Motor coach (rail)
A motor coach or motorcar is a powered rail vehicle able to pull several trailers and at the same time transport passengers or luggage. With multiple unit control, one operator can control several “motor coaches”, possibly even combined with locomotives, efficiently in the same train. A motor coach is distinguished from a railcar or railbus by not being lightweight, motor coaches can replace locomotives at the head of local passenger or freight trains. Especially electrified narrow gauge lines on the European continent often saw this form of operation, many of these railways closed down, many others changed to electric multiple units. But a few lines in Switzerland and Austria still work with train consists hauled by motor coaches and it can be expected that the Bernina line of Rhaetian Railway will continue for a long time to be operated with motor coaches pulling passenger and freight trains. Locomotive Multiple Unit Railbus / Railcar Autorail British Rail Railbuses
In the earliest days of railways, designers wished to produce a vehicle for passenger carrying that was economical to build and operate on routes where passenger numbers were light. William Bridges Adams started building railmotors in small numbers as early as 1848, the Bristol and Exeter Railway used a steam carriage. In many cases the tramways soon adopted electric traction instead, the railways responded by opening new stopping places and sought to reduce their operating cost by reintroducing railmotors, which were cheaper to construct. The London and North Western Railway and Yorkshire Railway, London Brighton and South Coast Railway, nonetheless the railmotors had a number of disadvantages, their frequency, and the closeness of their stopping places, could not match that of the tramcars. There were two designs, A small 0-4-0 or 0-2-2 steam locomotive with one end of a coach hung on it like an articulated lorry. A coach with an engine built into one end of it. This type would sometimes have a vertical boiler and these machines were not a great success because they lacked flexibility.
Most could haul a single trailer, but no more and this meant they were unable to cope with greater than expected passenger demands – a classic example being busy market days on an otherwise lightly used rural branch line. They were unable to haul goods wagons, requiring a conventional locomotive to be stationed on the line in any case for these duties. For this reason, they were superseded by push-pull trains. The South Eastern & Chatham Railway built its P Class of small, in the late 1920s there was another revival of railmotors with the introduction of new designs from Clayton and Sentinel with high-speed motors and geared drive. The London and North Eastern Railway bought over 80 of them but, some lasted no more than 10 years and all had been withdrawn by 1947. From the 1930s the diesel railcar made great progress and by the 1950s the railmotor was consigned to history, the diesels ability to use multiple unit control was an advantage. The Great Western Society, based at Didcot, has restored a Great Western Railway steam railmotor and it regularly operates throughout the summer and has visited other preserved railways in the west country and Wales.
It operated on the mainline between Liskeard and Looe in November 2012, after withdrawal it was used as private accommodation in a field but has now been restored to working order. The D&CDR has Great Southern and Western Railway No,90, which was built in 1875 as a railmotor but had its carriage portion removed in 1915. Autorail Railbus Railcar Rail motor coach Dempsey, G Drysdale, extracts from a Rudimentary Treatise on the Locomotive Engine. The Rise and Fall of the Steam Rail Motor, the Barry Railway and photographs of Locomotives and Wagons
North Island Main Trunk
The North Island Main Trunk is the main railway line in the North Island of New Zealand, connecting capital city Wellington with the countrys largest city, Auckland. The line is 682 kilometres long and passes through Paraparaumu, Palmerston North, National Park, Taumarunui, Te Kuiti, most of the NIMT is single track with frequent passing loops, built to the New Zealand rail gauge of 1,067 mm. The line is double track between Wellington and Waikanae, between Hamilton and Te Kauwhata, and between Meremere and Auckland Britomart, the first section of what became the NIMT opened in 1873 in Auckland. Construction of the Wellington end began in 1885, and the line was completed in 1908, the line is credited for having been an economic lifeline for the young nation, and for having opened up the centre of the North Island to European settlement and investment. In the early days, a journey could take more than 20 hours, today. Aucklands first railway was the 13 km line between Point Britomart and Onehunga via Penrose, opened in 1873, the section from Penrose to Onehunga is now called the Onehunga Branch.
This line reached Mercer by 20 May 1875, with 29 km from Ngaruawahia being constructed by the Volunteer Engineer Militia and it was extended to Frankton by December 1877, and to Te Awamutu in 1880. An economic downturn stalled construction for the five years. There were protracted negotiations with local Māori, and the King Country was not accessible to Europeans until 1883, the Wellington-Longburn section was constructed between 1881 and 1886 by the Wellington and Manawatu Railway Company. The company was acquired by the New Zealand Railways Department in 1908, from Te Awamutu it was proposed that the line be built via Taupo or via Taumarunui, the eventual route. Construction of the central section began on 15 April 1885. It was 23 years before the two met, as the central section was difficult to survey and construct. The crossing of the North Island Volcanic Plateau with deep ravines required nine viaducts, by the beginning of 1908, there was a 39 km gap between Erua and Ohakune, with a connecting horse-drawn coach service.
From Ohakune south to Waiouru the Public Works Department operated the train, but much of the new section was temporary, with some cuttings north of Taonui having vertical batters and some unballasted sections of track. Ward drove the last spike on 6 November 1908, and the Last Spike monument is at Manganui-o-te-Ao 39°16. 44′S 175°23. 37′E, a two-day NIMT service started on 9 November, with an overnight stop at Ohakune. The dining car went on the express from Wellington to Ohakune, transferred to the southbound express. Under T. Ronaye the general manager from 1895 to 1913 the section south to Parnell was duplicated and improvements made to the worst gradients, under his successor E. H. Hiley the second Parnell Tunnel with two tracks and an easier gradient was completed in 1915-1916. On the Kakariki bank between Halcombe and Marton a deviation reduced the 1 in 53 grade to 1 in 70, in 1927 automatic colour light signalling was installed from Otahuhu to Mercer
Vilnius is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 542,664 as of 2015. Vilnius is located in the southeast part of Lithuania and is the second largest city in the Baltic states, Vilnius is the seat of the main government institutions of Lithuania as well as of the Vilnius District Municipality. Vilnius is classified as a Gamma global city according to GaWC studies and its Jewish influence until the 20th century has led to it being described as the Jerusalem of Lithuania and Napoleon named it the Jerusalem of the North as he was passing through in 1812. In 2009, Vilnius was the European Capital of Culture, together with the Austrian city of Linz, the name of the city originates from the Vilnia River. The city has known by many derivate spellings in various languages throughout its history. The most notable names for the city include, Wilno, Belarusian, Вiльня, Wilna, Latvian, Viļņa, Russian, Вильнюс, Yiddish, ווילנע , Czech. A Russian name from the time of the Russian Empire was Вильна/Вильно, the name Vilna is still used in Finnish, Portuguese and Hebrew.
Wilna is still used in German, along with Vilnius, the neighborhoods of Vilnius have names in other languages, which represent the languages spoken by various ethnic groups in the area. Historian Romas Batūra identifies the city with Voruta, one of the castles of Mindaugas, during the reign of Vytenis a city started to emerge from a trading settlement and the first Franciscan Catholic church was built. These letters contain the first unambiguous reference to Vilnius as the capital, According to legend, Gediminas dreamt of an iron wolf howling on a hilltop and consulted a pagan priest for its interpretation. He was told, What is destined for the ruler and the State of Lithuania, is thus, the Iron Wolf represents a castle and a city which will be established by you on this site. This city will be the capital of the Lithuanian lands and the dwelling of their rulers, the location offered practical advantages, it lay within the Lithuanian heartland at the confluence of two navigable rivers, surrounded by forests and wetlands that were difficult to penetrate.
The duchy had been subject to intrusions by the Teutonic Knights, Vilnius was the flourishing capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the residence of the Grand Duke. Gediminas expanded the Grand Duchy through warfare along with strategic alliances and marriages, at its height it covered the territory of modern-day Lithuania, Ukraine and portions of modern-day Poland and Russia. His grandchildren Vytautas the Great and Jogaila, fought civil wars, during the Lithuanian Civil War of 1389–1392, Vytautas besieged and razed the city in an attempt to wrest control from Jogaila. The two settled their differences, after a series of treaties culminating in the 1569 Union of Lublin, the rulers of this federation held either or both of two titles, Grand Duke of Lithuania or King of Poland. In 1387, Jogaila acting as a Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland Władysław II Jagiełło, the city underwent a period of expansion. The Vilnius city walls were built for protection between 1503 and 1522, comprising nine city gates and three towers, and Sigismund August moved his court there in 1544
Galloping Goose (railcar)
Galloping Goose is the popular name given to a series of seven railcars, built in the 1930s by the Rio Grande Southern Railroad and operated until the end of service on the line in the early 1950s. The steam trains would transport heavy cargo and peak passenger loads, motors were not only less expensive to operate, but were significantly lighter, thus reducing impact on the rails and roadbeds. This cost saving meant that the first Goose was paid off, RGS built more Geese, and operated them until the company abandoned their right-of-way in 1952. The RGS built its first motor in 1913, as a maintenance crew vehicle. This was wrecked in 1925, but inspired the idea of using motors for scheduled service, all of the geese were built in the railroads shops at Ridgway, Colorado. The first was built in 1931 from the body of a Buick Master Six four-door sedan and it was more conventional in its construction than the geese, though it had a two-axle truck in place of the front axle. Part of the rear of the car was replaced by a truck stake-bed for carrying freight and mail and it was used for two years to carry passengers, US Mail, and light freight before being scrapped.
A second goose was built in the year from another Buick, but versions used Pierce-Arrow bodies except for #6. No.2 and No.6 were constructed with two trucks, with the rear truck powered on both axles, #2 had an enclosed freight compartment, while #6 had an open bed similar to #1. It was used only for work train service, the other four had three trucks and were articulated in the same manner as a tractor-trailer truck. In these, the truck was powered, and the freight compartment was essentially a conventional boxcar. Initially, the geese were painted in black and dark green, in 1935 they were all painted in a silver scheme which they retain to this day, though the style of lettering and heralds changed over the years. In 1945, #3, #4, and #5 were rebuilt with Wayne bus bodies replacing the old Pierce-Arrow bodies and this provided more passenger seating and comfort. A year also received new war surplus GMC engines. In 1950, when the railroad finally lost its contract, #3, #4, #5, and #7 were converted for tourist operations.
Large windows were cut in the sides of the freight compartments, a figure of a running goose and the words Galloping Goose were added to the carbody doors. This service lasted two years, and the last work of the geese on their home line was to take up the rails. It is unclear exactly where the name Galloping Goose comes from and it is mostly commonly suggested that it referred to the way the carbody and the freight compartment tended to rock back and forth on the lines sometimes precarious track
Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport include air, road, cable, the field can be divided into infrastructure and operations. Transport is important because it enables trade between people, which is essential for the development of civilizations, terminals may be used both for interchange of passengers and cargo and for maintenance. Vehicles traveling on these networks may include automobiles, buses, trucks, helicopters, operations deal with the way the vehicles are operated, and the procedures set for this purpose including financing and policies. In the transport industry and ownership of infrastructure can be public or private, depending on the country. Passenger transport may be public, where operators provide scheduled services, freight transport has become focused on containerization, although bulk transport is used for large volumes of durable items. Transport plays an important part in growth and globalization, but most types cause air pollution.
While it is subsidized by governments, good planning of transport is essential to make traffic flow. A mode of transport is a solution that makes use of a type of vehicle, infrastructure. The transport of a person or of cargo may involve one mode or several of the modes, each mode has its own advantages and disadvantages, and will be chosen for a trip on the basis of cost and route. Human powered transport, a form of transportation, is the transport of people and/or goods using human muscle-power. Modern technology has allowed machines to enhance human power, human-powered vehicles have been developed for difficult environments, such as snow and water, by watercraft rowing and skiing, even the air can be entered with human-powered aircraft. Animal-powered transport is the use of working animals for the movement of people, humans may ride some of the animals directly, use them as pack animals for carrying goods, or harness them, alone or in teams, to pull sleds or wheeled vehicles. A fixed-wing aircraft, commonly called airplane, is a craft where movement of the air in relation to the wings is used to generate lift.
The term is used to distinguish this from rotary-wing aircraft, where the movement of the lift surfaces relative to the air generates lift, a gyroplane is both fixed-wing and rotary-wing. Fixed-wing aircraft range from small trainers and recreational aircraft to large airliners, two things necessary for aircraft are air flow over the wings for lift and an area for landing. The majority of aircraft need an airport with the infrastructure to receive maintenance, restocking and for the loading and unloading of crew and passengers. While the vast majority of land and take off on land, some are capable of take off and landing on ice, snow
Queensland Rail, known as QR, is a railway operator in Queensland, Australia. Owned by the Queensland Government, Queensland Rail operates suburban and long-distance passenger services and it owns and maintains approximately 8,000 kilometres of track in Queensland. Queensland Railways was the first operator in the world to adopt narrow gauge for a line. The colony of Queensland separated from New South Wales in 1859, improved transport to the fertile Darling Downs region situated west of Toowoomba was seen as a priority. Called the Main Line, the only significant engineering work on that section was the bridge over the Bremer River to North Ipswich. The adoption of narrow gauge was controversial at the time, and was predicated by the governments desire for the fastest possible construction timeframe at least cost. In a colony with a population of 30,000 when the decision was made. Queensland Rail went on to develop a network of railways to facilitate the economic and social development of the state.
Commencing in November 1979 the Brisbane suburban network was electrified, in 1978, discussions were commenced on possible electrification of the Blackwater and Goonyella coal networks. This was due to an increase in coal traffic across the networks, ageing diesel-electric locomotive fleet. By early 1983, a decision had made to electrify the networks and by early 1984 contracts were already starting to be let for the new locomotives. The decision was made to electrify with the 25 kV AC railway electrification system as used on the Brisbane suburban network and this would allow future connection of the Brisbane network with the coal networks via the North Coast line. This was a total of 720 kilometres of track and this was a total of 773 kilometres of track. Stage 3, Electrification of the western line from Burngrove to Emerald. This would allow freight from Rockhampton to Emerald. Stage 4, Electrification of the line from Newlands coal mine to Collinsville, in 1986 it was decided to electrify the North Coast line between Brisbane and Gladstone instead and this became known as Stage 4.
In September 1999 Queensland Rail was rebranded as QR, in March 2002 Queensland Rail purchased Northern Rivers Railroad and rebranded it Interail, fulfilling a long held ambition of to expand beyond its state borders. In March 2003 Queensland Rail entered the Hunter Valley coal market when Interail commenced a contract from Duralie Colliery to Stratford Mine, another coal contract was won in late 2003 for the haulage of coal from Newstan Colliery, Fassifern to Vales Point Power Station
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, in 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.4 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.6 million live in the Republic of Ireland, the islands geography comprises relatively low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland. The island has lush vegetation, a product of its mild, thick woodlands covered the island until the Middle Ages. As of 2013, the amount of land that is wooded in Ireland is about 11% of the total, there are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is moderate and classified as oceanic.
As a result, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, summers are cooler than those in Continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant, the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century CE, the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the Norman invasion in the 12th century, England claimed sovereignty over Ireland, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, with the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s and this subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures, especially in the fields of literature.
Alongside mainstream Western culture, an indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music. The culture of the island shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, and sports such as association football, horse racing. The name Ireland derives from Old Irish Eriu and this in turn derives from Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, which is the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning fat, during the last glacial period, and up until about 9000 years ago, most of Ireland was covered with ice, most of the time
A vehicle is a mobile machine that transports people or cargo. Typical vehicles include wagons, motor vehicles, railed vehicles, Land vehicles are classified broadly by what is used to apply steering and drive forces against the ground, tracked, railed or skied. ISO 3833-1977 is the standard, used in legislation, for road vehicles types, terms. Boats were used between 4000 BC-3000 BC in Sumer, ancient Egypt and in the Indian Ocean, there is evidence of camel pulled wheeled vehicles about 3000–4000 BC. Wheeled vehicles pulled by men and animals ran in grooves in limestone, in 200 CE, Ma Jun built a south-pointing chariot, a vehicle with an early form of guidance system. Railways began reappearing in Europe after the Dark Ages, the earliest known record of a railway in Europe from this period is a stained-glass window in the Minster of Freiburg im Breisgau dating from around 1350. In 1515, Cardinal Matthäus Lang wrote a description of the Reisszug, the line originally used wooden rails and a hemp haulage rope and was operated by human or animal power, through a treadwheel.
1769 Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is often credited with building the first self-propelled mechanical vehicle or automobile in 1769. In Russia, in the 1780s, Ivan Kulibin developed a human-pedalled, three-wheeled carriage with modern features such as a flywheel, gear box and bearings, however and it was introduced by Drais to the public in Mannheim in summer 1817. 1903 Wright brothers flew the first controlled, powered aircraft 1907 First helicopters Gyroplane no.1, there are over 1 billion bicycles in use worldwide. In 2002 there were an estimated 590 million cars and 205 million motorcycles in service in the world, at least 500 million Chinese Flying Pigeon bicycles have been made, more than an other single model of vehicle. The most-produced model of vehicle is the Honda Super Cub motorcycle. The most-produced car model is the Toyota Corolla, with at least 35 million made by 2010, by far, most vehicles use wheels which employ the principle of rolling to enable displacement with very little rolling friction.
It is essential that a vehicle have a source of energy to drive it, energy can be extracted from the surrounding environment, as in the case of a sailboat, a solar-powered car or a streetcar. Energy can be stored, in any form, provided it can be converted on demand, the most common type of energy source is fuel. Batteries facilitate the use of motors, which have their own advantages. On the other hand, batteries have low densities, short service life, poor performance at extreme temperatures. Like fuel, batteries store energy and can cause burns
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most-populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west, to the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean. Queensland has a population of 4,750,500, concentrated along the coast, the state is the worlds sixth largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 km2. The capital and largest city in the state is Brisbane, Australias third largest city, often referred to as the Sunshine State, Queensland is home to 10 of Australias 30 largest cities and is the nations third largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled largely by its tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, the first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa.
In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain. The colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney, New South Wales at that time included all of what is now Queensland, Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842, the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. The 6th of June is now celebrated statewide as Queensland Day. Queensland achieved statehood with the Federation of Australia on 1 January 1901, the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement. The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770, the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party.
June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a colony from New South Wales. The Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC, likely via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, during the last ice age Queenslands landscape became more arid and largely desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the worlds first seed-grinding technology, warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the states tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa and this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, and it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland, the Aboriginal population declined significantly after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century
Multiple units are self-propelled train carriages capable of coupling with other units of the same or similar type and still being controlled from one driving cab. Often these are passenger trainsets consisting of more than one carriage, single self-propelling carriages are multiple units if capable of operating with other units. Multiple units are classified by their source and are of two main types, electric multiple unit or diesel multiple unit. Diesel-powered units may be classified by their transmission type, diesel-electric. Locomotives utilising multiple-unit train control are not multiple units, multiple-unit train control was first used in Electric Multiple Units in the 1890s. This allowed electrically-powered rapid transit trains to be operated from a driving position. Early users of multiple units include the Liverpool Overhead Railway. The United Kingdom and France had many examples of steam trains, or autotrains. These provided many of the benefits of a multiple unit. While a professor at the University of Denver, Sidney Howe Short conducted important experiments which established that multiple unit powered cars were a way to operate trains.
Most MUs are powered either by traction motors, receiving their power through a rail or overhead wire. Diesel-electric multiple units have an engine that drives a generator producing electricity to drive traction motors in a similar fashion to a diesel-electric locomotive. A multiple-unit has the power and traction components as a locomotive. In many cases these cars can only propel themselves when they are part of the unit and it is not necessary for every single car in an MU to be motorized. Therefore, MU cars can be motor units or trailer units, instead of motors, trailing units can contain supplementary equipment such as air compressors, etc. trailer cars may be fitted with a driving cab. In most cases, MU trains can only be driven/controlled from dedicated cab cars, an example of this arrangement is the NJ Transit Arrows. Virtually all rapid transit rolling stock, such as used on the New York City Subway, the London Underground. Most trains in the Netherlands and Japan are MUs, making them suitable for use in areas of population density
Electric multiple unit
An electric multiple unit or EMU is a multiple unit train consisting of self-propelled carriages, using electricity as the motive power. An EMU requires no separate locomotive, as traction motors are incorporated within one or a number of the carriages. An EMU is usually formed of two or more semi-permanently coupled carriages, but electrically powered single-unit railcars are classed as EMUs. EMUs are popular on commuter and suburban rail networks around the world due to their fast acceleration, being quieter than DMUs and locomotive-drawn trains, EMUs can operate at night and more frequently without disturbing residents living near the railway lines. The first EMUs were used on the elevated Liverpool Overhead Railway in 1893, the southern terminal of the railway was underground, giving the LOR the distinction of being the first to use EMUs underground. Each carriage had a traction motor and was specifically designed and constructed to be light in weight while running on elevated steel sections.
The first EMUs were two-carriage trains graduating to three carriages, with the front and rear carriages powered, Liverpool Museum retains an example of the Liverpool Overhead Railway EMU carriage. An early proponent of EMUs was the American engineer Frank J. Sprague, the cars that form a complete EMU set can usually be separated by function into four types, power car, motor car, driving car, and trailer car. Each car can have more than one function, such as a car or power-driving car. A power car carries the equipment to draw power from the electrified infrastructure, such as pickup shoes for third rail systems and pantographs for overhead systems. Motor cars carry the traction motors to move the train, and are combined with the power car to avoid high-voltage inter-car connections. Driving cars are similar to a cab car, containing a drivers cab for controlling the train, an EMU will usually have two driving cars at its outer ends. Trailer cars are any cars that carry little or no traction or power related equipment, on third rail systems the outer vehicles usually carry the pick up shoes, with the motor vehicles receiving the current via intra-unit connections.
Many modern 2-car EMU sets are set up as married pair units, while both units in a married pair are typically driving motors, the ancillary equipment are shared between the two cars in the set. Since neither car can operate without its partner, such sets are permanently coupled, advantages of married pair units include weight and cost savings over single-unit cars while allowing all cars to be powered, unlike a motor-trailer combination. Disadvantages include a loss of flexibility, as trains must be multiples of two cars, and a failure on a single car could force removing both it and its partner from service. The retired New York–Washington Metroliner service, first operated by the Pennsylvania Railroad and by Amtrak, featured high-speed electric multiple-unit cars, diesel multiple unit Battery electric multiple unit British electric multiple units Media related to Electric multiple unit at Wikimedia Commons