Norfolk Southern Railway
The Norfolk Southern Railway is a Class I railroad in the United States. With headquarters in Norfolk, the company operates 19,420 miles route miles in 22 eastern states, the District of Columbia, has rights in Canada over the Albany to Montréal route of the Canadian Pacific Railway, on CN from Buffalo to St. Thomas. NS is responsible for maintaining 28,400 miles, with the remainder being operated under trackage rights from other parties responsible for maintenance; the most common commodity hauled on the railway is coal from mines in Indiana, Pennsylvania, Tennessee and West Virginia. The railway offers the largest intermodal network in eastern North America. NS is a major transporter of export coal; the railway's major sources of the mineral are located in: Pennsylvania's Cambria and Indiana counties, as well as the Monongahela Valley. In Pennsylvania, NS receives coal through interchange with R. J. Corman Railroad/Pennsylvania Lines at Cresson, originating in the "Clearfield Cluster". NS's export of West Virginia bituminous coal begins transport on portions of the well-engineered former Virginian Railway and the former N&W double-tracked line in Eastern Virginia to its Lambert's Point coal pier on Hampton Roads at Norfolk.
Coal transported by NS is thus exported to steel mills and power plants around the world. The company is a major transporter of auto parts and completed vehicles, it operates some in conjunction with other railways. NS was the first railway to employ roadrailers which are highway truck trailers with interchangeable wheel sets; the Norfolk Southern Railway's parent Norfolk Southern Corporation is based in Virginia. Norfolk Southern Corporation was incorporated on July 23, 1980 in the Commonwealth of Virginia and is publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol NSC; the primary business function of Norfolk Southern Corporation is the rail transportation of raw materials, intermediate products, finished goods across the Southeast and Midwest United States. The corporation further facilitates transport to the remainder of the United States through interchange with other rail carriers while serving overseas transport needs by serving several Atlantic and Gulf Coast ports; as of April 10, 2019, Norfolk Southern Corporation's total public stock value was over $51.6 billion.
On December 12, 2018, Norfolk Southern announced that it would be relocating its headquarters to Atlanta, leaving its hometown of Norfolk, Virginia after 38 years. The move is expected to be completed by the year 2021; the system began in 1982 with the creation of the Norfolk Southern Corporation, a holding company for the Southern Railway and Norfolk & Western Railway. The new company was given the name of the Norfolk Southern Railway, an older line acquired by SOU in 1974, that served North Carolina and the southeastern tip of Virginia. Headquarters for the new NS were established in Virginia; the company suffered a slight embarrassment when the marble headpiece at the building's entrance was unveiled, which read "Norfork Southern Railway". A new headpiece replaced the erroneous one several weeks later. NS aimed to compete in the eastern United States with CSX Transportation, formed after the Interstate Commerce Commission's 1980 approval of the merger of the Chessie System and the Seaboard System.
Norfolk Southern's predecessor railroads date to the early 19th century. The SR's earliest predecessor line was Rail Road. Chartered in 1827, the South Carolina Canal & Rail Road Company became the first to offer scheduled passenger train service with the inaugural run of the Best Friend of Charleston in 1830. Another early predecessor, the Richmond & Danville Railroad, was formed in 1847 and expanded into a large system after the American Civil War under Algernon S. Buford; the R&D fell on hard times and in 1894, it became a major portion of the new Southern Railway. Financier J. P. Morgan selected veteran railroader Samuel Spencer as president. Profitable and innovative, Southern became, in 1953, the first major U. S. railroad to switch to diesel-electric locomotives from steam. The City Point Railroad, established in 1838, was a 9-mile railroad in Virginia that started south of Richmond — City Point on the navigable portion of the James River, now part of the independent city of Hopewell — and ran to Petersburg.
It was acquired by the South Side Railroad in 1854. After the Civil War, it became part of the Atlantic, Mississippi & Ohio Railroad, a trunk line across Virginia's southern tier formed by mergers in 1870 by William Mahone, who had built the Norfolk & Petersburg Railroad in the 1850s; the AM&O was the oldest portion of the Norfolk & Western when it was formed in 1881, under new owners with a keen interest and financial investments in the coal fields of Western Virginia and West Virginia, a product which came to define and enrich the railroad. In the second half of the 20th century, the N&W acquired the Virginian Railway, the Wabash Railway, the Nickel Plate Road, among others. In 1982, the two systems formed the Norfolk Southern Railway; the system grew with the acquisition of over half of Conrail. In 1996, CSX bid to buy Conrail. S. responded with a bid of its own. On June 23, 1997, NS and CSX filed a joint application with the Surface Transportation Board for authority to purchas
Rail speed limits in the United States
Rail speed limits in the United States are regulated by the Federal Railroad Administration. Railroads implement their own limits and enforce speed limits. Speed restrictions are based on a number of factors including curvature, track condition, the physical condition of a train, the presence of grade crossings. Like road speed limits in the United States, speed limits for rail tracks and the trains that run on them use miles per hour. Federal regulators limit the speed of trains with respect to the signaling method used. Passenger trains are limited to 59 mph and freight trains to 49 mph on track without block signal systems. Trains without "an automatic cab signal, automatic train stop or automatic train control system "may not exceed 79 mph." The order was issued in 1947 by the Interstate Commerce Commission following a severe 1946 crash in Naperville, Illinois involving two Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad trains. Following the 1987 Chase, Maryland train collision, freight trains operating in enhanced-speed corridors have been required to have locomotive speed limiters to forcibly slow trains rather than alerting the operator with in-cab signals.
The signal panel in the Maryland crash had been disabled, with a muted whistle and a missing light bulb. Following the 2008 Chatsworth train collision in California, a federal law was passed requiring positive train control to be implemented nationwide by 2015; as of October 2018 many routes still lack PTC despite the federal mandate. While a primary goal of PTC is to prevent collisions, it fulfills the FRA requirements for increased speeds in some cases. However, several competing PTC technologies are being used in different regions of the country, a clear winner has not yet emerged as of 2010. In the United States, the Federal Railroad Administration has developed a system of classification for track quality; the class of a section of track determines the maximum possible running speed limits and the ability to run passenger trains. Assuming a suitably maintained track, maximum track speed through curves is limited by the "centrifugal force" which acts to overturn the train. To compensate for this force, the track is superelevated.
The speed at which the centrifugal force is offset by the tilt of the track is known as the balancing speed: V m a x = E a + 3 0.0007 d where E a is the amount in inches that the outside rail is superelevated above the inside rail on a curve and d is the degree of curvature in degrees per 100 feet. V m. Passenger trains run above the balancing speed, the difference between the balancing superelevation for the speed and curvature and the actual superelevation on the curve is known as unbalanced superelevation. Track superelevation is limited to 6 inches, is lower on routes with slow heavy freight trains in order to reduce wear on the inner rail. Track unbalanced superelevation in the U. S. is restricted to 3 inches. There is no hard maximum set for European railways, some of which have curves with over 11 inches of unbalanced superelevation to permit high-speed transportation; the allowed unbalanced superelevation will cause trains to run with normal flange contact. The points of wheel-rail contact are influenced by the tire profile of the wheels.
Allowance has to be made for the different speeds of trains. Slower trains will tend to make flange contact with the inner rail on curves, while faster trains will tend to ride outwards and make contact with the outer rail. Either contact causes wear and tear and may lead to derailment if speeds and superelevation are not within the permitted limits. Many high-speed lines do not permit the use of slower freight trains with heavier axle loads. In some cases, the wear or friction of flange contact on curves is reduced by the use of flange lubrication. Rail regulations in Canada Railroad operations Railway signalling
Florida East Coast Railway
The Florida East Coast Railway is a Class II railroad operating in the U. S. state of Florida owned by Grupo México. The FEC was a Class I railroad owned by Florida East Coast Industries from 2000 to 2016, FOXX Holdings between 1983 and 2000, the St. Joseph Paper Company prior to 1983. Built in the last quarter of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century, the FEC was a project of Standard Oil principal Henry Flagler, he visited Florida with his first wife, Mary. A key strategist who worked with John D. Rockefeller building the Standard Oil Trust, Flagler noted both great potential and a lack of services during his stay at St. Augustine, he subsequently began what amounted to his second career, developing resorts and communities all along Florida's shores abutting the Atlantic Ocean. The FEC is best known for building the railroad to Key West, completed in 1912; when the FEC's line from the mainland to Key West was damaged by the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935, the State of Florida purchased the remaining right-of-way and bridges south of Dade County, they were rebuilt into road bridges for vehicle traffic and became known as the Overseas Highway.
However, a greater and lasting Flagler legacy was the developments along Florida's eastern coast. During the Great Depression, control was purchased by heirs of the du Pont family. After 30 years of fragile financial condition, the FEC, under leadership of a new president, Ed Ball, took on the labor unions. Ball claimed the company could not afford the same costs as larger Class 1 railroads and needed to invest saved funds in its infrastructure, the condition of, fast becoming a safety issue; the company—using replacement workers—and some of its employees engaged from 1963 until 1977 in one of the longest and more violent labor conflicts of the 20th century. Federal authorities had to intervene to stop the violence, which included bombings and vandalism. However, the courts ruled in the FEC's favor with regard to the right to employ strikebreakers. During this time Ball invested in numerous steps to improve the railroad's physical plant, installed various forms of automation; the FEC was the first US railroad to operate two-man train crews, eliminate cabooses, end all of its passenger services by 1968.
In modern times, the company's primary rail revenues come from its rock trains. In January 2018, passenger rail service Brightline began using FEC tracks for its route from West Palm Beach to Fort Lauderdale; the Florida East Coast Railway was developed by Henry Morrison Flagler, an American tycoon, real estate promoter, railroad developer and John D. Rockefeller's partner in Standard Oil. Formed at Cleveland, Ohio as Rockefeller, Andrews & Flagler in 1867, Standard Oil moved its headquarters in 1877 to New York City. Flagler and his family relocated there as well, he was joined by Henry H. Rogers, another leader of Standard Oil who became involved in the development of America's railroads, including those on nearby Staten Island, the Union Pacific, in West Virginia, where he built the remarkable Virginian Railway to transport coal to Hampton Roads, Virginia. Flagler's non-Standard Oil interests went in a different direction, when in 1878, on the advice of his physician, he traveled to Jacksonville, Florida for the winter with his first wife, quite ill.
Two years after she died in 1881, he married Ida Alice Shourds. After their wedding, the couple traveled to St. Augustine, Florida in 1883. Flagler found the city charming, he recognized Florida's potential to attract out-of-state visitors. Though Flagler remained on the Board of Directors of Standard Oil, he gave up his day-to-day involvement in the firm in order to pursue his Florida interests; when Flagler returned to Florida, in 1885 he began building a grand St. Augustine hotel, the Ponce de Leon Hotel. Flagler realized that the key to developing Florida was a solid transportation system, purchased the 3 ft narrow gauge Jacksonville, St. Augustine and Halifax River Railway on December 31, 1885, he discovered that a major problem facing the existing Florida railway systems was that each operated on different gauge systems, making interconnection impossible. He converted the line to 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge in 1890 and the small operation was incorporated in 1892; the earliest predecessor of the FEC was the narrow gauge St. John's Railway, incorporated in 1858, which constructed a now-abandoned line between St. Augustine and Tocoi, a small settlement on the east bank of the St. Johns River, midway between Palatka and Green Cove Springs.
In 1883, Henry Flagler, now retired from Standard Oil, moved to St. Augustine, built the mentioned Ponce de Leon and the Alcazar Hotels, purchased the Casa Monica, just east of the Alcazar, changing the name to Cordova; the east coast of Florida was undeveloped at that time, Flagler found it difficult to obtain the construction materials he needed. His purchase of the JStA&HR Railway was intended to make it faster and easier to supply his building projects; the JStA&HR Railway served the northeastern portion of the state and was the first operation in the Flagler Railroad system. Before Flagler bought the line, the railroad stretched only between South Jacksonville and St. Augustine and lacked a depot sufficient to accommodate travelers to his St. Augustine resorts, he built a modern depot facility as well as schools, h
Trains is a monthly US magazine dedicated to trains and railroads, is one of the two flagship publications of Kalmbach Publishing. The magazine is read both by railroad enthusiasts, those within the railroad industry; the magazine was founded in 1940 by Al C. Kalmbach, is based in Waukesha, Wisconsin, it is the oldest North American consumer magazine on rail transportation. Trains covers the railroad happenings in the United States and Canada. However, the magazine includes articles on subjects on railroading around the world based on their interest and relevance to north American readers; the magazine was renamed Trains and Travel from October 1951, but reverted to its original name with the March 1954 issue. The current editor is Jim Wrinn of the Charlotte Observer; the magazine includes a column from International Herald Tribune reporter Don Phillips the transportation writer for the Washington Post. Well-known past editors include David P. Morgan and J. David Ingles. Railroad-related periodicals Official website
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak, is a passenger railroad service that provides medium- and long-distance intercity service in the contiguous United States and to nine Canadian cities. Founded in 1971 as a quasi-public corporation to operate many U. S. passenger rail services, it receives a combination of state and federal subsidies but is managed as a for-profit organization. Amtrak's headquarters is located one block west of Union Station in Washington, D. C. Amtrak serves more than 500 destinations in 46 states and three Canadian provinces, operating more than 300 trains daily over 21,400 miles of track. Amtrak owns 623 miles of this track and operates an additional 132 miles of track; some track sections allow trains to run as fast as 150 mph. In fiscal year 2018, Amtrak served 31.7 million passengers and had $3.4 billion in revenue, while employing more than 20,000 people. Nearly 87,000 passengers ride more than 300 Amtrak trains on a daily basis. Nearly two-thirds of passengers come from the 10 largest metropolitan areas.
The name Amtrak is a portmanteau of the words America and trak, the latter itself a sensational spelling of track. In 1916, 98% of all commercial intercity travelers in the United States moved by rail, the remaining 2% moved by inland waterways. Nearly 42 million passengers used railways as primary transportation. Passenger trains were owned and operated by the same owned companies that operated freight trains; as the 20th century progressed, patronage declined in the face of competition from buses, air travel, the automobile. New streamlined diesel-powered trains such as the Pioneer Zephyr were popular with the traveling public but could not reverse the trend. By 1940, railroads held just 67 percent of commercial passenger-miles in the United States. In real terms, passenger-miles had fallen by 40 % from 42 billion to 25 billion. Traffic surged during World War II, aided by troop movement and gasoline rationing; the railroad's market share surged with a massive 94 billion passenger-miles. After the war, railroads rejuvenated their overworked and neglected passenger fleets with fast and luxurious streamliners.
These new trains brought only temporary relief to the overall decline. As postwar travel exploded, passenger travel percentages of the overall market share fell to 46% by 1950, 32% by 1957; the railroads had lost money on passenger service since the Great Depression, but deficits reached $723 million in 1957. For many railroads, these losses threatened financial viability; the causes of this decline were debated. The National Highway System and airports, both funded by the government, competed directly with the railroads, who paid for their own infrastructure. Progressive Era rate regulation limited the railroad's ability to turn a profit. Railroads faced antiquated work rules and inflexible relationships with trade unions. To take one example, workers continued to receive a day's pay for 100-to-150-mile work days. Streamliners covered that in two hours. Matters approached a crisis in the 1960s. Passenger service route-miles fell from 107,000 miles in 1958 to 49,000 miles in 1970, the last full year of private operation.
The diversion of most U. S. Postal Service mail from passenger trains to trucks and freight trains in late 1967 deprived those trains of badly needed revenue. In direct response, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway filed to discontinue 33 of its remaining 39 trains, ending all passenger service on one of the largest railroads in the country; the equipment the railroads had ordered after World War II was now 20 years old, worn out, in need of replacement. As passenger service declined various proposals were brought forward to rescue it; the 1961 Doyle Report proposed. Similar proposals failed to attract support; the federal government passed the High Speed Ground Transportation Act of 1965 to fund pilot programs in the Northeast Corridor, but this did nothing to address passenger deficits. In late 1969 multiple proposals emerged in the United States Congress, including equipment subsidies, route subsidies, lastly, a "quasi-public corporation" to take over the operation of intercity passenger trains.
Matters were brought to a head on March 5, 1970, when the Penn Central, the largest railroad in the Northeast United States and teetering on bankruptcy, filed to discontinue 34 of its passenger trains. In October 1970, Congress passed, President Richard Nixon signed into law, the Rail Passenger Service Act. Proponents of the bill, led by the National Association of Railroad Passengers, sought government funding to ensure the continuation of passenger trains, they conceived the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, a private entity that would receive taxpayer funding and assume operation of intercity passenger trains. The original working brand name for NRPC was Railpax, but shortly before the company started operating it was changed to Amtrak. There were several key provisions: Any railroad operating intercity passenger service could contract with the NRPC, thereby joining the national system. Participating railroads bought into the NRPC using a formula based on their recent intercity passenger losses.
The purchase price could be satisfied either by cash or rolling stock. Any participating railroad was freed of the obligation to operate intercity passenger service after May 1, 1971, except for those services chosen by the Department of Transportation as part of a "basic system" of servic
Labour law is the area of law most relating to the relationship between trade unions and the government. While the development of the field in different jurisdictions has resulted in different specific meanings of what is meant by labour law, it is used in reference to employment contexts that involve a trade union, while the term employment law is used for workplaces where the legal relationship is directly between the employer and the employee. While in some jurisdictions the term may be used to refer to such law that may not involve trade unions, the genesis of the term is inseparable and begins with the labour union movements. At the statutory level, Labour law is concerned with the establishment of a labour-relations framework that provides for orderly and peaceful industrial relations between employers and organized workers, includes rules on forming a union, conditions under which the union becomes bargaining agent and lock-outs, process for negotiations, other structural elements that permit the employer and the union to bargain a collective agreement and fill-in the rest specific to rules and conditions relating to the workplace.
It arises from and in the context of British common law and related jurisdictions, to which it is historically linked as wage work begins in the Industrial Revolution, in this way, labour law and related concepts mark a departure from the tradition of contract law that existed for master-servant relations to that point. Labour law is not the law that regulates minimum standards of employment in most British common law jurisdictions, but is the law that pertains to the rules meant to provide a framework for labour relations and collective bargaining. Employment law, or employment standards law, refers to the regulations in statute law that establish minimum conditions relating to the employment of persons, such as minimum working age, minimum hourly wage, so on. Labour law arose in parallel with the Industrial Revolution as the relationship between worker and employer changed from small-scale production studios to large-scale factories. Workers sought better conditions and the right to join a labour union, while employers sought a more predictable and less costly workforce.
The state of labour law at any one time is therefore both the product of, a component of struggles between various social forces. As England was the first country to industrialize, it was the first to face the appalling consequences of industrial revolution in a less regulated economic framework. Over the course of the late 18th and early to mid-19th century the foundation for modern labour law was laid, as some of the more egregious aspects of working conditions were ameliorated through legislation; this was achieved through the concerted pressure from social reformers, notably Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury, others. A serious outbreak of fever in 1784 in cotton mills near Manchester drew widespread public opinion against the use of children in dangerous conditions. A local inquiry, presided over by Dr Thomas Percival, was instituted by the justices of the peace for Lancashire, the resulting report recommended the limitation of children's working hours. In 1802, the first major piece of labour legislation was passed − the Health and Morals of Apprentices Act.
This was the first, albeit modest, step towards the protection of labour. The act abolished night work, it required the provision of a basic level of education for all apprentices, as well as adequate sleeping accommodation and clothing. The rapid industrialisation of manufacturing at the turn of the 19th century led to a rapid increase in child employment, public opinion was made aware of the terrible conditions these children were forced to endure; the Factory Act of 1819 was the outcome of the efforts of the industrialist Robert Owen and prohibited child labour under nine years of age and limited the working day to twelve. A great milestone in labour law was reached with the Factory Act of 1833, which limited the employment of children under eighteen years of age, prohibited all night work and, provided for inspectors to enforce the law. Pivotal in the campaigning for and the securing of this legislation were Michael Sadler and the Earl of Shaftesbury; this act was an important step forward, in that it mandated skilled inspection of workplaces and a rigorous enforcement of the law by an independent governmental body.
A lengthy campaign to limit the working day to ten hours was led by Shaftesbury, included support from the Anglican Church. Many committees were formed in support of the cause and some established groups lent their support as well; the campaign led to the passage of the Factory Act of 1847, which restricted the working hours of women and children in British factories to 10 hours per day. These early efforts were principally aimed at limiting child labour. From the mid-19th century, attention was first paid to the plight of working conditions for the workforce in general. In 1850, systematic reporting of fatal accidents was made compulsory, basic safeguards for health and limb in the mines were put in place from 1855. Further regulations, relating to ventilation, fencing of disused shafts, signalling standards, proper gauges and valves for steam-boilers and related machinery were set down. A series of further Acts, in 1860 and 1872 extended the legal provisions and strengthened safety provisions.
Steady development of the coal industry, increasing association among miners, increased scientific knowledge paved the way for the Coa
Switching and terminal railroad
A switching and terminal railroad is a freight railroad company whose primary purpose is to perform local switching services or to own and operate a terminal facility. Switching is a type of operation done within the limits of a yard, it consists of making up and breaking up trains and classifying cars, serving industries within yard limits, other related purposes. These movements are made at slow speed under special yard rules. A terminal facility can include train ferry, or bridge, its purpose is to connect larger carriers to other modes of transport or other carriers. These companies may be jointly owned by several major carriers; the Internal Revenue Service provides tax incentives for this type of company. They may be created when a larger railroad abandons an unprofitable line, a short-line railroad takes over operations to connect shippers to the larger company