A railroad tie or crosstie or railway sleeper is a rectangular support for the rails in railroad tracks. Laid perpendicular to the rails, ties transfer loads to the track ballast and subgrade, hold the rails upright and keep them spaced to the correct gauge. Railroad ties are traditionally made of wood, but prestressed concrete is now widely used in Europe and Asia. Steel ties are common on secondary lines in the UK; as of January 2008, the approximate market share in North America for traditional and wood ties was 91.5%, the remainder being concrete, azobé and plastic composite. The crosstie spacing of mainline railroad is 19 to 19.5 inches for wood ties or 24 inches for concrete ties. The number of ties is 3,250 wooden crossties per mile for wood ties or 2640 ties per mile for concrete ties. Rails in the US may be fastened to the tie by a railroad spike; the type of railroad tie used on the predecessors of the first true railway consisted of a pair of stone blocks laid into the ground, with the chairs holding the rails fixed to those blocks.
One advantage of this method of construction was that it allowed horses to tread the middle path without the risk of tripping. In railway use with heavier locomotives, it was found that it was hard to maintain the correct gauge; the stone blocks were in any case unsuitable on soft ground, such as at Chat Moss, where timber ties had to be used. Bi-block ties with a tie rod are somewhat similar. Wooden rail ties were made by hewing with an axe, called axe ties or sawn to achieve at least two flat sides. A variety of softwood and hardwoods timbers are used as ties, oak and karri being popular hardwoods, although difficult to obtain from sustainable sources; some lines use softwoods, including Douglas fir. Softwood is treated, while creosote is the most common preservative for railway ties, preservatives are sometimes used such as pentachlorophenol, chromated copper arsenate and a few other preservatives. Sometimes non-toxic preservatives are used, such as micronized copper. New boron-based wood preserving technology is being employed by major US railroads in a dual treatment process in order to extend the life of wood ties in wet areas.
Some timbers are durable enough. Problems with wooden ties include rot, insect infestation, plate-cutting known as chair shuffle in the UK and spike-pull. For more information on wooden ties the Railway Tie Association maintains a comprehensive website devoted to wood tie research and statistics. Wooden ties can, of course, catch fire. Concrete ties are cheaper and easier to obtain than timber and better able to carry higher axle-weights and sustain higher speeds, their greater weight ensures improved retention of track geometry when installed with continuous-welded rail. Concrete ties have a longer service life and require less maintenance than timber due to their greater weight, which helps them remain in the correct position longer. Concrete ties need to be installed on a well-prepared subgrade with an adequate depth on free-draining ballast to perform well. Concrete ties amplify wheel noise, so wooden ties are used in densely populated areas. On the highest categories of line in the UK, pre-stressed concrete ties are the only ones permitted by Network Rail standards.
Most European railways now use concrete bearers in switches and crossing layouts due to the longer life and lower cost of concrete bearers compared to timber, difficult and expensive to source in sufficient quantities and quality. Steel ties are trough-shaped in section; the ends of the tie are shaped to form a "spade". Housings to accommodate the fastening system are welded to the upper surface of the tie. Steel ties are now in widespread use on secondary or lower-speed lines in the UK where they have been found to be economical to install due their ability to be installed on the existing ballast bed. Steel ties are able to stack in compact bundles unlike timber. Steel ties can be installed onto the existing ballast, unlike concrete ties which require a full depth of new ballast. Steel ties are 100% recyclable and require up to 60% less ballast than concrete ties and up to 45% less than wood ties. Steel ties have suffered from poor design and increased traffic loads over their long service life.
These aged and obsolete designs limited load and speed capacity but can still be found in many locations globally and performing adequately despite decades of service. There are great numbers of steel ties with over 50 years of service and in some cases they can and have been rehabilitated and continue to per
White Pass is a mountain pass in the northwest United States, located in the Cascade Range of Washington, southeast of Mount Rainier and north of Goat Rocks. U. S. Highway 12 travels over White Pass. A shortcut route across White Pass between Packwood and Naches was first established 88 years ago as State Road 5 in 1931, the link was completed in August 1951 along the current route designated U. S. Route 12. White Pass Ski Area, located at the summit, opened on January 11, 1953. Champion ski racing twins Phil and Steve Mahre grew up on White Pass, where their father Dave Mahre was the mountain manager for the ski area. White Pass is the home mountain of professional snowboarder Marc Frank Montoya, owner of The Block hotels; as the crow flies, the pass is 25 miles southeast of the summit of Mount Rainier and 30 miles north of Mount Adams. White Pass road conditions White Pass Scenic Byway - official site Ski White Pass.com - trail map for the ski area Experience Washington.com - White Pass Scenic Byway
David Bartlett Rees was a British author and reviewer, known for children's and young adult fiction. For The Exeter Blitz he won the 1978 Carnegie Medal from the Library Association, recognising the year's best children's book by a British subject. David Rees was born in Surbiton in 1936, he attended King's College School and Queens' College, where he attained a BA in 1958 and an MA in 1961. He worked as a school teacher before becoming a lecturer at St. Luke's College, Exeter, in 1968. Ten years he became lecturer in education when the college became a part of the University of Exeter, he remained at the University until 1984. In 1986 he founded the publishing company Third House with fellow writer Peter Robins, his autobiography, Not For Your Hands, was published in 1992. Rees died in London, 22 May 1993, he was afflicted with HIV/AIDS and had once said, "I've nothing left to write about and it's Aids as much as anything that has done that", but he did not stop writing until 1992. Much of his work can be classed as young adult fiction.
Some of his fiction was some historical, with settings including Devon and Ireland. Quintin's Man and In the Tent were the first teen books in the UK to have gay central characters; the Milkman's on his Way was cited in the House of Lords for promoting homosexuality, in 1999 debate on Section 28. Baroness Knight of Collingtree said that it "explicitly described homosexual intercourse and, glorified it, encouraging youngsters to believe that it was better than any other sexual way of life."Rees published two collections of essays on contemporary writers of fiction for children and young adults: The Marble in the Water and Painted Desert, Green Shade. David Rees at Library of Congress Authorities, with 18 catalogue records
The 2017 FIBA 3x3 World Tour Saskatoon Masters was a 3x3 basketball tournament held in Saskatoon, Canada at a temporary venue constructed at the intersections of 4th Avenue and 21st Street from July 15–16, 2017. It was the first stop on the 2017 FIBA 3x3 World Tour; the top team, Ljubljana qualified for the 2017 FIBA 3x3 World Tour Final. 12 teams qualified to participate at the Saskatoon Masters. The United Arab Emirates' team Novi Sad Al-Wahda qualified but withdrew from the tournament due to visa issues and was replaced by the Czech Team Humpolec; as well, Team Manta from Ecuador was forced to withdraw due to visa issues and Team Hamilton from Canada replaced them. Saskatoon Masters Official Website
The 2006 National League Division Series, the opening round of the 2006 National League playoffs, began on Tuesday, October 3, ended on Sunday, October 8, with the champions of the three NL divisions—along with a "wild card" team—participating in two best-of-five series. They were: New York Mets vs. Los Angeles Dodgers. San Diego Padres vs. St. Louis Cardinals; the Mets and the Cardinals met in the NL Championship Series, with the Cardinals becoming the National League champion and going on to face the American League champion Detroit Tigers in the 2006 World Series. The NL playoff race was dramatic when as many as six teams entered the final weekend of the regular season fighting for the final three playoff spots. Two of three division champions were decided on the final day of the regular season; the New York Mets began the season with high hopes of ending the Atlanta Braves' string of division titles. The Mets lived up to their high expectations and roared out of the gate, taking over first place in the division on the fourth day of the season and never looking back.
They won seven of their first eight games, had built up a double-digit lead in the standings by the end of June. The Mets clinched the division on September 18, finished twelve games ahead of the Philadelphia Phillies; the Braves finished eighteen games back. However, the Mets entered the postseason without injured ace Pedro Martínez, learned the day before Game 1 of the Division Series that projected Game 1 starter Orlando Hernández would be lost for the whole round; the St. Louis Cardinals' run to their third consecutive Central Division championship pales in comparison to their runs in the previous two seasons; as before, the Cardinals took over the lead in the division early on, overtaking the Cincinnati Reds on June 9. It appeared as if this season would follow the established pattern as the Cardinals built up their lead to as much as five and a half games and a 42–26 record on June 19; the Cardinals began interleague play by being swept by both the Chicago White Sox and Detroit Tigers as part of an eight-game losing streak.
Despite the slump, they did not relinquish the division lead. The Reds were able to tie the Cardinals in the standings on June 30 and July 1, but the Cardinals regained sole possession of first place the following day and held onto the lead for the rest of the season despite additional losing streaks of eight and seven games; the Cardinals' struggles stemmed from the numerous injuries to key players throughout the season, including Albert Pujols, Jim Edmonds, David Eckstein, Chris Carpenter, Mark Mulder, Jason Isringhausen. The title appeared to be well in hand on September 19 with leads of seven games over the Reds and eight and half games over the Houston Astros with just thirteen games left to play; the Cardinals went on another seven-game losing streak just as the Astros won seven consecutive, shrinking the Cardinals' lead to just a game and a half. The Cardinals were able to regain their composure, winning three of their next four and clinching on the final day of the season with an Astros loss to the Atlanta Braves.
The San Diego Padres' playoff run was led by their strong pitching and saw closer Trevor Hoffman overtake Lee Smith as the all-time saves leader. This season marked the first time in Padres history that the team went to the playoffs in consecutive years; the Padres did not clinch a playoff spot until the final weekend of the regular season and finished with an identical record to the Los Angeles Dodgers, but were awarded the Western Division title due to the Padres winning the season series against the Dodgers 13–5. The Los Angeles Dodgers' run to the playoffs was most notable for their streaky play in the second half of the season; the Dodgers started the second half by losing thirteen out of fourteen games and trailing the Padres by seven and a half games, in last place in the division, behind eight teams in the wild card race. They followed that streak by winning seventeen of their next eighteen to put them on top of the division by three and half games, with a better record than all eight teams they had trailed in the wild card race prior to the streak.
Their inconsistent play continued as they were swept by the Padres in late August as part of a four-game losing streak, only to follow that up by winning seven consecutive losing their next three. The Dodgers finished the season strong by winning their final seven games, clinching a playoff berth in the final weekend over the Philadelphia Phillies and finishing tied with the Padres; the Dodgers were awarded the wild-card spot based on their 5-13 head-to-head record against San Diego, who earned the divisional championship. New York won the series, 3–0. St. Louis won the series, 3–1. Shea Stadium in Queens, New York The game started off with Mets rookie starter John Maine on the mound as an emergency replacement for Orlando Hernández. Hernández was sidelined with a torn muscle, ended up missing the rest of the postseason. Maine kept; this game was notable for having two runners getting tagged out at home plate in the second inning. With runners on first and second and nobody out, catcher Russell Martin hit a line drive to the wall in right field.
Jeff Kent tried to tag up from second base in the event that right fielder Shawn Green caught the ball. Instead, the ball sailed over Green's head. Both Kent and J. D. Drew raced around the bases towards the plate. Green threw to cut-off man José Valentín. Lo Duca was first able t
Thomas Hatfield or Thomas de Hatfield was Bishop of Durham from 1345 to 1381 under King Edward III. He was one of the last warrior-bishops in England, he was born around 1310 in one of the several British towns named Hatfield. He entered the employment of the king on 26 October 1337. Hatfield was Receiver of the Chamber when he was selected to be Lord Privy Seal in late 1344, he relinquished that office to his successor in July 1345. Hatfield was elected on 8 May 1345 in succession to Richard de Bury, was consecrated on 7 August 1345. Thomas fought in King Edward's division at the Battle of Crécy on 26 August 1346, he died on 8 May 1381. He is buried near the choir stalls in Durham Cathedral beneath the Bishop's Chair. Hatfield College, a constituent college of the University of Durham is named after him. Fryde, E. B.. Handbook of British Chronology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-56350-X. Wrottesley, George. Crecy and Calais. Harrison & Sons