River Colne, Hertfordshire
The Colne is a river in England, a tributary of the River Thames. Just over half its course is in south Hertfordshire. Downstream, the Colne is the boundary between Buckinghamshire and London and between corners of Berkshire and Surrey. On leaving Hertfordshire, the watercourse splits off into several separate branches, a few of which rejoin it, its main branch flows into the River Thames on the reach above Penton Hook Lock at Staines-upon-Thames. Two further, artificial distributaries were constructed in the 1600-1750 period for aesthetic reasons for Hampton Court and for Syon Park which have been kept maintained, flowing through several London districts. Although their main purpose was not drinking water, these artificial streams can be likened to the New River in scale and in date. Crossing its route and canals, such as the Grand Union Canal, have been recognised for pioneering engineering during the Industrial Revolution. Digging for gravel and clay along its lower course south of Rickmansworth has created a long belt of pits which have flooded to become lakes.
Many of these protected as nature reserves. The river and many once gravel-producing lakes form the Colne Valley regional park in total covering 43 square miles; the Colne rises perennially from a subterranean river at a spring in North Mymms Park in Hertfordshire. Two dry tributaries: an unnamed brook and the Mimmshall Brook start 2.5 to 4 mi from the source at golf courses in Barnet, at Borehamwood and in fields by Northaw Place, Northaw. This underground stretch under the old village centre of North Mymms runs for 1.1 mi from swallow holes of the two brooks in the part of that parish named Water End. From the Water End Swallow Holes the Colne runs NW SW, bounding central and residential Watford and Oxhey bounding Rickmansworth and Batchworth marking the border between Greater London and Buckinghamshire. After these conjoined settlements it turns south, its main direction, passes between West Hyde, near Maple Cross, Harefield, passes Denham Green passes Uxbridge, where it parallels the Grand Union Canal and its distributary the Frays River, joined by the River Pinn between Cowley and Yiewsley on the Greater London side.
The Colne Brook splits off as a distributary between New Uxbridge. After this, at West Drayton, the Frays River rejoins and the Wraysbury River and Duke of Northumberland's River divide off. In its lower reaches, the river at Longford supplies water to the Longford River, a 12-mile artificial channel created in 1610 for King Charles I to supply the water features in Bushy Park and the rectangular lakes in Hampton Court Park; the Colne's drainage basin extends as far north again as the main stream of the river beginning in Hertfordshire: its tributaries, including the Gade and Misbourne, all extend well into the Chilterns. The Colne's drainage basin is bordered by a range of Thames tributaries to the east and west, including the Crane and Lea to the east and Wye to the west. To the north of Tring a modest ridge acts as a watershed, separating the Colne's drainage basin from that of the River Great Ouse, which flows north and east towards the Wash; the villages of Colney Heath east of St Albans, London Colney south of St Albans, Colney Street north of Radlett and Colnbrook between Slough and Heathrow take their name from the river.
Three Rivers district covers an area of Hertfordshire named after the River Colne and its two tributary rivers which join the closest together, the River Chess and the River Gade. Among early proposals to link the river to London was one in 1641 by Sir Edward Forde for a navigable canal, the main purpose of which seems to have been the supply of clean water, two in 1766, for canals from Marylebone to the river at Uxbridge and another from Marylebone to West Drayton; the river underwent considerable change in the 1790s, when the Grand Junction Canal was routed along the valley and still takes the river channel for part of its course. Construction began from Brentford, where it used for 3 miles the channel of the River Brent, progressed westwards northwards, with it reaching Uxbridge in November 1794. To reach the Midlands it continued along the river channel until its junction with the River Gade, which it ran parallel to, but did not take over the channel; the Slough Arm was built in 1882 which required three aqueducts to carry it close to its junction with the Grand Junction, to cross the Fray's River, the River Colne and the Colne Brook.
Between Croxley Green, where the River Gade joins the Colne, Thorney/West Drayton, below the Slough Arm, the river channels thread their way between many large lakes, some of which were once watercress beds, some chalk pits, some of which were the result of brickmaking, an industry that developed over several miles of the valley after 1800, when the Grand Junction Canal company advertised the presence of good brick earth, discovered during the construction of the canal. There are two London Coal Duty markers beside the river, which mark points at which duty became payable on coal entering the London area; the first is on the north side of the river in Colney Heath Local Nature Reserve, is a square-section cast iron pillar made by Henry Grissell at his Regents Canal ironworks and erected in 1861 or 1862. It is painted white; the second is a stone obelisk, 13 feet high, with a square base, erected at Colne Bridge in 1861. It was moved from its original position to the other side of t
Bedford is the county town of Bedfordshire, England. The town has an estimated population of 87,590, whereas the Borough of Bedford had an estimated population of 169,912. Bedford was founded at a ford on the River Great Ouse, is thought to have been the burial place of Offa of Mercia. Bedford Castle was built by Henry I, although it was destroyed in 1224. Bedford was granted borough status in 1165 and has been represented in Parliament since 1265, it is well known for its large population of Italian descent. Bedford is on the Midland Main Line, with stopping services to London and Brighton operated by Thameslink, express services to London and the East Midlands operated by East Midlands Trains; the name of the town is thought to derive from the name of a Saxon chief called Beda, a ford crossing the River Great Ouse. Bedford was a market town for the surrounding agricultural region from the early Middle Ages The Anglo-Saxon King Offa of Mercia was buried in the town in 796. In 886 it became a boundary town separating Danelaw.
It was the seat of the Barony of Bedford. In 919 Edward the Elder built the town's first known fortress, on the south side of the River Great Ouse and there received the area's submission; this fortress was destroyed by the Danes. William II gave the barony of Bedford to Paine de Beauchamp who built a strong castle. Bedford traces its borough charter in 1166 by Henry II and elected two members to the unreformed House of Commons, it remained a small agricultural town, with wool being an important industry in the area for much of the Middle Ages. The new Bedford Castle was razed in 1224 and today only a mound remains. From the 16th century Bedford and much of Bedfordshire became one of the main centres of England's lace industry, lace continued to be an important industry in Bedford until the early 20th century. In 1660 John Bunyan was imprisoned for 12 years in Bedford Gaol, it was here. The River Great Ouse became navigable as far as Bedford in 1689. Wool declined in importance with brewing becoming a major industry in the town.
The 19th century saw Bedford transform into an important engineering hub. In 1832 gas lighting was introduced, the railway reached Bedford in 1846; the first corn exchange was built 1849, the first drains and sewers were dug in 1864. Bedford is the largest settlement in Borough of Bedford; the borough council is led by a directly elected mayor who holds the title'Mayor of Bedford', an office, first held by Frank Branston, until his death in 2009. The current Mayor of Bedford is Dave Hodgson from the Liberal Democrat Party. Bedford itself is divided into 10 wards: Brickhill, Cauldwell, De Parys, Harpur, Newnham, Queens Park, Kempston East and Kempston West. Brickhill elects its own parish council. Bedford is served by Bedfordshire Police; the Bedfordshire Police and Crime Commissioner of that force is Kathryn Holloway. Bedford forms part of the Bedford constituency, represented in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom Parliament; the current Member of Parliament for Bedford is Mohammad Yasin, a member of the Labour Party.
Bedford is 46 miles miles north-northwest of London, 65 miles southeast of Birmingham, 25 miles west of Cambridge and 19 miles east-southeast of Northampton. The town of Kempston is adjacent to Bedford, as are the villages of Elstow and Ravensden. Wixams is a new town, being developed to the south of Bedford. Villages in the Borough of Bedford with populations of more than 2,000 as of 2005 were Biddenham, Clapham, Oakley, Shortstown and Wootton. There are many smaller villages in the borough; the villages in the borough are popular with commuters to Bedford, with people who commute to Milton Keynes and towns in Northamptonshire and Cambridgeshire. Nearby small towns include Ampthill, Biggleswade and Sandy, all of which are in Central Bedfordshire, as well as Rushden in Northamptonshire and St Neots in Cambridgeshire; the nearest towns and cities with larger populations than Bedford are Northampton to the north west, Cambridge to the east, Milton Keynes to the south west, Luton to the south, all of which have urban area populations of 150,000 or more.
As with the rest of the United Kingdom, Bedford has a maritime climate, with a limited range of temperatures, even rainfall throughout the year. The nearest Met Office weather station to Bedford is Bedford airport, about 6.5 miles north of Bedford town centre at an elevation of 85 metres. Since 1980, temperature extremes at the site have ranged from 35.9 °C in August 2003 and 35.3 °C during July 2006 down to −15.3 °C in January 1982. However, such extremes would be superseded if longer term records were available – Historically, the nearest weather station to Bedford was Cardington about 2.4 miles south south east of the town centre with an elevation of 30 metres. This location recorded a minimum of −18.3 °C during January 1963. Rainfall averages around 585mm a year, with an excess of 1mm falling on 109 days. Sunshine at around 1500 hours a year is typical of inland areas of southern-central England. Bedford is home to one of the largest concentrations of Italian immigrants in the United Kingdom.
According to the 2001 census 30% of Bedford's population were of at least partial Italian descent. This is as a result of labour recruitment in the early 1950s by the London Brick Company from Southern Italy. From 1954 to 20
The Radlett murder known as the Elstree murder, was a murder in Radlett, England, in 1823. The victim, William Weare, was killed in Radlett and the body disposed of in a pond in Elstree; the crime gained a great deal of attention and was the subject of numerous books and stage plays. It is commemorated by the rhyme: William Weare was a solicitor of Lyon's Inn and a gambler, his killer was John Thurtell, a sports promoter, amateur boxer, a former Royal Marine officer and a son of the Mayor of Norwich. Thurtell owed Weare a gambling debt of £300, an immense sum at the time. Thurtell believed Weare had cheated him of the money. Whatever the truth, when Weare demanded payment Thurtell murdered him rather than pay up, he invited Weare to join him and his friends – Joseph Hunt, a tavern landlord, William Probert, a former convict and alcohol merchant – for a weekend of gambling at Probert's cottage at the site of Oaks Close off Gills Hill Lane, Radlett. On 24 October 1823 they journeyed from London in Thurtell's horse-drawn gig, but Weare was killed in a dark lane just short of their destination.
Thurtell shot Weare in the face with a flintlock muff pistol, but this failed to kill him. Weare escaped from the carriage but did not get far before Thurtell caught him; as Weare lay injured, Thurtell slit his throat with a knife before driving the pistol into his head with such force that his brains were dashed over the ground. Assisted by Hunt and Probert he hid the corpse in a pond near the cottage; this hiding place was judged too unsafe for Probert and the body was moved to another pond in Elstree. By this time both weapons had been found, as Thurtell had left them on the road; the pistol was one of a pair, the other still in Thurtell's possession. The culprits were identified and caught. Hunt himself led the authorities to the body. Thurtell and Probert were indicted for murder; the foreman of the grand jury which indicted them was William Lamb, who as Lord Melbourne would become the Prime Minister. They were tried at Hertford Assize Court. Though Hunt had cooperated the most with the authorities, it was Probert, offered the chance to save himself by turning King's evidence: giving evidence against the other two in exchange for freedom.
Hunt was tried as an accessory to murder. The murder and trial attracted unprecedented publicity, to the point where questions were raised as to whether the defendants could have a fair trial. Construction of the gallows was begun before the trial started; the trial judge, Mr Justice Park, lamented: "if these statements of evidence before trial which corrupt the purity of the administration of justice in its source are not checked, I tremble for the fate of our country." He allowed Thurtell and Hunt to be convicted. Thurtell and his associates’ actions pursuant to the murder were as reported and commented upon as the crime itself. Having temporarily disposed of Weare’s corpse, "the trio entered the house, Hunt was introduced to Mrs Probert, directions were given to cook some pork chops for supper, Thurtell took the two men to the field, where they rifled the body, left it lying enveloped in the sack. After supper a jovial evening was spent, Hunt sang several songs over the grog, Thurtell gallantly presented Mrs. Probert with the gold chain he had taken from the body."
A contemporary street ballad, The Hertfordshire Tragedy, did not fail to emphasize the particulars: The singing in particular commanded attention. In discussing post-homicide cold-blooded tranquility, H. B. Irving, author of the Book of Remarkable Criminals remarks, “Such callousness is unsurpassed in the annals of criminal insensibility. Nero fiddling over burning Rome, Thurtell fresh from the murder of Weare, inviting Hunt, the singer and his accomplice, to ‘tip them a stave’ after supper...” Nor were the proceedings of the trial lacking in amusement, supplied generously by Hunt’s testimony in court. Hunt was questioned about the supper indulged in after the murder: “Was the supper postponed?”—“No, it was pork.” Another piece of testimony had literary value. When someone was asked about the character of Thurtell, the answer was that he was a gentleman because he kept a "gig". Thomas Carlyle seized upon this as a definition of a false gentility, writing about "gigmanity". John Thurtell was hanged on 9 January 1824, aged 29, by Thomas Cheshire assisting James Foxen.
Having always denied his crime, he admitted it on the gallows. On the day after his death, Thurtell's body was dissected. A waxwork of his body was displayed in Madame Tussauds for 150 years. Although Thurtell had been popular and had received public sympathy, some of his relatives still chose to change their names to avoid being associated with him. Joseph Hunt was sentenced to death, but in recognition of his cooperation his sentence was commuted to transportation to an Australian penal colony for life, he was taken to Botany Bay, where he rehabilitated. After serving his time, he gained his freedom and started a life in Australia and raising a son and a daughter, he became such a respected man that he became a police constable. He died in 1861. William Probert was never punished for Weare's death; however reports of his involvement in the newspapers meant he was reviled and he became a social outcast. Unable to find work, he resorted to crime to support himself and his wife, in 1825, at 33, was hanged at Newgate Prison for stealing a horse worth £25 from a re
A semi-detached house is a single family dwelling house built as one of a pair that share one common wall. Each house's layout is a mirror image of the other. Semi-detached houses are the most common property type in the UK, they account for 32% of UK housing transactions and 32% of the English housing stock as of 2008. Between 1945 and 1964, 41% of all properties built were semis, but after 1980 this fell to 15%. Housing for the farm labourer in 1815 was a one-room shed with an outshot for a scullery and pantry, two bedrooms upstairs; the house would be of stone if it occurred locally, or cob on a wooden frame. They were unsanitary, but the biggest problem was they were too few. Population was increasing, after the enclosure acts, labourers could not find spare land to build their own homes, so it fell to the landowner or the speculative builder. Estate villages followed vernacular patterns, but this changed to adopting model designs from pattern books. By the turn of the 18th century, the landowners chose a "picturesque" style.
They built double cottages as a means of reducing cost. Smith in 1834 wrote "this species of cottage can be built cheaper than two single ones, and, in general, these double cottages are found to be warmer and as comfortable as single ones". While there had been a huge increase in the population of the rural counties there was a greater shift in the population from the impoverished land to the large towns and London. At the same time, society was restructuring, with the labouring classes dividing into artisans and labourers; the cities offered labourers housing in tenement blocks and lodging houses, philanthropic societies turned their attention towards them. The rural "Labourers’ Friend Society expanded in 1844, as a result of the various reports on the housing conditions of the urban working classes, it was reconstituted as the "Society for Improving the Condition of the Labouring Classes"; the earlier designs they published had been for semi-detached dwellings but the first properties they built were tenements and lodging houses.
In their 1850 publication'The Dwellings of the Labouring Classes', written by Henry Roberts, there were plans for model'semi-detached'cottages for workers in towns and the city. In 1866 the Metropolitan Association for Improving the Dwellings of the Industrious Classes, founded by Rev Henry Taylor, built Alexander Cottages at Beckenham in Kent, on land provided by the Duke of Westminster; this development comprised 16 pairs of semis but two years they had built 164 semis. In Birmingham and the Potteries there was a tradition dating from the 1790s of artisans saving through mutuals and Friendly Societies. In the 1840s, the permanent building society model was adopted; the Woolwich Equitable was founded in 1847, the Leeds Permanent in 1848 and Bradford Equitable in 1851. Artisans could invest and borrow a sum for a mortgage on their own property. In the wool towns of Yorkshire three families built villages for their workers. In each, there was an hierarchy of houses: houses in long terraces for the worker, larger houses in shorter terraces for the overlookers, semi-detached houses for the junior managers, detached houses for the elite.
The first village was built by Colonel Edward Ackroyd, at Copley, West Yorkshire between 1849–53, the second by Sir Titus Salt, between 1851 and 1861 at Saltaire, the third was the West Hill Park Estate in Halifax built by John Crossley. The model villages in Lancashire came with developments like Houldsworth Village. Semi detached housing in colliery villages was rare; the development of Port Sunlight and Bournville was important. Port Sunlight model village commenced in 1887. William Lever used architects William Owen and his son Segar Owen and stated in 1888 that: "It is my and my brother’s hope, some day, to build houses in which our work-people will be able to live and be comfortable – semi-detached houses with gardens back and front, in which they will be able to know more about the science of life than they can in a back-to-back slumAt Bournville in 1879 the Cadbury development started with a detached house for the manager and six pairs of semis with large gardens for key workers; as it expanded after 1895 the village was made up of short terraces.
Cadbury fulfilled the dreams of the Society for Improving the Condition of the Labouring Classes by proving that: "a low density layout could be a practical possibility for the working classes, unwittingly he opened the flood gates to a new kind of suburbia " The examples of Bournville, Port Sunlight were seized by Ebenezer Howard and became key models for the Garden City movement The middle class became an important and expanding group in the nineteenth century. With industrialisation came material gain to the capitalist entrepreneur. New professions came into existence to serve their needs; the growth in the population required more architects, teachers, doctors and shopkeepers. There emerged hierarchical tiers within the middle class, each watching each other's status; the baseline appears to have been an income of 150.00.00 pa. as stated in A New system of Practical Domestic Economy. In 1851, it is estimated that out of a total population of 18,000,000, 3.000.000 would have been considered to be middle class.
The middle class was family conscious. The value system was their defining characteristic. Semi-detached houses first began to be planned systematically in late 18th-century Georgian architecture, as a suburban compromise between the terraced houses of close to the city centre, the detached "villas" further out, where land was cheaper
Victorian architecture is a series of architectural revival styles in the mid-to-late 19th century. Victorian refers to the reign of Queen Victoria, called the Victorian era, during which period the styles known as Victorian were used in construction. However, many elements of what is termed "Victorian" architecture did not become popular until in Victoria's reign; the styles included interpretations and eclectic revivals of historic styles. The name represents the British and French custom of naming architectural styles for a reigning monarch. Within this naming and classification scheme, it followed Georgian architecture and Regency architecture, was succeeded by Edwardian architecture. During the early 19th century, the romantic medieval Gothic revival style was developed as a reaction to the symmetry of Palladianism, such buildings as Fonthill Abbey were built. By the middle of the 19th century, as a result of new technology, construction was able to incorporate steel as a building component.
Paxton continued to build such houses as Mentmore Towers, in the still popular English Renaissance styles. New methods of construction were developed in this era of prosperity, but the architectural styles, as developed by such architects as Augustus Pugin, were retrospective. In Scotland, the architect Alexander Thomson who practiced in Glasgow was a pioneer of the use of cast iron and steel for commercial buildings, blending neo-classical conventionality with Egyptian and oriental themes to produce many original structures. Other notable Scottish architects of this period are Archibald Simpson and Alexander Marshall Mackenzie whose stylistically varied work can be seen in the architecture of Aberdeen. While Scottish architects pioneered this style it soon spread right across the United Kingdom and remained popular for another 40 years, its architectural value in preserving and reinventing the past is significant. Its influences were diverse but the Scottish architects who practiced it were inspired by unique ways to blend architecture and everyday life in a meaningful way.
Jacobethan Renaissance Revival Neo-Grec Romanesque Revival Second Empire Queen Anne Revival Scots Baronial British Arts and Crafts movement While not uniquely Victorian, part of revivals that began before the era, these styles are associated with the 19th century owing to the large number of examples that were erected during that period. Victorian architecture has many intricate window frames inspired by the famous architect Elliot Rae. Gothic Revival Italianate Neoclassicism During the 18th century, a few English architects emigrated to the colonies, but as the British Empire became established during the 19th century, many architects emigrated at the start of their careers; some chose the United States, others went to Canada and New Zealand. They applied architectural styles that were fashionable when they left England. By the latter half of the century, improving transport and communications meant that remote parts of the Empire had access to publications such as the magazine The Builder, which helped colonial architects keep informed about current fashion.
Thus, the influence of English architecture spread across the world. Several prominent architects produced English-derived designs around the world, including William Butterfield and Jacob Wrey Mould; the Victorian period flourished in Australia and is recognised as being from 1840 to 1890, which saw a gold rush and population boom during the 1880s in the state of Victoria. There were fifteen styles that predominated: The Arts and Crafts style and Queen Anne style are considered to be part of the Federation Period, from 1890 to 1915. During the British colonial period of British Ceylon: Sri Lanka Law College, Sri Lanka College of Technology and the Galle Face Hotel. In the United States,'Victorian' architecture describes styles that were most popular between 1860 and 1900. A list of these styles most includes Second Empire, Stick-Eastlake, Folk Victorian, Queen Anne, Richardsonian Romanesque, Shingle; as in the United Kingdom, examples of Gothic Revival and Italianate continued to be constructed during this period, are therefore sometimes called Victorian.
Some historians classify the years of Gothic Revival as a distinctive Victorian style named High Victorian Gothic. Stick-Eastlake, a manner of geometric, machine-cut decorating derived from Stick and Queen Anne, is sometimes considered a distinct style. On the other hand, terms such as "Painted Ladies" or "gingerbread" may be used to describe certain Victorian buildings, but do not constitute a specific style; the names of architectural styles varied between countries. Many homes combined the elements of several different styles and are not distinguishable as one particular style or another. In the United States of America, notable cities which developed or were rebuilt during this era include Alameda, Albany, Troy, Boston, the Brooklyn Heights and Victorian Flatbush sections of New York City, Rochester, Columbus, Eureka, Galveston, Grand Rapids, Jersey City/Hoboken, Cape May, Cincinnati, Milwaukee, New Orleans, Richmond, Saint Paul, Midtown in Sacramento, Angelino Heigh
The Catuvellauni were a Celtic tribe or state of southeastern Britain before the Roman conquest, attested by inscriptions into the 4th century. The fortunes of the Catuvellauni and their kings before the conquest can be traced through ancient coins and scattered references in classical histories, they are mentioned by Cassius Dio, who implies that they led the resistance against the conquest in AD 43. They appear as one of the civitates of Roman Britain in Ptolemy's Geography in the 2nd century, occupying the town of Verlamion and the surrounding areas of Hertfordshire and southern Cambridgeshire, their territory was bordered to the north by the Iceni and Corieltauvi, to the east by the Trinovantes, to the west by the Dobunni and Atrebates, to the south by the Regnenses and Cantiaci. The Catuvellauni are part of the Aylesford-Swarling archaeological group in Southern England linked to Belgic Gaul and to an actual Belgic conquest of the region alluded to by Caesar. John T. Koch conjectures that the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains and the modern name of Châlons-en-Champagne preserves the name of an original continental tribe of Catuvellauni, a name he derives from a compound of the ancient Celtic roots *katu- and *wer-lo, thus meaning "excelling in battle", the same source as that of the British and Breton personal name Cadwallon.
Cassivellaunus, who led the resistance to Julius Caesar's first expedition to Britain in 54 BC, is taken to have belonged to the Catuvellauni. His tribal background is not mentioned by Caesar, but his territory, north of the Thames and to the west of the Trinovantes, corresponds to that occupied by the Catuvellauni; the extensive earthworks at Devil's Dyke near Wheathampstead, Hertfordshire are thought to have been the tribe's original capital. Tasciovanus was the first king to mint coins at Verlamion, beginning ca 20 BC, he appears to have expanded his power at the expense of the Trinovantes to the east, as some of his coins, ca 15–10 BC, were minted in their capital Camulodunum. This advance was given up under pressure from Rome, a series of coins were again minted at Verulamium. However, Camulodunum was retaken, either by Tasciovanus or by his son Cunobelinus, who succeeded him ca AD 9 and ruled for about 30 years. Little is known of Cunobelinus's life, but his name survived into British legend, culminating in William Shakespeare's play Cymbeline.
Geoffrey of Monmouth says he was brought up at the court of Augustus and willingly paid tribute to Rome. Archaeology indicates increased trading and diplomatic links with the Roman Empire. Under Cunobelinus and his family, the Catuvellauni appear to have become the dominant power in south-eastern Britain, his brother Epaticcus gained territory to the south and west at the expense of the Atrebates until his death ca AD 35. The grave of the "Druid of Colchester" dates to this period, providing evidence of medical practices and technology within the Catuvellauni tribe. Three sons of Cunobelinus are known to history. Adminius, whose power-base appears from his coins to have been in Kent, was exiled by his father shortly before AD 40 according to Suetonius, prompting the emperor Caligula to mount his abortive invasion of Britain. Two other sons and Caratacus, are named by Dio Cassius. No coins of Togodumnus are known, but Caratacus's rare coins suggest that he followed his uncle Epaticcus in completing the conquest of the lands of the Atrebates.
It was the exile of the Atrebatic king, that prompted Claudius to launch a successful invasion, led by Aulus Plautius, in AD 43. Dio tells us that, by this stage, Cunobelinus was dead, Togodumnus and Caratacus led the initial resistance to the invasion in Kent, they were defeated by Plautius in two crucial battles on the rivers Thames. He tells us that the Bodunni, a tribe or kingdom who were tributary to the Catuvellauni, switched sides; this may be a misspelling of the Dobunni, who lived in Gloucestershire, may give an indication of how far Catuvellaunian power extended. Togodumnus died shortly after the battle on the Thames. Plautius halted and sent word for the emperor to join him, Claudius led the final advance to Camulodunum; the territories of the Catuvellauni became the nucleus of the new Roman province. Caratacus, had survived, continued to lead the resistance to the invaders. We next hear of him in Tacitus's Annals, leading the Silures and Ordovices in what is now Wales against the Roman governor Publius Ostorius Scapula.
Ostorius defeated him in a set-piece battle somewhere in Ordovician territory in AD 51, capturing members of his family, but Caratacus again escaped. He fled north to the Brigantes, but their queen, was loyal to the Romans and handed him over in chains. Caratacus was exhibited as a war-prize as part of a triumphal parade in Rome, he was allowed to make a speech to the Senate, made such an impression that he and his family were freed and allowed to live in peace in Rome. Verulamium, the Roman settlement near Verlamion, gained the status of municipium ca 50, allowing its leading magistrates to become Roman citizens, it was soon rebuilt. Its forum and basilica were completed in 79 or 81, were dedicated in an inscription by the governor, Gnaeus Julius Agricola, to the emperor Titus, its theatre, the first Roman theatre in Britain, was built ca 140. An inscription records that the civitas of the Catuvellauni were involved in the reconstruction of Hadrian's Wall in the time of Septimius Severus in the early 3rd century.
Saint Alban, the first British Christian martyr, was a citizen of Verulamium in the late 3rd or early 4th cen
Hertfordshire Constabulary is the territorial police force responsible for policing the county of Hertfordshire in England. Its headquarters is in Welwyn Garden City. From 2011-2016 the force was headed by Chief Constable Andy Bliss, the current Chief Constable is Charlie Hall QPM; the forces manpower consists of over 3,900 police officers and staff, supported by more than 410 special constables. The Constabulary was founded in 1841, under the County Police Act, five years after the Hertford Borough Police and St Albans Borough Police had been formed. In 1889, the Hertford Borough Police force was merged into Hertfordshire; the first Constables were paid at the level of an agricultural labourer. In Victorian times, officers were entitled to only one rest day in every four to six weeks and were entitled to only one week's unpaid annual leave a year. A ten-hour working day was the norm and no meal breaks were allowed. There were strict constraints on an officer's private life too. For example, officers could not leave their homes without permission and could only go out with their wives so long as they were not absent for more than two hours and someone was home to take messages.
St Albans Constabulary remained independent until 1947 being absorbed into the Hertfordshire Constabulary. It was in 2000 that the current force boundaries came into place with the addition of Hertsmere and Broxbourne, transferred from the Metropolitan Police. In 2006 proposals were made by Charles Clarke, the Home Secretary, that would see the force merge with neighbour forces Bedfordshire Police and Essex Police to form a new strategic police force. However, in July 2006, the Prime Minister Tony Blair signalled that police force mergers would not be forced through by the central government. However, with the economic recession beginning in 2008 the force began working on collaboration with neighbouring forces. First joining with Bedfordshire Police and Cambridgeshire Constabulary in a Strategic Alliance, the three forces formed joint units in Counter Terrorism, Major Crime, Firearms, SOCO, Roads Policing, Operation Planning, Civil Contingencies, ICT and Professional Standards. Working collaboratively in this way protected local policing by local officers, but enabled specialist units to work across, be paid for by, all three forces.
Further collaborative work is underway with call handling and dispatch, human resources and some'back-office' functions being examined for merging. For the foreseeable future, the Constabularly looks to remain an independent force; the decision for any full merger of the three forces will be in the hands of the Police and Crime Commissioners, thereby in turn, the public themselves. Local policing is overseen by the Local Policing Command, headed by a Chief Superintendent; the county is sub-divided into 10 Community Safety Partnerships, which broadly correspond to the local Borough and Council areas. The 10 CSPs, each headed by a Chief Inspector are: Watford, Three Rivers, Dacorum and Hatfield, St Albans, East Herts, Broxbourne and North Herts; each CSP has: 5x Intervention and Response Teams: Each team is headed by a sergeant and aligned to a shift pattern, there is always at least one team on duty at any time during the year. Intervention teams non emergency calls and perform general patrol duties.
Safer Neighbourhood Teams: Combined teams of PCs and PCSOs covering local and quality of life issues. Each Ward/Neighbourhood has at least one PC and PCSO to maintain an up-to-date knowledge of local issues and to address them; each town is headed with an Inspector supervising on a CSP level. Local Crime Unit: Team of Detectives with a remit covering burglaries to assaults. Local policing is supplemented by an array of specialist units, some of which are collaborated with Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire; these include: Armed Policing Unit: Collaborated unit working across the three counties providing Armed Response Vehicles, crewed with Authorised Firearms Officers to assist in the response to dangerous incidents such as those involving firearms and knives. The unit provides a Specialist Firearms Officer capability for hostage rescue and close protection. Dog Unit: Collaborated unit providing a 24/7 Police dog service for tracking and public order duties; the unit provides pre-planned capabilities for explosive and drugs search.
Road Policing Unit: Collaborated unit patrol and respond to serious incidents on the motorway and other road networks. Other duties include responsibilities for taking over pursuits, traffic management and road death investigation. Major Crime Unit: Collaborated unit, responsible for the investigation of murder, stranger rape and kidnap, amongst others. Force Communications Room: Responsible for taking emergency and non-emergency calls and recording crime through Call Handling and the deployment and management of resources through Despatch and Control; the FCR receives an average of deals with over 1,000 incidents every day. Notable major incidents and investigations in which Hertfordshire Constabulary have directed or been involved include: October 2000: Hatfield rail crash: A railway accident that caused 4 deaths and over 70 injuries; the accident exposed major stewardship shortcomings and regulatory oversight failings of Railtrack and triggered its partial re-nationalisation. May 2002: Potters Bar Railway Crash: A railway accident that occurred when a train derailed at high speed, killing 7 and injuring 76.
Part of the train ended up wedged between the station platforms and building structures. December 2005: The Buncefield fire: A major fire caused by a series of explosions at the Buncefield oil storage facility causing