A drought or drouth is a natural disaster of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water. A drought may be declared after as few as 15 days, it can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region and harm to the local economy. Annual dry seasons in the tropics increase the chances of a drought developing and subsequent bush fires. Periods of heat can worsen drought conditions by hastening evaporation of water vapour. Many plant species, such as those in the family Cactaceae, have drought tolerance adaptations like reduced leaf area and waxy cuticles to enhance their ability to tolerate drought; some others survive dry periods as buried seeds. Semi-permanent drought produces arid biomes such as grasslands. Prolonged droughts have caused humanitarian crisis. Most arid ecosystems have inherently low productivity; the most prolonged drought in the world in recorded history occurred in the Atacama Desert in Chile.
Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall. Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation over a longer duration. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Droughts occur in areas where normal levels of rainfall are, in themselves, low. If these factors do not support precipitation volumes sufficiently to reach the surface over a sufficient time, the result is a drought. Drought can be triggered by a high level of reflected sunlight and above average prevalence of high pressure systems, winds carrying continental, rather than oceanic air masses, ridges of high pressure areas aloft can prevent or restrict the developing of thunderstorm activity or rainfall over one certain region.
Once a region is within drought, feedback mechanisms such as local arid air, hot conditions which can promote warm core ridging, minimal evapotranspiration can worsen drought conditions. Within the tropics, distinct and dry seasons emerge due to the movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone or Monsoon trough; the dry season increases drought occurrence, is characterized by its low humidity, with watering holes and rivers drying up. Because of the lack of these watering holes, many grazing animals are forced to migrate due to the lack of water in search of more fertile lands. Examples of such animals are zebras and wildebeest; because of the lack of water in the plants, bushfires are common. Since water vapor becomes more energetic with increasing temperature, more water vapor is required to increase relative humidity values to 100% at higher temperatures. Periods of warmth quicken the pace of fruit and vegetable production, increase evaporation and transpiration from plants, worsen drought conditions.
Drier and hotter weather occurs in parts of the Amazon River Basin and Central America during El Niño events. Winters during the El Niño are warmer and drier than average conditions in the Northwest, northern Midwest, northern Mideast United States, so those regions experience reduced snowfalls. Conditions are drier than normal from December to February in south-central Africa in Zambia, Zimbabwe and Botswana. Direct effects of El Niño resulting in drier conditions occur in parts of Southeast Asia and Northern Australia, increasing bush fires, worsening haze, decreasing air quality dramatically. Drier-than-normal conditions are in general observed in Queensland, inland Victoria, inland New South Wales, eastern Tasmania from June to August; as warm water spreads from the west Pacific and the Indian Ocean to the east Pacific, it causes extensive drought in the western Pacific. Singapore experienced the driest February in 2014 since records began in 1869, with only 6.3 mm of rain falling in the month and temperatures hitting as high as 35 °C on 26 February.
The years 2005 had the next driest Februaries, when 8.4 mm of rain fell. Human activity can directly trigger exacerbating factors such as over farming, excessive irrigation and erosion adversely impact the ability of the land to capture and hold water. In arid climates, the main source of erosion is wind. Erosion can be the result of material movement by the wind; the wind can cause small particles to be therefore moved to another region. Suspended particles within the wind may impact on solid objects causing erosion by abrasion. Wind erosion occurs in areas with little or no vegetation in areas where there is insufficient rainfall to support vegetation. Loess is a homogeneous nonstratified, friable coherent calcareous, fine-grained, pale yellow or buff, windblown sediment, it occurs as a widespread blanket deposit that covers areas of hundreds of square kilometers and tens of meters thick. Loess stands in either steep or vertical faces. Loess tends to develop into rich soils. Under appropriate climatic conditions, areas with loess are among the most agriculturally productive in the world.
Loess deposits are geologically unstable by nature, will erode readily. Therefore, windbreaks are planted by farmers to reduce the wind erosion of loess. Wind erosion
Narukami is a kabuki play written by Tsuuchi Hanjuro, Yasuda Abun and Nakata Mansuke and first performed in 1742. The original version of Narukami dates from 1684, it was one of the Kabuki Jūhachiban, a set of plays associated with the Ichikawa Danjūrō line of actors and the aragoto style of acting; this version was written by Ichikawa Danjūrō I, but it has been replaced by the 1742 play and is no longer performed in its original form. In its current form, Narukami is act IV of the five-part play Narukami Fudo Kitayama Zakura. Nowadays Narukami is staged alone, the whole play is only revived from time to time. Narukami is now a popular play performed, it has been translated into English. Narukami - a Buddhist saint Taema - a princess sent by the Emperor Hakuunbo - an acolyte of Narukami Kokuunbo - an acolyte of Narukami Acolytes Stage assistants Narukami holds a grudge against the imperial court, captures the rain dragon. After capturing the dragon god, the imperial court ordered princess Taema to seduce Narukami and make it rain.
She tells the story about her “late husband” and tells Narukami that she just wants to wash her husband’s robes. She pretends to pull her skirts up, making Narukami faint. Before fainting, he recalls hearing a story where a priest lost his powers after seeing a woman’s naked body. After being seduced, Narukami quits being a priest and asks Taema’s hand in marriage, she agrees. After Narukami and Taema drink sake to seal their marriage, Narukami passes out. Meanwhile, Taema climbs the mountain to cut off the ropes sealing the dragon. After Taema freed the dragon god, it starts to thunder. Taema heads elsewhere; when Narukami woke up, his hair stood on end and says “I am so bitter to be deceived!” And starts throwing his students in a fit of rage. He looks for the princess to pursue her. Narukami at Kabuki21.com
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, creator deity, principal object of faith. The conceptions of God, as described by theologians include the attributes of omniscience, omnipresence, as having an eternal and necessary existence. Depending on one's kind of theism, these attributes are used either in way of analogy, or in a literal sense as distinct properties. God is most held to be incorporeal. Incorporeality and corporeality of God are related to conceptions of transcendence and immanence of God, with positions of synthesis such as the "immanent transcendence". Psychoanalyst Carl Jung equated religious ideas of God with transcendental aspects of consciousness in his interpretation; some religions describe God without reference to gender, while others or their translations use sex-specific terminology. Judaism attributes only a grammatical gender to God, using terms such as "Him" or "Father" for convenience. God has been conceived as either impersonal. In theism, God is the creator and sustainer of the universe, while in deism, God is the creator, but not the sustainer, of the universe.
In pantheism, God is the universe itself. In atheism, there is an absence of belief in God. In agnosticism, the existence of God is deemed unknowable. God has been conceived as the source of all moral obligation, the "greatest conceivable existent". Many notable philosophers have developed arguments against the existence of God. Monotheists refer to their gods using names prescribed by their respective religions, with some of these names referring to certain cultural ideas about their god's identity and attributes. In the ancient Egyptian era of Atenism the earliest recorded monotheistic religion, this deity was called Aten, premised on being the one "true" Supreme Being and creator of the universe. In the Hebrew Bible and Judaism, Adonai, YHWH and other names are used as the names of God. Yahweh and Jehovah, possible vocalizations of YHWH, are used in Christianity. In the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, coexisting in three "persons", is called the Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit. In Islam, the name Allah is used, while Muslims have a multitude of titular names for God.
In Hinduism, Brahman is considered a monistic concept of God. In Chinese religion, Shangdi is conceived as the progenitor of the universe, intrinsic to it and bringing order to it. Other religions have names for the concept, for instance, Baha in the Bahá'í Faith, Waheguru in Sikhism, Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa in Balinese Hinduism, Ahura Mazda in Zoroastrianism; the many different conceptions of God, competing claims as to God's characteristics and actions, have led to the development of ideas of omnitheism, pandeism, or a perennial philosophy, which postulates that there is one underlying theological truth, of which all religions express a partial understanding, as to which "the devout in the various great world religions are in fact worshipping that one God, but through different, overlapping concepts". The earliest written form of the Germanic word God comes from the 6th-century Christian Codex Argenteus; the English word itself is derived from the Proto-Germanic * ǥuđan. The reconstructed Proto-Indo-European form * ǵhu-tó-m was based on the root * ǵhau-, which meant either "to call" or "to invoke".
The Germanic words for God were neuter—applying to both genders—but during the process of the Christianization of the Germanic peoples from their indigenous Germanic paganism, the words became a masculine syntactic form. In the English language, capitalization is used for names by which a god is known, including'God'; the capitalized form of god is not used for multiple gods or when used to refer to the generic idea of a deity. The English word God and its counterparts in other languages are used for any and all conceptions and, in spite of significant differences between religions, the term remains an English translation common to all; the same holds for Hebrew El, but in Judaism, God is given a proper name, the tetragrammaton YHWH, in origin the name of an Edomite or Midianite deity, Yahweh. In many translations of the Bible, when the word LORD is in all capitals, it signifies that the word represents the tetragrammaton. Allāh is the Arabic term with no plural used by Muslims and Arabic speaking Christians and Jews meaning "The God", while "ʾilāh" is the term used for a deity or a god in general.
God may be given a proper name in monotheistic currents of Hinduism which emphasize the personal nature of God, with early references to his name as Krishna-Vasudeva in Bhagavata or Vishnu and Hari. Ahura Mazda is the name for God used in Zoroastrianism. "Mazda", or rather the Avestan stem-form Mazdā-, nominative Mazdå, reflects Proto-Iranian *Mazdāh. It is taken to be the proper name of the spirit, like its Sanskrit cognate medhā, means "intelligence" or "wisdom". Both the Avestan and Sanskrit words reflect Proto-Indo-Iranian *mazdhā-, from Proto-Indo-European mn̩sdʰeh1 meaning "placing one's mind", hence "wise". Waheguru is a term most used in Sikhism to refer to God, it means "Wonderful Teacher" in the Punjabi language. Vāhi means "wonderful" and guru is a term denoting "teacher". Waheguru is described by some as an experience of ecstasy, beyond all descriptions; the most common usage of the word "Waheguru" is in the greeting Sikhs use with each other: Baha, the "greates
Lightning is a violent and sudden electrostatic discharge where two electrically charged regions in the atmosphere temporarily equalize themselves during a thunderstorm. Lightning creates a wide range of electromagnetic radiations from the hot plasma created by the electron flow, including visible light in the form of black-body radiation. Thunder is the sound formed by the shock wave formed as gaseous molecules experience a rapid pressure increase; the three main kinds of lightning are: created either inside one thundercloud, or between two clouds, or between a cloud and the ground. The 15 recognized observational variants include "heat lightning", seen but not heard, dry lightning, which causes many forest fires, ball lightning, observed scientifically. Humans have deified lightning for millennia, lightning inspired expressions like "Bolt from the blue", "Lightning never strikes twice", "blitzkrieg" are common. In some languages, "Love at first sight" translates as "lightning strike"; the details of the charging process are still being studied by scientists, but there is general agreement on some of the basic concepts of thunderstorm electrification.
The main charging area in a thunderstorm occurs in the central part of the storm where air is moving upward and temperatures range from −15 to −25 °C, see figure to the right. At that place, the combination of temperature and rapid upward air movement produces a mixture of super-cooled cloud droplets, small ice crystals, graupel; the updraft carries the super-cooled cloud droplets and small ice crystals upward. At the same time, the graupel, larger and denser, tends to fall or be suspended in the rising air; the differences in the movement of the precipitation cause collisions to occur. When the rising ice crystals collide with graupel, the ice crystals become positively charged and the graupel becomes negatively charged. See figure to the left; the updraft carries. The larger and denser graupel is either suspended in the middle of the thunderstorm cloud or falls toward the lower part of the storm; the result is that the upper part of the thunderstorm cloud becomes positively charged while the middle to lower part of the thunderstorm cloud becomes negatively charged.
The upward motions within the storm and winds at higher levels in the atmosphere tend to cause the small ice crystals in the upper part of the thunderstorm cloud to spread out horizontally some distance from thunderstorm cloud base. This part of the thunderstorm cloud is called the anvil. While this is the main charging process for the thunderstorm cloud, some of these charges can be redistributed by air movements within the storm. In addition, there is a small but important positive charge buildup near the bottom of the thunderstorm cloud due to the precipitation and warmer temperatures. A typical cloud-to-ground lightning flash culminates in the formation of an electrically conducting plasma channel through the air in excess of 5 km tall, from within the cloud to the ground's surface; the actual discharge is the final stage of a complex process. At its peak, a typical thunderstorm produces three or more strikes to the Earth per minute. Lightning occurs when warm air is mixed with colder air masses, resulting in atmospheric disturbances necessary for polarizing the atmosphere.
However, it can occur during dust storms, forest fires, volcanic eruptions, in the cold of winter, where the lightning is known as thundersnow. Hurricanes generate some lightning in the rainbands as much as 160 km from the center; the science of lightning is called fulminology, the fear of lightning is called astraphobia. Lightning is not distributed evenly around the planet. On Earth, the lightning frequency is 44 times per second, or nearly 1.4 billion flashes per year and the average duration is 0.2 seconds made up from a number of much shorter flashes of around 60 to 70 microseconds. Many factors affect the frequency, distribution and physical properties of a typical lightning flash in a particular region of the world; these factors include ground elevation, prevailing wind currents, relative humidity, proximity to warm and cold bodies of water, etc. To a certain degree, the ratio between IC, CC and CG lightning may vary by season in middle latitudes; because human beings are terrestrial and most of their possessions are on the Earth where lightning can damage or destroy them, CG lightning is the most studied and best understood of the three types though IC and CC are more common types of lightning.
Lightning's relative unpredictability limits a complete explanation of how or why it occurs after hundreds of years of scientific investigation. About 70 % of lightning occurs over land in the tropics; this occurs from both the mixture of warmer and colder air masses, as well as differences in moisture concentrations, it happens at the boundaries between them. The flow of warm ocean currents past drier land masses, such as the Gulf Stream explains the elevated frequency of lightning in the Southeast United States; because the influence of small or absent land masses in the vast stretches of the world's oceans limits the differences between these variants in the atmosphere, lightning is notably less frequent there than over larger landforms. The North and South Poles are limited in their coverage of thunderstorms and theref
The term lacquer is used for a number of hard and shiny finishes applied to materials such as wood. These fall into a number of different groups; the term lacquer originates from the Sanskrit word lākshā representing the number 100,000, used for both the lac insect and the scarlet resinous secretion, rich in shellac, that it produces, used as wood finish in ancient India and neighbouring areas. Asian lacquerware, which may be called "true lacquer", are objects coated with the treated and dried sap of Toxicodendron vernicifluum or related trees, applied in several coats to a base, wood; this dries to a hard and smooth surface layer, durable and attractive to feel and look at. Asian lacquer is sometimes painted with pictures, inlaid with shell and other materials, or carved, as well as dusted with gold and given other further decorative treatments. In modern techniques, lacquer means a range of clear or coloured wood finishes that dry by solvent evaporation or a curing process that produces a hard, durable finish.
The finish can be of any sheen level from ultra matte to high gloss, it can be further polished as required. It is used for "lacquer paint", a paint that dries better on a hard and smooth surface. In terms of modern products for coating finishes, lac-based finishes are to be referred to as shellac, while lacquer refers to other polymers dissolved in volatile organic compounds, such as nitrocellulose, acrylic compounds dissolved in lacquer thinner, a mixture of several solvents containing butyl acetate and xylene or toluene. Lacquer is more durable than shellac; the English lacquer is from the archaic French word lacre "a kind of sealing wax", from Portuguese lacre, itself an unexplained variant of Medieval Latin lacca "resinous substance" from Arabic lakk, from Persian lak, from Hindi lakh. These derive from Sanskrit lākshā, used for both the Lac insect and the scarlet resinous secretion it produces, used as wood finish. Lac resin was once imported in sizeable quantity into Europe from India along with Eastern woods.
Lacquer sheen is a measurement of the shine for a given lacquer. Different manufacturers have their own standards for their sheen; the most common names from least shiny to most shiny are: flat, egg shell, semi-gloss, gloss. In India the insect lac, or shellac was used since ancient times. Shellac is the secretion of the lac bug, it is used for the production of a red dye and pigment, for the production of different grades of shellac, used in surface coating. Urushiol-based lacquers differ from most others, being slow-drying, set by oxidation and polymerization, rather than by evaporation alone. In order for it to set properly it requires a warm environment; the phenols oxidize and polymerize under the action of an enzyme laccase, yielding a substrate that, upon proper evaporation of its water content, is hard. These lacquers produce hard, durable finishes that are both beautiful and resistant to damage by water, alkali or abrasion; the active ingredient of the resin is urushiol, a mixture of various phenols suspended in water, plus a few proteins.
The resin is derived from trees indigenous to East Asia, like lacquer tree Toxicodendron vernicifluum, wax tree Toxicodendron succedaneum. The fresh resin from the T. vernicifluum trees causes urushiol-induced contact dermatitis and great care is required in its use. The Chinese treated the allergic reaction with crushed shellfish, which prevents lacquer from drying properly. Lacquer skills became highly developed in Asia, many decorated pieces were produced. During the Shang Dynasty, the sophisticated techniques used in the lacquer process were first developed and it became a artistic craft, although various prehistoric lacquerwares have been unearthed in China dating back to the Neolithic period and objects with lacquer coating in Japan from the late Jōmon period; the earliest extant lacquer object, a red wooden bowl, was unearthed at a Hemudu culture site in China. By the Han Dynasty, many centres of lacquer production became established; the knowledge of the Chinese methods of the lacquer process spread from China during the Han and Song dynasties.
It was introduced to Korea, Japan and South Asia. Trade of lacquer objects travelled through various routes to the Middle East. Known applications of lacquer in China included coffins, music instruments and various household items. Lacquer mixed with powdered cinnabar is used to produce the traditional red lacquerware from China; the trees must be at least ten years old before cutting to bleed the resin. It sets by a process called absorbing oxygen to set. Lacquer-yielding trees in Thailand, Vietnam and Taiwan, called Thitsi, are different; the end result is similar but softer than the Japanese lacquer. Burmese lacquer sets slower, is painted by craftsmen's hands without using brushes. Raw lacquer can be "coloured" by the addition of small amounts of iron oxides, giving red or black depending on the oxide. There is some evidence that its use is older than 8,000 years from archaeological digs in China. Pigments were added to make colours, it is used not only as a finish, but mixed with ground fired and unfired clays applied to a mould
A storm is any disturbed state of an environment or in an astronomical body's atmosphere affecting its surface, implying severe weather. It may be marked by significant disruptions to normal conditions such as strong wind, hail and lightning, heavy precipitation, heavy freezing rain, strong winds, or wind transporting some substance through the atmosphere as in a dust storm, sandstorm, etc. Storms have the potential to harm lives and property via storm surge, heavy rain or snow causing flooding or road impassibility, lightning and vertical wind shear. Systems with significant rainfall and duration help alleviate drought in places. Heavy snowfall can allow special recreational activities to take place which would not be possible otherwise, such as skiing and snowmobiling; the English word comes from Proto-Germanic *sturmaz meaning "noise, tumult". Storms are created when a center of low pressure develops with the system of high pressure surrounding it; this combination of opposing forces can create winds and result in the formation of storm clouds such as cumulonimbus.
Small localized areas of low pressure can form from hot air rising off hot ground, resulting in smaller disturbances such as dust devils and whirlwinds. There are many varieties and names for storms: Blizzard — There are varying definitions for blizzards, both over time and by location. In general, a blizzard is accompanied by gale-force winds, heavy snow, cold conditions; the temperature criterion has fallen out of the definition across the United States Bomb cyclone - A rapid deepening of a mid-latitude cyclonic low-pressure area occurring over the ocean, but can occur over land. The winds experienced during these storms can be as powerful as that of a hurricane. Coastal Storm — large wind waves and/or storm surge that strike the coastal zone, their impacts include coastal erosion and coastal flooding Derecho — A derecho is a widespread, long-lived, straight-line wind storm, associated with a land-based, fast-moving group of severe thunderstorms. Dust devil — a small, localized updraft of rising air.
Dust storm - A situation in which winds pick up large quantities of sand or soil reducing the visibility Firestorm — Firestorms are conflagrations which attain such intensity that they create and sustain their own wind systems. It is most a natural phenomenon, created during some of the largest bushfires, forest fires, wildfires; the Peshtigo Fire is one example of a firestorm. Firestorms can be deliberate effects of targeted explosives such as occurred as a result of the aerial bombings of Dresden. Nuclear detonations generate firestorms. Gale — An extratropical storm with sustained winds between 34–48 knots. Hailstorm — a type of storm that precipitates round chunks of ice. Hailstorms occur during regular thunderstorms. While most of the hail that precipitates from the clouds is small and harmless, there are occasional occurrences of hail greater than 2 inches in diameter that can cause much damage and injuries. Hypercane -a hypothetical tropical cyclone that could form over 50 °C water; such a storm would produce winds of over 800 km/h.
A series of hypercanes may have formed during the astroid or comet impact that killed the non-avian dinosaurs 66 million years ago. Such a phenomenon could occur during a supervolcanic eruption, or extreme global warming. Ice storm — Ice storms are one of the most dangerous forms of winter storms; when surface temperatures are below freezing, but a thick layer of above-freezing air remains aloft, rain can fall into the freezing layer and freeze upon impact into a glaze of ice. In general, 8 millimetres of accumulation is all, required in combination with breezy conditions, to start downing power lines as well as tree limbs. Ice storms make unheated road surfaces too slick to drive upon. Ice storms can vary in time range from hours to days and can cripple small towns and large metropolitan cities alike. Microburst - a powerful windstorm produced during a thunderstorm that only lasts a few minutes. Ocean Storm or sea storm — Storm conditions out at sea are defined as having sustained winds of 48 knots or greater.
Just referred to as a storm, these systems can sink vessels of all types and sizes. Snowstorm — A heavy fall of snow accumulating at a rate of more than 5 centimeters per hour that lasts several hours. Snow storms ones with a high liquid equivalent and breezy conditions, can down tree limbs, cut off power connections and paralyze travel over large regions. Squall — sudden onset of wind increase of at least 16 knots or greater sustained for at least one minute. Thunderstorm -- A thunderstorm is a type of storm that generates both thunder, it is accompanied by heavy precipitation. Thunderstorms occur throughout the world, with the highest frequency in tropical rainforest regions where there are conditions of high humidity and temperature along with atmospheric instability; these storms occur when high levels of condensation form in a volume of unstable air that generates deep, upward motion in the atmosphere. The heat energy creates powerful rising air currents. Cool descending air currents produce strong downdraughts below the storm.
After the storm has spent its energy, the rising currents die away and downdraughts break up the cloud. Individual s
Tawaraya Sōtatsu was a Japanese painter and designer of the Rinpa school. Sōtatsu is best known for his decorations of calligraphic works by his partner Hon'ami Kōetsu, his spectacular and influential byōbu folding screens, such as National Treasures Wind God and Thunder God and his painting of the Sekiya and Miotsukushi chapters from The Tale of Genji, he popularized a technique called tarashikomi, in which a second layer of paint is applied before the first layer is dry. He is credited with co-founding the Rinpa school of Japanese painting, together with Kōetsu. Rinpa was not a school, but a group of artist directly influenced by Sōtatsu and Kōetsu; some of the most notable Rinpa artists are Ogata Kenzan and Sakai Hōitsu. The exact date of Sōtatsu's birth around 1570, remains unknown, so does the place of his birth; the painter Tani Bunchō stated that Sōtatsu was from Noto and that he studied under Sumiyoshi Jokei in Kyoto. His family name may have been Nonomura. In 1602 he was hired by the Taira family to repair the 12th-century sutra scrolls Heike nōkyō at the Itsukushima shrine on Miyajima.
This is the earliest paintings attributed to Sōtatsu, but it features the characteristics of his work. It is suspected that Kōetsu might have worked in the repair of the scroll; the first confirmed collaboration with Hon'ami Kōetsu is in the Sagabon, an ambitious project started around 1606 by Suminokura Soan to publish elaborate editions of classical Japanese book and Noh librettos. Sōtatsu created the designs for the covers and paper of many of the books, while Kōetsu was the calligrapher of some of the texts; the name Sagabon comes from the suburb of Kyoto. Sōtatsu married a cousin of Koetsu He opened a shop in Kyoto, named Tawaraya, where he sold a variety of decorated objects, including fans, lantern paper, screens and patterns for kimonos, took commissions for decorating interiors; the shop soon gained recognition for its artistic excellence. The collaboration between Sōtatsu and Kōetsu came to an end around 1620 because he was moving away from the profession of decorator and designer, started focusing more on his career as a painter.
He decorated the doors and screens of the Yōgen-in temple during the reconstruction ordered by Tokugawa Hidetada's wife in 1621, in 1630 he was given the title of hokkyō, the third highest rank awarded to Buddhist artists. The circumstances of Sōtatsu's death are not known, but he died around 1640; the most successful among his direct students were Kitawaga Sōsetsu. Anthology with Cranes is a handscroll decorated by Sōtatsu using silver and gold pigment, with calligraphy by Hon'ami Kōetsu, it contains some of the finest calligraphy by Kōetsu and one of the best examples of Sōtatsu's decorative skills. The work was most produced between 1602 and 1620, the period during which Sōtatsu and Kōetsu are considered to have worked together; the text of the scroll is a compilation of waka poems from the poets known collectively as Thirty-Six Immortals of Poetry, including one poem from each one of the 36 members of the group. The visual motif is that of cranes, which stand or fly in flocks across the entire length of the scroll.
The skill of Sōtatsu's design and its "cutting-edge originality" have been praised. Anthology with Cranes The scroll measures 34.1 cm x 1356 cm and belongs to the Kyoto National Museum. It is an Important Cultural Property. Wind God and Thunder God is a pair of two-folded screens made using ink and color on gold-foiled paper, it depicts Raijin, the god of lightning and storms in the Shinto religion and in Japanese mythology, Fūjin, the god of wind. The screens have no inscription or seal, it is a prominent work in the Rinpa school because two other of its major figures, Ogata Kōrin and Sakai Hōitsu, replicated the painting in homage. All three versions of the work were displayed together for the first time in seventy-five years in 2015, at the Kyoto National Museum exhibition "Rinpa: The Aesthetics of the Capital". Wind God and Thunder God Each screen measures 169.8 cm × 154.5 cm. They belong to the Zen Buddhist temple Kennin-ji in Kyoto, but they are exhibited in the Kyoto National Museum, they are a National Treasure of Japan.
The Freer Gallery of Art organized the first retrospective outside Japan from October 2015 to January 2016. Murashige, Yasushi. Sōtatsu. Sansaisha, Tokyo, 1970. Gowing, L 1995, A Biographical Dictionary of Artists, Rev. edn, Andromeda Oxford Limited, Oxfordshire. Bridge of Dreams: the Mary Griggs Burke collection of Japanese art; the Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries. Media related to Tawaraya Sōtatsu at Wikimedia Commons Momoyama, Japanese Art in the Age of Grandeur, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Tawaraya Sōtatsu