Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Billy Barty was an American actor and activist. In adult life, he stood three feet, nine inches, due to cartilage–hair hypoplasia dwarfism, because of his short stature, he was cast in movies opposite taller performers for comic effect, he specialized in wisecracking characters. During the 1950s, he became a television star, appearing in the Spike Jones ensemble. Barty was born October 25, 1924 in Millsboro, the son of Albert Steven and Ellen Cecial Bertanzetti His paternal grandfather was Italian. In 1962, he married Shirley Bolingbroke of Idaho, they had Lori Neilson and TV/film producer and director Braden Barty. Barty and his family were members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Barty co-starred with Mickey Rooney in the Mickey McGuire shorts, a comedy series of the 1920s and 1930s based on the Toonerville Folks comics. Small for his age then, Barty would impersonate young children alongside brawny authority figures or wild animals, making these threats seem larger by comparison.
In the 1933 film Gold Diggers of 1933, a nine-year-old Barty appeared as a baby who escapes from his stroller. He appeared as The Child in the 1933 film Footlight Parade, he is seen in the 1935 film Bride of Frankenstein, in an uncredited role as a baby in one of Dr. Pretorius' experiments, although his close-ups were cut out of the picture. Much of Barty's film work consisted of bit parts and gag roles, he appeared in Fireman Save My Child, appeared in two Elvis Presley films. He co-starred without dialogue in Harum Scarum, he had roles in these feature films: Barty appeared several times on The Dennis Day Show, including once as a leprechaun. Beginning in 1958, he played pool hustler Babby, an occasional "information resource", in eight episodes of the Peter Gunn TV series. Barty starred in the Rawhide episode "Prairie Elephant" in 1961. Barty was known for his boundless energy and enthusiasm for any productions in which he appeared, he performed with the Spike Jones musical comedy show on stage and television, is remembered for his remarkable parody of flamboyant pianist Liberace.
Barty starred in a local Southern California children's show, Billy Barty's Bigtop, in the mid-1960s, which showed The Three Stooges shorts. In one program, Stooge Moe Howard visited the set as a surprise guest; the program gave many Los Angeles area children their first opportunity to become familiar with little people, who until had been seen on the screen except as two-dimensional curiosities. He appeared as a guest host on KTTV's Sheriff John's Lunch Brigade whenever "Sheriff John" Rovick was on vacation. Barty starred as "Sparky the Firefly" in the popular children's television shows The Bugaloos from 1970 to 1972 and as "Sigmund" in Sigmund and the Sea Monsters produced by Sid Krofft and Marty Krofft from 1974 to 1976. Barty played as Toulouse Lautrec in the 1972 The Brady Bunch Saturday morning cartoons preview special The Brady Bunch Meet ABC's Saturday Superstars. Barty played the evil sidekick on the 1970s Saturday morning TV series Dr. Shrinker, was a regular cast member of comedian Redd Foxx's variety show The Redd Foxx Show.
Barty appeared in an episode of Barney Miller in 1977 & The Love Boat in 1978. Another show he guest-starred. In June 1978, Barty guest-starred in the final episode of Man from Atlantis titled "Deadly Carnival", he guest starred in two episodes of Little House On The Prairie playing a circus member in the episode "Annabelle". In a episode as a single dad trying to raise a baby daughter. Barty was seen on Bizarre, a weekly Canadian TV sketch comedy series, airing from 1980 to 1985. In 1981, he appeared in a documentary called Being Different and in late 1985, he appeared as Rose Nylund's father in a dream sequence on an episode of The Golden Girls titled "A Little Romance". In 1983, Barty supplied the voice for "Figment" in EPCOT Center's Journey Into Imagination dark ride, he subsequently supplied a reprisal for the second incarnation, though brief. Barty was an annual guest-star on Canada's Telemiracle telethon, one of the most successful telethons in the world. Billy appeared on a 1976 episode of Celebrity Bowling paired with Dick Martin, defeating John Schuck and Michael Ansara, 120-118.
Barty was a noted activist for the promotion of rights for others with dwarfism. He was disappointed with contemporary Hervé Villechaize's insistence that they were "midgets" instead of actors with dwarfism. Barty founded the Little People of America organization to help people with dwarfism in 1957 when he called upon people of short stature to join him in a get-together in Reno, Nevada; that original meeting of 21 people grew into Little People of America, a group which as of 2010 has more than 6,800 members. It was the first North American organization for little people. In 1981, Barty received a motion pictures star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6922 Hollywood Boulevard for his contributions to the film industry. In 1990, Barty was sued in small claims court by two of the writers of his cancelled comedy television series Short Ribbs, which aired for 13 weeks in the autumn of 1989 as a local program on KDOC-TV. Producer and writer William Winckler and writer Warren Taylor filed separate lawsuits against Barty for money owed, Barty lost both cases.
Barty claimed the lawsuit news was the most publicity he got, compared it to similar press that celebrity Zsa Zsa Gabor received for slapping a Beverly Hills police officer. In December 2002, a book on Barty's life titled Within Reach: An Inspirational Journey into the Life
Ned Thomas Beatty is a retired American actor. He has appeared in more than 160 films and has been nominated for an Academy Award, two Emmy Awards, a Golden Globe Award; these nominations stemmed from his performances in films and television series, such as Network, Friendly Fire, Hear My Song, Toy Story 3. He has had great commercial success in roles such as the executive Bobby Trippe in Deliverance, Tennessee lawyer Delbert Reese in Nashville, investigator Martin Dardis in All the President's Men, undercover federal agent Bob Sweet in Silver Streak, the priest, Father Edwards in Exorcist II: The Heretic, Lex Luthor's bumbling henchman Otis in Superman and Superman II, as a millionaire's right-hand man in The Toy, Pavel Borisov in The Fourth Protocol, TV presenter Ernest Weller in Repossessed, Rudy Ruettiger's father in Rudy, attorney McNair in Just Cause, Dexter Wilkins in Life, the simple sheriff in Where the Red Fern Grows, the corrupt Senator Charles F. Meachum in Shooter, United States Congressman Doc Long in Charlie Wilson's War and in animated films as the voice of Lots-O'-Huggin' Bear in Toy Story 3 and Tortoise John in Rango.
Beatty was born in Kentucky, to Margaret and Charles William Beatty. He has Mary Margaret. In 1947, young Ned began singing in gospel and barbershop quartets in St. Matthews, at his local church, he received a scholarship to sing in the a cappella choir at Transylvania University in Lexington, Kentucky. In 1956, he made his stage debut at age 19, appearing in Wilderness Road, an outdoor-historical pageant located in Berea, Kentucky. During his first ten years of theater, he worked at the Barter Theater in Abingdon, the State Theatre of Virginia. Returning to Kentucky, he worked in the Louisville area through the mid-1960s, at the Clarksville Little Theater and the newly founded Actors Theater of Louisville, his time at the latter included a run as Willy Loman in Death of a Salesman in 1966. In 1972, Beatty made his film debut as Bobby Trippe in Deliverance, starring Jon Voight and Burt Reynolds, set in northern Georgia. Beatty's character is forced to strip at gunpoint by two mountain men who humiliate and rape him, a scene so unprecedented and shocking that it is still referenced as a screen milestone.
In 1972, he appeared in The Life and Times of Judge Roy Bean, a western with Paul Newman. In 1973, Beatty made The Thief Who Came to The Last American Hero and White Lightning; the latter film reunited Beatty with Burt Reynolds. He appeared in an episode of the TV series The Waltons that year, as well as the TV-movie The Marcus-Nelson Murders, the pilot for the series Kojak; the next year, 1974, he appeared in the television miniseries The Execution of Private Slovik and in the two-part episode of The Rockford Files, "Profit and Loss". In 1975, he made W. W. and the Dixie Dancekings and Nashville, as well as appearing as Colonel Hollister in the 1975 M*A*S*H episode, "Dear Peggy". He appeared in the NBC-TV movie Attack on Terror: The FBI vs. the Ku Klux Klan as Deputy Sheriff Ollie Thompson. Ned made an appearance on Gunsmoke in "The Hiders" episode in 1975. Beatty received his first Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor category for the acclaimed film Network, portraying a television network's bombastic but shrewd chairman of the board who convinces the mad Howard Beale character that corporation-led global dehumanization is not only inevitable, but is a good thing.
Neither Beatty nor William Holden, who shared the lead role with Finch, won an Oscar. The other three acting awards besides best supporting actor were swept by Network performers: Best Actor for Peter Finch, Best Actress for Faye Dunaway, Best Supporting Actress for Beatrice Straight. In 1976, he appeared in All the President's Men, Silver Streak and Mikey and Nicky. In 1977, he returned to work with John Boorman in Exorcist II: The Heretic, starring Linda Blair, appeared in "The Final Chapter", the first episode of the television series Quinn Martin's Tales of the Unexpected. During 1977-78, he starred in the sitcom Szysznyk on CBS. In 1978, Beatty appeared in a drama aboard a submarine starring Charlton Heston; the film is significant chiefly for being the screen debut of Christopher Reeve, Beatty's future costar. That year, Beatty was cast by Richard Donner to portray Lex Luthor's inept henchman Otis in Superman: The Movie, as he would in the 1980 sequel, where we see his character being left behind in prison.
He received a second nomination for Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or a Special for the television series Friendly Fire. In 1979, he was seen in Wise Blood, directed by John Huston, 1941, directed by Steven Spielberg. In 1980, Beatty appeared in Ronald Neame's 1980 American film Hopscotch with Walter Matthau. In 1981, Beatty appeared in the comedy/science fiction film The Incredible Shrinking Woman, directed by Joel Schumacher and starring Lily Tomlin. In 1982, Beatty returned to work with Richard Pryor in the comedy The Toy. Beatty worked with Burt Reynolds again in the auto-racing farce Stroker Ace. In the middle of the 1980s, Beatty appeared in the comedy film Restless Natives, directed by Michael Hoffman. By the end of the 1980s, Beatty appeared in another comedy film, as the academic "Dean Martin" in Back to School, starrin
A biplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with two main wings stacked one above the other. The first powered, controlled aeroplane to fly, the Wright Flyer, used a biplane wing arrangement, as did many aircraft in the early years of aviation. While a biplane wing structure has a structural advantage over a monoplane, it produces more drag than a similar unbraced or cantilever monoplane wing. Improved structural techniques, better materials and the quest for greater speed made the biplane configuration obsolete for most purposes by the late 1930s. Biplanes offer several advantages over conventional cantilever monoplane designs: they permit lighter wing structures, low wing loading and smaller span for a given wing area. However, interference between the airflow over each wing increases drag and biplanes need extensive bracing, which causes additional drag. Biplanes are distinguished from tandem wing arrangements, where the wings are placed forward and aft, instead of above and below; the term is occasionally used in biology, to describe the wings of some flying animals.
In a biplane aircraft, two wings are placed one above the other. Each provides part of the lift, although they are not able to produce twice as much lift as a single wing of similar size and shape because the upper and the lower are working on nearly the same portion of the atmosphere and thus interfere with each other's behaviour. For example, in a wing of aspect ratio 6, a wing separation distance of one chord length, the biplane configuration will only produce about 20 percent more lift than a single wing of the same planform; the lower wing is attached to the fuselage, while the upper wing is raised above the fuselage with an arrangement of cabane struts, although other arrangements have been used. Either or both of the main wings can support ailerons, while flaps are more positioned on the lower wing. Bracing is nearly always added between the upper and lower wings, in the form of wires and/or slender interplane struts positioned symmetrically on either side of the fuselage; the primary advantage of the biplane over a monoplane is to combine great stiffness with light weight.
Stiffness requires structural depth and, where early monoplanes had to have this added with complicated extra bracing, the box kite or biplane has a deep structure and is therefore easier to make both light and strong. A braced monoplane wing must support itself while the two wings of a biplane help to stiffen each other; the biplane is therefore inherently stiffer than the monoplane. The structural forces in the spars of a biplane wing tend to be lower, so the wing can use less material to obtain the same overall strength and is therefore much lighter. A disadvantage of the biplane was the need for extra struts to space the wings apart, although the bracing required by early monoplanes reduced this disadvantage; the low power supplied by the engines available in the first years of aviation meant that aeroplanes could only fly slowly. This required an lower stalling speed, which in turn required a low wing loading, combining both large wing area with light weight. A biplane wing of a given span and chord has twice the area of a monoplane the same size and so can fly more or for a given flight speed can lift more weight.
Alternatively, a biplane wing of the same area as a monoplane has lower span and chord, reducing the structural forces and allowing it to be lighter. Biplanes suffer aerodynamic interference between the two planes; this means that a biplane does not in practice obtain twice the lift of the similarly-sized monoplane. The farther apart the wings are spaced the less the interference, but the spacing struts must be longer. Given the low speed and power of early aircraft, the drag penalty of the wires and struts and the mutual interference of airflows were minor and acceptable factors; as engine power rose after World War One, the thick-winged cantilever monoplane became practicable and, with its inherently lower drag and higher speed, from around 1918 it began to replace the biplane in most fields of aviation. The smaller biplane wing allows greater maneuverability. During World War One, this further enhanced the dominance of the biplane and, despite the need for speed, military aircraft were among the last to abandon the biplane form.
Specialist sports aerobatic biplanes are still made. Biplanes were designed with the wings positioned directly one above the other. Moving the upper wing forward relative to the lower one is called positive stagger or, more simply stagger, it can help increase lift and reduce drag by reducing the aerodynamic interference effects between the two wings, makes access to the cockpit easier. Many biplanes have staggered wings. Common examples from the 1930s include the de Havilland Tiger Moth, Bücker Bü 131 Jungmann and Travel Air 2000, it is possible to place the lower wing's leading edge ahead of the upper wing, giving negative stagger. This is done in a given design for practical engineering reasons. Examples of negative stagger include Breguet 14 and Beechcraft Staggerwing. However, positive stagger is more common; the space enclosed by a set of interplane struts is called a bay, hence a biplane or triplane with one set of such struts connecting the wings on each side of the aircraft is a single-bay biplane.
This provided sufficient strength for smaller aircraft such as the First World War-era Fokker D. VII fighter and the Second World War de Havilland Tiger Moth basic trainer; the larger two-seat Curtiss JN-4 Jenny is a two bay biplane, the extra bay being necessary as overlong bays are prone to flexing and can fail. The SPAD S. XIII fighter, while appearing to be a two bay bip
Rosemary Clooney was an American singer and actress. She came to prominence in the early 1950s with the song "Come On-a My House", followed by other pop numbers such as "Botch-a-Me", "Mambo Italiano", "Tenderly", "Half as Much", "Hey There" and "This Ole House", she had success as a jazz vocalist. Clooney's career languished in the 1960s due to problems related to depression and drug addiction, but revived in 1977, when her White Christmas co-star Bing Crosby asked her to appear with him at a show marking his 50th anniversary in show business, she continued recording until her death in 2002. Rosemary Clooney was born in Maysville, the daughter of Marie Frances and Andrew Joseph Clooney, she was one of five children. Her father was of Irish and German descent and her mother was of English and Irish ancestry, she was raised Catholic. When Clooney was 15, her mother and brother Nick moved to California, she and her sister Betty remained with their father. The family resided in the John Brett Richeson House in the late 1940s.
Rosemary and Betty became entertainers, whereas Nick became a television broadcaster. In 1945, the Clooney sisters won a spot on Ohio's radio station WLW as singers, her sister Betty sang in a duo with Rosemary for much of the latter's early career. Clooney's first recordings, in May 1946, were for Columbia Records, she sang with Tony Pastor's big band. Clooney continued working with the Pastor band until 1949, making her last recording with the band in May of that year and her first as a solo artist a month still for Columbia. In 1950–51, she was a regular on the radio and television versions of "Songs For Sale" on CBS. In 1951, her record of "Come On-a My House", produced by Mitch Miller, became a hit, it was her first of many singles to hit the charts—despite the fact that Clooney hated the song passionately. She had been told by Columbia Records to record the song, that she would be in violation of her contract if she did not do so. Clooney recorded several duets with Marlene Dietrich and appeared in the early 1950s on Faye Emerson's Wonderful Town series on CBS.
Clooney did several guest appearances on the Arthur Godfrey radio show, when it was sponsored by Lipton Tea. They did duets as he played his ukulele, other times she would sing one of her latest hits. In 1954, she starred, along with Bing Crosby, Danny Kaye, Vera-Ellen, in the movie White Christmas, she starred, in 1956, in a half-hour syndicated television musical-variety show The Rosemary Clooney Show. The show featured Nelson Riddle's orchestra; the following year, the show moved to NBC prime time as The Lux Show Starring Rosemary Clooney, but only lasted one season. The new show featured the singing group Frank DeVol's orchestra. In years, Clooney appeared with Bing Crosby on television, such as in the 1957 special The Edsel Show, the two friends made a concert tour of Ireland together. On November 21, 1957, she appeared on NBC's The Ford Show, Starring Tennessee Ernie Ford, a frequent entry in the "Top 20" and featuring a musical group called "The Top Twenty". In 1960, Clooney and Crosby co-starred in a 20-minute CBS radio program aired before the midday news each weekday.
Clooney left Columbia Records in 1958, doing a number of recordings for MGM Records and some for Coral Records. Toward the end of 1958, she signed with RCA Victor Records, where she stayed until 1963. In 1964, she went to Reprise Records, in 1965 to Dot Records. Upon her recovery from a nervous breakdown in 1968, Clooney signed with United Artists Records in 1976 for two albums. Beginning in 1977, she recorded an album a year for the Concord Jazz record label, which continued until her death; this was in contrast to most of her generation of singers, who had long since stopped recording by then. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Clooney did television commercials for Coronet brand paper towels, during which she sang a memorable jingle that goes, "Extra value is what you get, when you buy Coro-net." In the early 1980s, Jim Belushi parodied the commercial on NBC's Saturday Night Live. Clooney sang a duet with Wild Man Fischer on "It's a Hard Business" in 1986, in 1994 she sang a duet of Green Eyes with Barry Manilow in his 1994 album, Singin' with the Big Bands.
In 1995, Clooney guest-starred in the NBC television medical drama ER. On January 27, 1996, Clooney appeared on Garrison Keillor's Prairie Home Companion radio program, she sang "When October Goes"—lyrics by Johnny Mercer and music by Barry Manilow —from Manilow's 1984 album 2:00 AM Paradise Cafe, discussed the excellence of Manilow the musician. Clooney was awarded Society of Singers Lifetime Achievement Award in 1998. In 1999, she founded the Rosemary Clooney Music Festival, held annually in her hometown, she performed at the festival every year until her death. Proceeds benefit the restoration of the Russell Theater in Maysville, where Clooney's first film, The Stars Are Singing, premiered in 1953, she received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 2002. Clooney was married twice to 16 years her senior. Clooney first married Ferrer on June 1953, in Durant, Oklahoma, they moved to Santa Monica, California, in 1954, to Los Angeles in 1958. Together, the couple had five children: Miguel, Gabriel and Rafael.
Clooney and Ferrer divorced for
Rodenticides, colloquially rat poison, are non-specific pest control chemicals made and sold for the purpose of killing rodents. Some rodenticides are lethal after one exposure. Rodents are disinclined to gorge on an unknown food, preferring to sample and observe whether it makes them or other rats sick; this phenomenon of bait shyness or poison shyness is the rationale for poisons that kill only after multiple doses. Besides being directly toxic to the mammals that ingest them, including dogs and humans, many rodenticides present a secondary poisoning risk to animals that hunt or scavenge the dead corpses of rats. Anticoagulants are defined as chronic, single-dose or multiple-dose rodenticides, acting by effective blocking of the vitamin K cycle, resulting in inability to produce essential blood-clotting factors—mainly coagulation factors II and VII. In addition to this specific metabolic disruption, massive toxic doses of 4-hydroxycoumarin, 4-thiochromenone and indandione anticoagulants cause damage to tiny blood vessels, increasing their permeability, causing internal bleeding.
These effects are gradual. In the final phase of the intoxication, the exhausted rodent collapses due to hemorrhagic shock or severe anemia and dies calmly; the question of whether the use of these rodenticides can be considered humane has been raised. The main benefit of anticoagulants over other poisons is that the time taken for the poison to induce death means that the rats do not associate the damage with their feeding habits. First generation rodenticidal anticoagulants have shorter elimination half-lives, require higher concentrations and consecutive intake over days in order to accumulate the lethal dose, are less toxic than second generation agents. Second generation agents are far more toxic than first generation, they are applied in lower concentrations in baits—usually on the order of 0.001% to 0.005%—are lethal after a single ingestion of bait and are effective against strains of rodents that became resistant to first generation anticoagulants. Vitamin K1 has been suggested, used, as antidote for pets or humans accidentally or intentionally exposed to anticoagulant poisons.
Some of these poisons act by inhibiting liver functions and in advanced stages of poisoning, several blood-clotting factors are absent, the volume of circulating blood is diminished, so that a blood transfusion can save a person, poisoned, an advantage over some older poisons. Metal phosphides have been used as a means of killing rodents and are considered single-dose fast acting rodenticides. A bait consisting of food and a phosphide is left; the acid in the digestive system of the rodent reacts with the phosphide to generate the toxic phosphine gas. This method of vermin control has possible use in places where rodents are resistant to some of the anticoagulants for control of house and field mice. Inversely, the individual rodents, that survived anticoagulant bait poisoning can be eradicated by pre-baiting them with nontoxic bait for a week or two and subsequently applying poisoned bait of the same sort as used for pre-baiting until all consumption of the bait ceases; these methods of alternating rodenticides with different modes of action gives actual or 100% eradications of the rodent population in the area, if the acceptance/palatability of baits are good.
Zinc phosphide is added to rodent baits in a concentration of 0.75% to 2.0%. The baits have pungent garlic-like odor due to the phosphine liberated by hydrolysis; the odor has an repulsive effect on other mammals. Birds, notably wild turkeys, are not sensitive to the smell, will feed on the bait, thus become collateral damage; the tablets or pellets may contain other chemicals which evolve ammonia, which helps reduce the potential for spontaneous combustion or explosion of the phosphine gas. Metal phosphides do not accumulate in the tissues of poisoned animals, so the risk of secondary poisoning is low. Before the advent of anticoagulants, phosphides were the favored kind of rat poison. During World War II, they came into use in United States because of shortage of strychnine due to the Japanese occupation of the territories where the strychnine tree is grown. Phosphides are rather fast-acting rat poisons, resulting in the rats dying in open areas, instead of in the affected buildings. Phosphides used as rodenticides include: aluminium phosphide calcium phosphide magnesium phosphide zinc phosphide
Stephen Glenn Martin is an American actor, writer and musician. Martin came to public notice in the 1960s as a writer for The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour, as a frequent guest on The Tonight Show. In the 1970s, Martin performed his offbeat, absurdist comedy routines before packed houses on national tours. Since the 1980s, having branched away from comedy, Martin has become a successful actor, as well as an author, playwright and banjo player earning him Emmy and American Comedy awards, among other honors. In 2004, Comedy Central ranked Martin at sixth place in a list of the 100 greatest stand-up comics, he was awarded an Honorary Academy Award at the Academy's 5th Annual Governors Awards in 2013. While he has played banjo since an early age, included music in his comedy routines from the beginning of his professional career, he has dedicated his career to music since the 2000s, acting less and spending much of his professional life playing banjo and touring with various bluegrass acts, including Earl Scruggs, with whom he won a Grammy for Best Country Instrumental Performance in 2002.
He released his first solo music album, The Crow: New Songs for the 5-String Banjo, in 2009, for which he won the Grammy Award for Best Bluegrass Album. Martin was born on August 14, 1945, in Waco, the son of Mary Lee and Glenn Vernon Martin, a real estate salesman and aspiring actor. Martin was raised in Inglewood, with brother Fred and sister Melinda Martin, later in Garden Grove, California, in a Baptist family. Martin was a cheerleader of Garden Grove High School. One of his earliest memories is of seeing his father, as an extra, serving drinks onstage at the Call Board Theatre on Melrose Place. During World War II, in the United Kingdom, Martin's father had appeared in a production of Our Town with Raymond Massey. Expressing his affection through gifts, like cars and bikes, Martin's father was stern, not open to his son, he was proud but critical, with Martin recalling that in his teens his feelings for his father were ones of hatred. Martin's first job was at Disneyland, selling guidebooks on weekends and full-time during his school's summer break.
That lasted for three years. During his free time, he frequented the Main Street Magic shop, where tricks were demonstrated to patrons. While working at Disneyland, he was captured in the background of the home movie, made into the short-subject film Disneyland Dream, incidentally becoming his first film appearance. By 1960, he had mastered several magic tricks and illusions and took a paying job at the Magic shop in Fantasyland in August. There he perfected his talents for magic and creating balloon animals in the manner of mentor Wally Boag performing for tips. In his authorized biography, close friend Morris Walker suggests that Martin could "be described most as an agnostic... he went to church and was never involved in organized religion of his own volition". In his early 20s, Martin dated Melissa Trumbo, daughter of acclaimed novelist and screenwriter Dalton Trumbo. After high school, Martin attended Santa Ana College, taking classes in English poetry. In his free time, he teamed up with friend and Garden Grove High School classmate Kathy Westmoreland to participate in comedies and other productions at the Bird Cage Theatre.
He joined a comedy troupe at Knott's Berry Farm. He met budding actress Stormie Sherk, they developed comedy routines and became romantically involved. Sherk's influence caused Martin to apply to the California State University, Long Beach, for enrollment with a major in philosophy. Sherk enrolled at UCLA, about an hour's drive north, the distance caused them to lead separate lives. Inspired by his philosophy classes, Martin considered becoming a professor instead of an actor–comedian, his time at college changed his life. Martin recalls reading a treatise on comedy that led him to think: Martin periodically spoofed his philosophy studies in his 1970s stand-up act, comparing philosophy with studying geology. In 1967, Martin switched his major to theater. While attending college, he appeared in an episode of The Dating Game. Martin began working local clubs at night, to mixed notices, at twenty-one, he dropped out of college. In 1967, his former girlfriend Nina Goldblatt, a dancer on The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour, helped Martin land a writing job with the show by submitting his work to head writer Mason Williams.
Williams paid Martin out of his own pocket. Along with the other writers for the show, Martin won an Emmy Award in 1969, aged 23, he wrote for John Denver, The Glen Campbell Goodtime Hour, The Sonny and Cher Comedy Hour. Martin's first TV appearance was on The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour in 1968, he says: During these years his roommates included comedian Gary Mule Deer and singer/guitarist Michael Johnson. Martin opened for groups such as The Nitty Gritty Dirt Band, The Carpenters, Toto, he appeared among other venues. He continued to write, earning an Emmy nomination for his work on Van Dyke and Company in 1976. In the mid-1970s, Martin made frequent appearances as a stand-up comedian on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, on The Gong Show, HBO's On Location, The Muppet Show, NBC's Saturday Night Live. SNL's audience jumped by a million viewers when he made guest appearances, he was one of the show’s most successful hosts. Martin appeared on 27 Saturday Night Live s