Kanaka Dasa was a poet, philosopher and composer from modern Karnataka. He is known for compositions in the Kannada language for Carnatic music. Like other Haridasas, he used simple Kannada language and native metrical forms for his compositions. Thimmappa Nayaka was his original name and he belonged to a chieftain family of Kaginele in Haveri district, he was born to the couple Beerappa and Bachchamma at Baada village, near Bankapura and he was warrior at Bankapura fort. Kanaka Dasa was capable of analyzing the society microscopically. Based on one of his compositions it is interpreted that after he got injured in a war and was miraculously saved, he gave up his profession as a warrior and devoted his life to composing music and literature with philosophy explained in common man's language. At a young age he authored poetries titled Narasimha stotra, Ramadhyana Mantra, Mohanatarangini. Bankapura fort was defeated by Adilshahi in 1567. There is a traditional folklore behind this popular quotation.
Kanakadasa's Master Vyasatirtha|date=July 2015}} once poses a question to him, that who among the scholars present in the convention could attain salvation. Every scholar present was asked the question, Kanakadasa answers in the negative, he answers in the negative when asked about the chances of his own master attaining salvation. Scholars in the convention get agitated by this episode and they feel that Kanakadasa must be inconsiderate to deny the salvation to his own master let alone the remaining scholars, but asked about his own chances he says in the affirmative by saying ನಾನು ಹೋದರೆ ಹೋದೇನು adding to the fury of the clueless scholars. His master who could understand the real wisdom behind Kanakadasa's affirmation, asks him to elaborate his thoughts. Kanakadasa expresses a philosophical idea behind his thought. Kanakadasa had made a Pun giving different philosophical meanings. Though it seemed on the surface that Kanakadasa is claiming that he alone may attain salvation, he had in fact put forth a thoughtful message that no matter what is one's scholarly prowess, one cannot achieve anything until the ego is eliminated.
Kanakadasa has a special association with Udupi. On the request of Vyasaraya Swamiji of Vyasaraja Matt he had come to Udupi, but it was an era. The Brahmin priests would not let him enter the temple as he was from a "low" caste though Vyasaraya swamiji asked them to let Kanakadasa into the temple. Kanakadasa was outside the temple meditating on Lord Krishna and singing songs in praise of his Lord Krishna, he did this for weeks, he is believed to have camped outside the temple for weeks cooking his own food and during this time he was so distraught, he composed poems in praise of Lord Krishna and composed Kirthanas which are relevant today about how all humans are equal, every one is born the same way physically, everyone shares the same water, same sun for their life on earth. Hindu temples and the deity in a Hindu temple always faces east, but in Udupi, Lord Krishna, the deity faces west. It is believed that something unnatural happened those days, when Kanakadasa was outside the temple for days waiting to see Lord Krishna and waiting to be let into the temple.
It is believed that the during those days, Kanaka was not allowed to have darshan of Lord Krishna, so with devotion when he sang kirthanas for his dear Lord, the temple wall fell down and the deity of Lord Krishna turned around and there was a crack in the outer walls of the temple through which the ardent devotee of Krishna, Kanakadasa was able to see his Lord. This left the orthodox community flabbergasted as to. Since the Krishna deity has been facing west though the main entrance has been facing east and this has remained a mystery every since. Today that window stands as a tribute to Kanakadasa; the devotees who visit Udupi Krishna temple try to have a darshan of the Lord Krishna through this small window wishing to relive the ecstasy where Kanakadasa had the divine ‘darshan’. It is a memorial to Kanakadasa and a testimony to the eclectic Hindu belief that devotion and sainthood are above caste and creed and certainty above orthodoxy, it is said that Kanakadasa lived in a hut in this place in front of the “gopura”.
A small shrine was built in his memory and it came to be known as “Kanakana Kindi” or “Kanakana Mandira”. Although many saints such as Purandaradasa and Vijayadasa visited Udupi and were devotees of Lord Krishna, it is Kanakadasa's association to Lord Krishna, which has a deeper meaning. Click: http://www.sumadhwaseva.com/dasaru/kanaka-dasaru/ His writing started showing his innovativeness in using day-to-day activities of common man. For e.g. Ramadhanya Charite is a poetic expression of conflicts between rich and poor classes where he uses Ramadhanya ragi and rice to synonymously represent poor and rich, he became a follower of Vyasaraja who named him as Kanakadasa. His poems and krithi expose the futility of external rituals, they stress the need for cultivation of moral values in life. His compositions addressed social issues in addition to devotional aspect. Kanaka Dasa was aggressive and straight forward in criticizing evils of society such as superiority claims using caste system, his poem "Kula Kula Kulavendu hodedhadadiri" asks humans not to segregate themselves from one another, because every human is born the same way, everyone eats the same
A matha or mutt is a Sanskrit word that means "cloister, institute or college", it refers to a monastery in Hinduism. Monastic life, for spiritual studies or the pursuit of moksha traces it roots to the 1st millennium BCE, in the Vedic tradition; the earliest Hindu monasteries are indirectly inferred to be from the centuries around the start of the common era, based on the existence of Sannyasa Upanishads with Advaita Vedanta content. The matha tradition in Hinduism was well established in the second half of 1st millennium CE, as is evidenced by archeological and epigraphical evidence. Mathas grew over time, with the most famous and still surviving centers of Vedanta studies being those started by Adi Shankara. Other major and influential mathas belong to various schools of Hindu philosophy, such as those of Vaishnavism and Shaivism; the monastery host and feed students, sannyasis and are led by Acharyas. These monasteries are sometimes attached to Hindu temples and have their codes of conduct and election ceremonies.
The mathas in the Hindu tradition have not been limited to religious studies, historical evidence suggest that they were centers for diverse studies such as medieval medicine and music. The term matha is used for monastery in Jainism, the earliest monasteries near Jain temples are dated to be from about the 5th-century CE. A matha refers to "cloister, institute or college", in some contexts refers to "hut of an ascetic, monk or renunciate" or temple for studies; the root of the word is math, which means "inhabit" or "to grind". The roots of monastic life are traceable in the Vedic literature, which states Jacobi predates Buddhism and Jainism. According to Hermann Jacobi, Max Muller, Hermann Oldenberg and other scholars, the Jainism and Buddhism traditions adopted the five precepts first developed in the Vedic-Brahmanical traditions for monk life: Do not injure living beings Be truthful Never take anyone's property Self-restaint Be liberalHowever, in 20th century, scholars such as Richard Garbe suggested that the pre-Upanishad Vedic tradition may not have had a monastic tradition, that the Upanishads and Buddhism may have been new movements that grew in opposition, on the foundations and ideas of earlier Vedic practices.
The asceticism and monastic practices emerged in India in the early centuries of the 1st millennium BCE. Johannes Bronkhorst has proposed a dual model, wherein monastic traditions and matha began in parallel, both in Vedic and non-Vedic streams of traditions, citing evidence from ancient Hindu Dharmasutras dated to have been composed between 500 BCE to about the start of the common era. Other evidence of mathas is found in the Brahmanas layer of the Vedic texts, such as in chapter 10.6 of Shatapatha Brahmana as well as in the surviving Aranyaka layer of the Vedas such as in chapter 15 of Shankhayana Aranyaka. Scholars such as Patrick Olivelle state that the history of Hindu monasteries played a role in the composition of the Sannyasa Upanishads of Hinduism. Six of these Upanishads were composed before the 3rd-century CE starting sometime in the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE; these six Sannyasa Upanishads are Aruni Upanishad, Kundika Upanishad, Kathashruti Upanishad, Paramahamsa Upanishad, Jabala Upanishad and Brahma Upanishad.
The oldest Sannyasa Upanishads have a strong Advaita Vedanta outlook, these pre-date Adi Shankara. Most of the Sannyasa Upanishads present a Yoga and nondualism Vedanta philosophy; this may be, states Patrick Olivelle, because major Hindu monasteries belonged to the Advaita Vedanta tradition. All medieval Sannyasa Upanishads are Advaita Vedantin because of these monasteries; the only significant exception is the 12th-century Shatyayaniya Upanishad, which presents qualified dualistic and Vaishnavism philosophy and is linked to a Vaishnavism monastery. In addition to the Upanishads, evidence of matha tradition in Hinduism is found in other genre of its literature, such as chapter 12.139 of the Mahabharata and section 3.1 of Baudhayana Dharmasutras. Matha-s were regionally known by other terms, such as Khandika-s; the oldest verifiable Ghatika for Vedic studies, from inscription evidence is in Kanchi, from the 4th-century CE. The matha tradition of Hinduism attracted royal patronage, attracting endowments to support studies, these endowments established, states Hartmut Scharfe, what may be "the earliest case on record of a university scholarship".
Some of these medieval era mathas of Hinduism in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, were for Vedanta studies, but some mathas from the 700 to 1000 CE period predominantly focussed on Shaivism, military, martial arts, painting or other fields of knowledge including subjects related to Buddhism and Jainism. There is evidence, states Hartmut Scharfe, of mathas in eastern and northern India from 7th century CE onwards, such as those in Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh in the Hindu holy city of Kashi, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha, but these are not from ancient temple inscriptions, but implied from traveller records who visited these regions. Brahmins were involved in the education and oral culture of textual transmission in ancient India through the gurukul tradition, but inscription evidence collected by E. Hultzsch suggests that at least some matha attached to temples were dominated by non-Brahmins by the early 2nd millennium CE; the mathas and attached temples hosted debating, Vedic recital and student competitions, these were part of community festivals in the history of South Asia.
These mathas were also
Mantralayam /Manthralaya is a pilgrim village located in Kurnool district in Andhra Pradesh, India. It lies on the banks of the Tungabhadra River on the border with neighbouring Karnataka state; the village is known for the brindavan of Raghavendra Swami, a saint who lived in 17th Century and who entered into a samadhi alive in front of his disciples. Thousands of people visit the Raghavendra Matth and temples which are located on the banks of Tungabhadra River; the weather in Mantralayam is considered hot in general with summer average temperature hovering around 38 degrees Celsius. Maximum temperature recorded in summer is 44 degrees Celsius and pleasant weather is seen during March to July every year; the Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation operates regular and luxury bus services from Bangalore, Hubli and other cities. The nearest international airport is Hyderabad Airport at a distance of 288 km; the Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation and the Telangana State Road Transport Corporation bus services available.
The nearest railway station is "Mantralayam Road Railway Station", located at a distance of 16 km from Raghavendra swamy mutt and several express and passenger trains have a stop here. Official Website of SRS Matha, Mantralayam
Madhvacharya, sometimes anglicised as Madhva Acharya, known as Pūrna Prajña and Ānanda Tīrtha, was a Hindu philosopher and the chief proponent of the Dvaita school of Vedanta. Madhva called his philosophy Tatvavāda meaning "arguments from a realist viewpoint". Madhvacharya was born on the west coast of Karnataka state in 13th-century India; as a teenager, he became a Sanyasi joining Brahma-sampradaya guru Achyutapreksha, of the Ekadandi order. Madhva studied the classics of Hindu philosophy the Principal Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahma Sutras, he commented on these, is credited with thirty seven works in Sanskrit. His writing style was of condensed expression, his greatest work is considered to be the Anuvyakhyana, a philosophical supplement to his bhasya on the Brahma Sutras composed with a poetic structure. In some of his works, he proclaimed himself to be an avatar of the son of god Vishnu, he was a critic of Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita Vedanta teachings. He toured India several times, visiting places such as Bengal, Dwarka and Kanyakumari, engaging in philosophical debates and visiting Hindu centres of learning.
Madhva established the Krishna Mutt at Udupi with a murti secured from Dwarka Gujarat in CE 1285. Madhvācārya's teachings are built on the premise that there is a fundamental difference between Atman and the Brahman, these are two different unchanging realities, with individual soul dependent on Brahman, never identical, his school's theistic dualism teachings disagreed with the monist teachings of the other two most influential schools of Vedanta based on Advaita's nondualism and Vishishtadvaita's qualified nondualism. Liberation, asserted Madhva, is achievable only through the grace of God; the Dvaita school founded by Madhva influenced Vaishnavism, the Bhakti movement in medieval India, has been one of the three influential Vedānta philosophies, along with Advaita Vedanta and Vishishtadvaita Vedanta. Madhva's historical influence in Hinduism, state Kulandran and Kraemer, has been salutary, but not extensive; the biography of Madhvacharya is unclear. Many sources date him to 1238 -- 1317 period.
Madhvācārya was born in Pajaka near Udupi, a coastal district in the present day Indian state of Karnataka. Traditionally it is believed that Naddantillaya was the name of his father and Vedavati was Madhvācārya's mother. Born in a Tulu speaking Vaishnavite Brahmin household, he was named Vāsudeva, he became famous by the names Purnaprajna and Madhvacarya. Pūrnaprajña was the name given to him at the time of his initiation as a teenager; the name conferred on him when he became the head of his monastery was "Ānanda Tīrtha". All three of his names are found in his works. Madhvācārya or Madhva are names most found in modern literature on him, or Dvaita Vedanta related literature. Madhva began his school after his Upanayana at age seven, became a monk or Sannyasi in his teenage, he joined an Advaita Vedanta monastery in Dwarka, accepted his guru to be Achyutrapreksha, referred to as Achyutraprajna in some sources. Madhva studied the Upanishads and the Advaita literature, but was unconvinced by its nondualism philosophy of oneness of human soul and god, had frequent disagreements with his guru, left the monastery, began his own Dvaita movement based on dualism premises of Dvi – asserting that human soul and god are two different things.
Madhva never acknowledged Achyutrapreksha as his monastic lineage in his writings. According to Dehsen there were two individuals named Madhvacharya in 13th century India, with Anandatirtha – the younger Madhva being the most important early disciple of the elder Madhvacharya, their works and life overlapped in Udupi, Tattvavada being the name adopted for Dvaita Vedanta by Anandatirtha. Madhvacharya established a matha dedicated to Dvaita philosophy, this became the sanctuary for a series of Dvaita scholars such as Jayatirtha, Vadiraja Tirtha and Raghavendra Tirtha who followed in footsteps of Madhva. A number of hagiographies have been written by Madhva's followers. Of these, the most referred to is the sixteen cantos Sanskrit biography Madhvavijaya by Nārāyana Panditācārya – son of Trivikrama Pandita, who himself was a disciple of Madhva. In several of his texts, state Sarma and other scholars, "Madhvacharya proclaims himself to be the third avatar or incarnation of Vayu, wind god, the son of Vishnu".
He, asserted himself to be like Hanuman – the first avatar of Vayu, Bhima – a Pandava in the Mahabharata and the second avatar of Vayu. In one of his bhasya on the Brahma Sutras, he asserts that the authority of the text is from his personal encounter with Vishnu. Madhva, states Sarma, believed himself to be an intermediary between Vishnu and Dvaita devotees, guiding the latter in their journey towards Vishnu. Thirty seven Dvaita texts are attributed to Madhvacharya. Of these, thirteen are bhasya on earliest Principal Upanishads, a Madhva-bhasya on the foundational text of Vedanta school of Hinduism – Brahma Sutras, another Gita-bhasya on Bhagavad Gita, a commentary on forty hymns of the Rigveda, a review of the Mahabharata in poetic style, a commentary called Bhagavata-tatparya-nirnaya on Bhagavata Purana, plus stotras and texts on bhakti of Vishnu and his avatars; the Anu-Vyakhyana, a supplement to Madhvacharya's commentary on Brahma Sutras, is his masterpiece
Hindus are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism. The term has been used as a geographical and religious identifier for people indigenous to the Indian subcontinent; the historical meaning of the term Hindu has evolved with time. Starting with the Persian and Greek references to the land of the Indus in the 1st millennium BCE through the texts of the medieval era, the term Hindu implied a geographic, ethnic or cultural identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent around or beyond the Sindhu river. By the 16th century, the term began to refer to residents of the subcontinent who were not Turkic or Muslims; the historical development of Hindu self-identity within the local South Asian population, in a religious or cultural sense, is unclear. Competing theories state that Hindu identity developed in the British colonial era, or that it developed post-8th century CE after the Islamic invasion and medieval Hindu-Muslim wars.
A sense of Hindu identity and the term Hindu appears in some texts dated between the 13th and 18th century in Sanskrit and regional languages. The 14th- and 18th-century Indian poets such as Vidyapati and Eknath used the phrase Hindu dharma and contrasted it with Turaka dharma; the Christian friar Sebastiao Manrique used the term'Hindu' in religious context in 1649. In the 18th century, the European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus, in contrast to Mohamedans for Mughals and Arabs following Islam. By the mid-19th century, colonial orientalist texts further distinguished Hindus from Buddhists and Jains, but the colonial laws continued to consider all of them to be within the scope of the term Hindu until about mid-20th century. Scholars state that the custom of distinguishing between Hindus, Buddhists and Sikhs is a modern phenomenon. Hindoo is an archaic spelling variant. At more than 1.03 billion, Hindus are the world's third largest group after Muslims.
The vast majority of Hindus 966 million, live in India, according to India's 2011 census. After India, the next 9 countries with the largest Hindu populations are, in decreasing order: Nepal, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, United States, United Kingdom and Myanmar; these together accounted for 99% of the world's Hindu population, the remaining nations of the world together had about 6 million Hindus in 2010. The word Hindu is derived from the Indo-Aryan and Sanskrit word Sindhu, which means "a large body of water", covering "river, ocean", it was used as the name of the Indus river and referred to its tributaries. The actual term'hindu' first occurs, states Gavin Flood, as "a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus", more in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I; the Punjab region, called Sapta Sindhu in the Vedas, is called Hapta Hindu in Zend Avesta. The 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I mentions the province of Hidush, referring to northwestern India; the people of India were referred to as Hinduvān and hindavī was used as the adjective for Indian in the 8th century text Chachnama.
The term'Hindu' in these ancient records is an ethno-geographical term and did not refer to a religion. The Arabic equivalent Al-Hind referred to the country of India. Among the earliest known records of'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by the Buddhist scholar Xuanzang. Xuanzang uses the transliterated term In-tu whose "connotation overflows in the religious" according to Arvind Sharma. While Xuanzang suggested that the term refers to the country named after the moon, another Buddhist scholar I-tsing contradicted the conclusion saying that In-tu was not a common name for the country. Al-Biruni's 11th-century text Tarikh Al-Hind, the texts of the Delhi Sultanate period use the term'Hindu', where it includes all non-Islamic people such as Buddhists, retains the ambiguity of being "a region or a religion". The'Hindu' community occurs as the amorphous'Other' of the Muslim community in the court chronicles, according to Romila Thapar.
Wilfred Cantwell Smith notes that'Hindu' retained its geographical reference initially:'Indian','indigenous, local', virtually'native'. The Indian groups themselves started using the term, differentiating themselves and their "traditional ways" from those of the invaders; the text Prithviraj Raso, by Chanda Baradai, about the 1192 CE defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan at the hands of Muhammad Ghori, is full of references to "Hindus" and "Turks", at one stage, says "both the religions have drawn their curved swords. In Islamic literature,'Abd al-Malik Isami's Persian work, Futuhu's-salatin, composed in the Deccan in 1350, uses the word'hindi' to mean Indian in the ethno-geographical sense and the word'hindu' to mean'Hindu' in the sense of a follower of the Hindu religion"; the poet Vidyapati's poem Kirtilata contrasts the cultures of Hindus and Turks in a city and concludes "The Hindus and the Turks live close together. One of the earliest uses of word'Hindu' in religious context in a European language, was the publication in 1649 by Sebastiao Manrique.
Other prominent mentions of'Hindu' include the epigraphical inscriptions from Andhra Pradesh kingdoms who battled military expansion of Muslim dynasties in the 14th century, where the word'Hindu' implies a religious identity in contrast to'Turks' or Islam
The veena, comprises a family of chordophone instruments of the Indian subcontinent. Ancient musical instruments evolved into many variations, such as lutes and arched harps; the many regional designs have different names such as the Rudra veena, the Saraswati veena, the Vichitra veena and others. The North Indian design, used in classical Hindustani music, is a stick zither. About 3.5 to 4 feet long to fit the measurements of the musician, it has a hollow body and two large resonating gourds under each end. It has four main strings which are melody type, three auxiliary drone strings. To play, the musician plucks the melody strings downward with a plectrum worn on the first and second fingers, while the drone strings are strummed with the little finger of the playing hand; the musician stops the resonating strings, when so desired, with the fingers of the free hand. In modern times the veena has been replaced with the sitar in north Indian performances; the South Indian veena design, used in classical Carnatic music, is a lute.
It is a long-necked, pear-shaped lute, but instead of the lower gourd of the north Indian design it has a pear shaped wooden piece. It too, has 24 frets, four melody strings, three drone strings, played quite similar, it remains an popular string instrument in classical Carnatic music. As a fretted, plucked lute, the veena strings can produce pitches in full three octave range; the long hollow neck design of these Indian instruments allow portamento effects and legato ornaments found in Indian ragas. It has been a popular instrument in Indian classical music, one revered in the Indian culture by its inclusion in the iconography of Saraswati, the Hindu goddess of arts and learning; these continue to be used, albeit with different designs, in Carnatic classical music and Hindustani classical music. The Sanskrit word veena in ancient and medieval Indian literature is a generic term for plucked string musical instruments. Veena is mentioned in the Rigveda and other Vedic literature such as the Shatapatha Brahmana and Taittiriya Samhita.
In the ancient texts, Narada is credited with inventing the veena, is described as a seven string instrument with frets. According to Suneera Kasliwal, a professor of Music, in the ancient texts such as the Rigveda and Atharvaveda, as well as the Upanishads, a string musical instrument is called Vana, a term that evolved to become Veena; the early Sanskrit texts call any stringed instrument as Vana, these include bowed, one string, many strings, non-fretted, lute or harp lyre style string instrument. The Natya Shastra by Bharata Muni, the oldest surviving ancient Hindu text on classical music and performance arts, discusses Veena; this Sanskrit text complete between 200 BCE and 200 CE, begins its discussion by stating that "the human throat is a sareer veena, or a body's musical string instrument" when it is perfected, that the source of gandharva music is such a throat, a string instrument and flute. The same metaphor of human voice organ being a form of veena, is found in more ancient texts of Hinduism, such as in verse 3.2.5 of the Aitareya Aranyaka, verse 8.9 of the Shankhayana Aranyaka and others.
The ancient epic Mahabharata describes sage Narada as a Vedic sage famed as a "vina player". The Natya Shastra describes a seven string instrument and other string instruments in thirty five verses, explains how the instrument should be played; the technique of performance suggests that the veena in Bharata Muni's time was quite different than the zither or the lute that became popular after Natya Shastra was complete. The ancient veena, according to other scholars, was closer to a harp; the earliest lute and zither style veena playing musicians are evidenced in Hindu and Buddhist cave temple reliefs in the early centuries of the common era. Indian sculptures from the mid 1st millennium CE depict musicians playing string instruments. By about the 6th century CE, the goddess Saraswati sculptures are predominantly with veena of the zither-style, similar to modern styles; the Tamil word of veena is yaaḻ. It is in the list of Musical instruments used by Tamil people in Tirumurai dated 6th to 11th century.
A person who plays a veena is called a vainika. One of the early veenas used in India from early times, until the Gupta period was an instrument of the harp type and more of the arched harp, it was played with the strings being kept parallel to the body of the player, with both hands plucking the strings, as shown on Samudragupta's gold coins. At a first glance, the difference between the North and South Indian design is the presence of two resonant gourds in North, while in South instead of the lower gourd there is a pear shaped wooden body attached. However, there are other differences, many similarities. Modern designs other materials instead of hollowed jackwood and gourds; the construction is personalized to the musician's body proportions so that she can hold and play it comfortably. It ranges from about 3.5 to 4 feet. The body is hollow. Both designs have three drone strings and twenty four frets; the instrument's end is tastefully shaped such as a swan and the external surfaces colorfully decorated with traditional Indian designs.
The melody strings are tuned in c' g c G, from which sarani is used. The drone strings are tuned in c" g' c'; the drones are used to create rhythmic tanams of Indian classical music and to express harm
Tamil Nadu is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala and Andhra Pradesh, it is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, by the Indian Ocean on the south. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka. Tamil Nadu is the sixth largest by population, it has a high HDI ranking among Indian states as of 2017. The economy of Tamil Nadu is the second-largest state economy in India with ₹17.25 lakh crore in gross domestic product after Maharashtra and a per capita GDP of ₹167,000. It was ranked as one of the top seven developed states in India based on a "Multidimensional Development Index" in a 2013 report published by the Reserve Bank of India.
Its official language is Tamil, one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world. The region was ruled by several empires, including the three great empires – Chola and Pandyan empires, which shape the region's cuisine and architecture; the British Colonial rule during the modern period led to the emergence of Chennai known as Madras, as a world-class city. Modern-day Tamil Nadu was formed in 1956 after the reorganization of states on linguistic lines; the state is home to a number of historic buildings, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, hill stations and three World Heritage sites. Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula. In Attirampakkam, archaeologists from the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education excavated ancient stone tools which suggests that a humanlike population existed in the Tamil Nadu region somewhere around 300,000 years before homo sapiens arrived from Africa. In Adichanallur, 24 km from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, bones, grains of rice, charred rice and celts of the Neolithic period, 3,800 years ago.
The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is "very rudimentary" Tamil Brahmi. Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies. About 60 per cent of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu, most of these are in the Tamil language. A Neolithic stone celt with the Indus script on it was discovered at Sembian-Kandiyur near Mayiladuthurai in Tamil Nadu. According to epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan, this was the first datable artefact bearing the Indus script to be found in Tamil Nadu. According to Mahadevan, the find was evidence of the use of the Harappan language, therefore that the "Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Harappan language"; the date of the celt was estimated at between 1500 BCE and 2000 BCE. Though this finding remains contested,like the claim of historian Michel Danino who rubbishes the theory of the latter’s southward migration in a paper he presented at the International Symposium on Indus Civilisation and Tamil Language in 2007.
He wrote: ‘There is no archaeological evidence of a southward migration through the Deccan after the end of the urban phase of the Indus- Sarasvati civilization… The only actual evidence of movements at that period is of Late Harappans migrating towards the Ganges plains and towards Gujarat... Migration apart, there is a complete absence of Harappan artefacts and features south of the Vindhyas: no Harappan designs on pottery, no Harappan seals and ornaments, no trace of Harappan urbanism… Cultural continuity from Harappan to historical times has been documented in North India, but not in the South… This means, in effect, that the south-bound Late Harappans would have reverted from an advanced urban bronze-age culture to a Neolithic one! Their migration to South would thus constitute a double “archaeological miracle”: apart from being undetectable on the ground, it implies that the migrants experienced a total break with all their traditions; such a phenomenon is unheard of.’ The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources known as Sangam literature.
Numismatic and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about eight centuries, from 500 BC to AD 300. The recent excavations in Alagankulam archaeological site suggests that Alagankulam is one of the important trade centre or port city in Sangam Era; the Bhakti movement originated in Tamil speaking region of South India and spread northwards through India. The Bhakti Movement was a rapid growth of bhakti beginning in this region with the Saiva Nayanars and the Vaisnava Alvars who spread bhakti poetry and devotion; the Alwars and Nayanmars were instrumental in propagating the Bhakti tradition. During the 4th to 8th centuries, Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the Pallava dynasty under Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I; the Pallavas ruled parts of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Tamil architecture reached its peak during Pallava rule. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Much the Pallavas were replaced by the Chola dynasty as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century.
The Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep s