Big Idea and the game known as Before I Kill You, Mr. Bond, he has had success with Kickstarter crowdfunding games like a new version of Unexploded Cow and Get Lucky, among others. Ernest wrote, directed and created music for the short film The Man Between and wrote the book Dealer's Choice: The Complete Handbook of Saturday Night Poker, his first publication was the book Contact Juggling in 1990. In 2014 James began collaborating with Patrick Rothfuss to create an abstract strategy game called Tak, based on a game described in Rothfuss's 2011 book The Wise Man's Fear.
In April 2016 they launched a Kickstarter campaign to bring the game to actual publication. The campaign ended on May 20 to great success, with 12,187 backers pledging $1,351,142