Rafting and white water rafting are recreational outdoor activities which use an inflatable raft to navigate a river or other body of water. This is done on whitewater or different degrees of rough water. Dealing with risk and the need for teamwork is a part of the experience; this activity as an adventure sport has become popular since the 1950s, if not earlier, evolving from individuals paddling 10 feet to 14 feet rafts with double-bladed paddles or oars to multi-person rafts propelled by single-bladed paddles and steered by a person at the stern, or by the use of oars. Rafting on certain sections of rivers is considered an extreme sport and can be fatal, while other sections are not so extreme or difficult. Rafting is a competitive sport practiced around the world which culminates in a world rafting championship event between the participating nations; the International Rafting Federation referred to as the IRF, is the worldwide body which oversees all aspects of the sport. Rafting equipment has continuously evolved and developed from old rubber WW II era military surplus rafts.
Modern whitewater rafts are made with advanced nylon or Kevlar infused plastics like PVC or urethane. Plastic is more durable, longer-lasting, just as easy to repair compared to older rubber rafts. Paddles and oars are the typical means of propulsion for rafts and come in many sizes and varieties with specific river conditions in mind. Paddles are made of a combination of layered wood, aluminium, carbon fiber, or other advanced composites. There are many types and combinations of these materials with lower-end entry-level paddles being composed of cheap aluminum and plastic. Higher-end models are constructed of high-end composites and utilized by professional rafting guides, raft racers, expedition paddlers; the basic paddle designed for rafting consist of 3 parts: Single blade Shaft T-gripPaddles are utilized by rafters in smaller and lower volume rivers where rocks and other hazards can damage larger oars. Paddles are used by guests on commercial trips as well since it is seen as a more engaging way to enjoy the river trip.
When paddles are used in a raft it is referred to as "paddling" or "paddle guiding". Oars are built from the same materials as paddles. Wood, plastic and carbon fiber are all popular choices. Oars are designed for several different rivers with sightly different blade shapes built to handle varying river conditions. Wooden oars are built as one solid piece to help retain strength and resilience of the oar while it is strained under a load. Composite or metallic oars are made in 3 parts: Blade Shaft GripAll of these parts are interchangeable and can be upgraded and altered in many ways to make rowing more enjoyable. Oars are used on wider flatter rivers of higher volume to facilitate moving more efficiently across long slow-moving pools, though anglers will use shorter oars on smaller rafts in low volume rivers to help them maintain an advantageous upstream position while anglers cast from the raft; when a raft utilizes oars it is called "rowing" though many people incorrectly refer to this as "oaring" or "oar framing", these terms are incorrect and suggest inexperience when used in conversation with members of the rafting community.
Oars use one of 2 systems to attach to the boat, but in either case, they interface with the boat through a large metallic frame strapped to the boat called an "oar frame". Oars connect to the frame by either a system called oarlocks. Either system connects to the frame via oar towers on either side of the frame. Pins are referred to as "thole pins" or "oar pins". A large metal clip attaches to clips onto the pin; the top of the pin has a rubber or plastic stopper that prevents the oar from slipping over the top of the pin. The bottom of the pin connects to an oar tower designed to hold the pin in place; this system is an older system though it is useful for certain types of river running namely big, dangerous Class 5 rivers that require your oars to stay in place as much as possible. Oarlocks or locks are a more common form of attachment for oars as they allow the rower to "feather" the oar back and forth as they row making it easier on the person using the oars to continue downstream. Oarlocks look.
The oars slide into the gap between the U-shaped metal pieces and can be held in place with a plastic stopper called an oarlock. The oarlock allows the oar to maintain its position on the oar at a correct length for rowing. Whitewater rafting can be traced back to 1811 when the first recorded attempt to navigate the Snake River in Wyoming was planned. With no training, experience, or proper equipment, the river was found to be too difficult and dangerous. Hence, it was given the nickname "Mad River". On June 9, 1940, Clyde Smith lead a successful trip through the Snake River Canyon. Otherwise known as the International Scale of River Difficulty, below are the six grades of difficulty in white water rafting, they range from simple to dangerous and potential death or serious injuries. Class 1: Very small rough areas, might require slight maneuvering. Class 2: Some rough water, maybe some rocks, might require some maneuvering. Class 3: Small waves, maybe a small drop, but no considerable danger. May require significant maneuvering.
Class 4: Whitewater, medium waves, maybe rocks, maybe a considerable drop, sharp maneuvers may be needed
Alraune is a 1918 Hungarian science fiction horror film directed by Michael Curtiz and Edmund Fritz and starring Géza Erdélyi. Little is known about this film, now believed to be lost, it is a variation on the original legend of Alraune in which a Mad Scientist creates a beautiful but demonic child from the forced union between a woman and a mandrake root. Géza Erdélyi Gyula Gál as Alraune Kálmán Körmendy Margit Lux Rózsi Szöllösi Jenő Törzs Michael Curtiz filmography List of lost films Wingrove, David. Science Fiction Film Source Book Alraune on IMDb Alraune on IMDb Alraune at SilentEra
The 2012 Trading Post Perth Challenge was a motor racing event for the Australian sedan-based V8 Supercars. It was the fourth event of the 2012 International V8 Supercars Championship, featuring Races 7, 8 & 9; the unusual three race format is a staple of the Barbagallo Raceway event, in part caused by the different timezone of Western Australia compared to eastern states. It was held on the weekend of 4 -- 6 May in Perth, Western Australia, it was the first time the series utilised the new pitlane on the infield of the circuit as opposed to the original one on the outside of the circuit. The meeting saw a clean sweep of race wins by the Ford Performance Racing team. Mark Winterbottom won Saturday's Race 5 of the championship, while Sunday's two races were both won by Will Davison, the third and final race saw Davison on tyres no longer capable of sustaining front running speed being caught by Winterbottom and Jamie Whincup of the Triple Eight Race Engineering team. Davison won as his team-mate Winterbottom snuck past Whincup on the last lap to defuse the hostile challenge from the Holden driver.
After 9 of 30 races