Belgrano Cargas y Logística
Belgrano Cargas y Logística S. A. is an Argentine State-owned company which operates a 15,305 km freight rail network that includes Belgrano and San Martín railways. It is a subsidiary of the Ferrocarriles Argentinos holding company; the company is formed by three shareholders, Operadora Ferroviaria Sociedad del Estado and the Administración General de Puertos. It is erroneously called Belgrano Cargas by the Argentine government and press, despite the freight network encompassing numerous other Argentine railways, of which the General Belgrano Railway is only one; the network extends through the provinces of Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, Córdoba, Santiago del Estero, San Juan, La Rioja, Tucumán, Formosa and Jujuy. The line reaches all the Argentina's neighbouring countries, such as Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay. TACyL operates 122 locomotives and 7,392 goods wagons, employing 3,140 workers whose jobs are guaranteed by the National government. In 2007, its predecessor Belgrano Cargas had transported nearly one million tonness of merchandise, a figure which increased to over 3 million tonnes in 2014 following nationalisation.
In 2008, the Government of Argentina ceased the concession granted to Belgrano Cargas S. A. to operate the 7,347 km. of Belgrano Railway's freight network. "Belgrano Cargas y Logística" was established in May 2013 by National decree, to take over Belgrano's freight services operated by Belgrano Cargas. In June that same year the company took over some services from Urquiza and San Martín railways; that same year the National Government rescinded the contract signed with América Latina Logística, taking over the services granted to the company, such as Urquiza and San Martín freight services, managed by ALL until then. The Government alleged that ALL had not complied with the terms of the contract noted by the General Auditing Office of Argentina. Soon after nationalisation, the government began looking to expand the fleet of the company and began making orders both domestically and abroad. One order consisted of 1000 freight wagons from Argentine state-owned company Fabricaciones Militares; the company ordered 100 locomotives and 3,500 carriages from China as part of a plan that included the purchase of 30,000 rails to repair parts of the line.
In September 2015, the Government of Argentina announced the completion of the 100 new diesel locomotives by Chinese CRRC Corporation, being the first locomotives purchased for freight transport in Argentina. That month the Ministry of the Interior and Transport, together with China Machinery Engineering Corporation, announced that the original Chinese investment of US$2.4 billion in the Argentine freight network was being doubled to US$4.8 billion and new purchases and infrastructure projects would ensue. In August 2016, the first brand-new locomotive manufactured by CRRC was finished, as part of a total of 20 units that will be export to Argentina. Belgrano Cargas Ferrocarriles Argentinos Rail transport in Argentina San Martín Railway Urquiza Railway Belgrano Railway Website
Ferrosur Roca S. A. is a private company which operates freight services over part of the 5 ft 6 in broad gauge that belongs to General Roca Railway. Some of the products transported by Ferrosur Roca include salt, plaster, lime, fertilizers, coking coal, iron scrap and fuel oil, among other items; the company transported a total of 5,258,301 tonnes of freight in 2014. The company, property of the Camargo Correa group, is 80% owned by the Cofesur group, 16% State-owned and 4% owned by employees of the company through Personal de Ferrosur S. A. After all the Argentine rail network was privatised during Carlos Menem's administration in early 1990s, concession was granted to Ferrosur Roca to operate freight services in the center and south of Argentina running on Ferrocarril Roca tracks; the company began its activities on March 12, 1993 over a 3,342 km rail network extending south and southwest from Buenos Aires through the provinces of Buenos Aires, Rio Negro and Neuquén and serving the ports of Bahía Blanca, Quequén and San Antonio Oeste.
The branch from Bahía Blanca to Zapala serves the commercially important Rio Negro fruit-growing region. Ferrosur's fleet include 2,550 wagons, 31 mainline diesel locomotives and 15 shunters and its rail network has points of connection with other freight services operated by Ferroexpreso Pampeano, Nuevo Central Argentino and América Latina Logística. Camargo Correa General Roca Railway Rail transport in Argentina Official website
Juan Domingo Perón was an Argentine Army general and politician. After serving in several government positions, including Minister of Labor and Vice President, he was elected President of Argentina three times, serving from June 1946 to September 1955, when he was overthrown in a coup d'état, from October 1973 until his death in July 1974. During his first presidential term, Perón was supported by his second wife, Eva Duarte, they were immensely popular among many Argentines. Eva died in 1952, Perón was elected to a second term, serving from 1952 until 1955. During the following period of two military dictatorships, interrupted by two civilian governments, the Peronist party was outlawed and Perón was exiled; when the left-wing Peronist Héctor José Cámpora was elected President in 1973, Perón returned to Argentina and was soon after elected President for a third time. His third wife, María Estela Martínez, known as Isabel Perón, was elected as Vice President on his ticket and succeeded him as President upon his death in 1974.
Although they are still controversial figures and Evita Perón are nonetheless considered icons by the Peronists. The Peróns' followers praised their efforts to eliminate poverty and to dignify labour, while their detractors considered them demagogues and dictators; the Peróns gave their name to the political movement known as Peronism, which in present-day Argentina is represented by the Justicialist Party. Peronism is a political phenomenon that draws support from both the political left and political right. Peronism is not considered a traditional party, but a political movement, because of the wide variety of people who call themselves Peronists, there is great controversy surrounding his personality. A number of following Argentinian presidents are considered Peronists, including administrations covering a majority of the democratic era: Héctor Cámpora, Isabel Perón, Adolfo Rodríguez Saá, Eduardo Duhalde, Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Kirchner. Juan Domingo Perón was born in Lobos, Buenos Aires Province, on 8 October 1895.
He was the son of Mario Tomás Perón. The Perón branch of his family was Spanish, but settled in Spanish Sardinia, from which his great-grandfather emigrated in the 1830s, he had Spanish and French Basque ancestry. Perón's great-grandfather became a successful shoe merchant in Buenos Aires, his grandfather was a prosperous physician; the couple had their two sons out of wedlock and married in 1901. His father moved to the Patagonia region that year, where he purchased a sheep ranch. Juan himself was sent away in 1904 to a boarding school in Buenos Aires directed by his paternal grandmother, where he received a strict Catholic upbringing, his father's undertaking failed, he died in Buenos Aires in 1928. The youth entered the National Military College in 1911 at age 16 and graduated in 1913, he excelled less in his studies than in athletics boxing and fencing. Perón began his military career in an Infantry post in Entre Ríos, he went on to command the post, in this capacity mediated a prolonged labor conflict in 1920 at La Forestal a leading firm in forestry in Argentina.
He earned instructor's credentials at the Superior War School, in 1929 was appointed to the Army General Staff Headquarters. Perón married his first wife, Aurelia Tizón, on 5 January 1929. Perón was recruited by supporters of the director of the War Academy, General José Félix Uriburu, to collaborate in the latter's plans for a military coup against President Hipólito Yrigoyen. Perón, who instead supported General Agustín Justo, was banished to a remote post in northwestern Argentina after Uriburu's successful coup in September 1930, he was promoted to the rank of Major the following year and named to the faculty at the Superior War School, where he taught military history and published a number of treatises on the subject. He served as military attaché in the Argentine Embassy in Chile from 1936 to 1938, returned to his teaching post, his wife was diagnosed with uterine cancer that year, died on 10 September at age 30. Perón was assigned by the War Ministry to study mountain warfare in the Italian Alps in 1939.
He attended the University of Turin for a semester and served as a military observer in countries across Europe. He studied Benito Mussolini's Italian Fascism, Nazi Germany, other European governments of the time, concluding in his summary, Apuntes de historia militar, that social democracy could be a viable alternative to liberal democracy or totalitarian regimes, he returned to Argentina in 1941, served as an Army skiing instructor in Mendoza Province. In 1943 a coup d'état was led by General Arturo Rawson against conservative President Ramón Castillo, fraudulently elected to office; the military was opposed to Governor Robustiano Patrón Costas, Castillo's hand-picked successor, the principal landowner in Salta Province, as well as a main stockholder in its sugar industry. As a colonel and his power of premier minister, Perón took a significant part in the military coup by the GOU against the conservative civilian government of Castillo. At first an assistant to Secretary of War General Edelmiro Farrell, under the administration of General Pe
Carlos Saúl Menem Akil is an Argentine politician, President of Argentina from July 8, 1989 to December 10, 1999. He has been a Senator for La Rioja Province since December 10, 2005. Born in Anillaco, Menem became a Peronist during a visit to Buenos Aires, he led the party in his home province of La Rioja, was elected governor in 1973. He was deposed and detained during the 1976 Argentine coup d'état, was elected governor again in 1983, he defeated the Buenos Aires governor Antonio Cafiero in the primary elections for the 1989 presidential elections, which he won. Hyperinflation forced outgoing president Raúl Alfonsín to resign early, shortening the presidential transition. Menem supported the Washington Consensus, tackled inflation with the Convertibility plan in 1991; the plan was complemented by a series of privatizations, was a success. Argentina re-established diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom, suspended since the 1982 Falklands War, developed special relations with the United States.
The country suffered two terrorist attacks. The Peronist victory in the 1993 midterm elections allowed him to force Alfonsín to sign the Pact of Olivos for the 1994 amendment of the Argentine Constitution; this amendment allowed Menem to run for re-election in 1995. A new economic crisis began, the opposing parties formed a political coalition that won the 1997 midterm elections and the 1999 presidential election. Menem ran for the presidency again in 2003, but faced with a defeat in a ballotage against Néstor Kirchner, he chose to pull out of the ballotage handing the presidency to Kirchner, he was elected senator for La Rioja in 2005. At 88, he is the oldest living former Argentine president. Carlos Saúl Menem was born in 1930 in Anillaco, a small town in the mountainous north of La Rioja Province, Argentina, his parents, Saúl Menem and Mohibe Akil, were Syrian nationals from Yabroud who had emigrated to Argentina. He attended elementary and high school in La Rioja, joined a basketball team during his university studies.
He visited Buenos Aires in 1951 with the team, met the president Juan Perón and his wife Eva Perón. This influenced Menem to become a Peronist, he studied law at the National University of Córdoba, graduating in 1955. After President Juan Peron's overthrow in 1955, Menem was incarcerated, he joined the successor to the Peronist Party, the Justicialist Party. He was elected president of its La Rioja Province chapter in 1973. In that capacity, he was included in the flight to Spain that brought Perón back to Argentina after his long exile. According to the Peronist politician Juan Manuel Abal Medina, Menem played no special part in the event. Menem was elected governor in 1973, he was deposed during the 1976 Argentine coup d'état that deposed the president Isabel Martínez de Perón. He was accused of corruption, having links with the guerrillas of the Dirty War, he was detained on March 25, kept for a week at a local regiment, moved to a temporary prison at the ship "33 Orientales" in Buenos Aires. He was detained alongside former ministers Antonio Cafiero, Jorge Taiana, Miguel Unamuno, José Deheza, Pedro Arrighi, the unionists Jorge Triaca, Diego Ibáñez, Lorenzo Miguel, the diplomat Jorge Vázquez, the journalist Osvaldo Papaleo, the former president Raúl Lastiri.
He shared a cell with Juan Perón's personal physician. During this time he helped the chaplain Lorenzo Lavalle, despite being a Muslim. In July he was sent to a permanent prison, his wife Zulema rejected his conversion to Christianity. His mother died during the time he was a prisoner, dictator Jorge Rafael Videla denied his request to attend her funeral, he was released on July 29, 1978, on the condition that he live in a city outside his home province without leaving it. He settled in Mar del Plata. Menem met Admiral Eduardo Massera, who intended to run for president, had public meetings with personalities such as Carlos Monzón, Susana Giménez, Alberto Olmedo; as a result, he was forced to reside in Tandil. He had to report daily to Chief of Police Hugo Zamora; this forced residence was lifted in February 1980. He returned to Buenos Aires, to La Rioja, he resumed his political activities, despite the prohibition, was detained again. His new forced residence was in Formosa Province, he was one of the last politicians to be released from prison by the National Reorganization Process.
Military rule ended in 1983, the radical Raúl Alfonsín was elected president. Menem ran for governor again, was elected by a clear margin; the province benefited from tax regulations established by the military, which allowed increased industrial growth. His party got control of the provincial legislature, he was re-elected in 1987 with 63% of the vote; the PJ was divided in two factions, the conservatives that still supported the political doctrines of Juan and Isabel Perón, those who proposed a renovation of the party. The internal disputes ceased in 1987. Menem, with his prominent victory in his district, was one of the leading figures of the party, disputed its leadership. Antonio Cafiero, elected governor of Buenos Aires Province, led the renewal of the PJ, was considered their most candidate for the presidency. Menem, on the other hand, was seen as a populist leader. Using a big tent approach, he got support from several unrelated political figures; as a result, he defeated Cafiero in the primary elections.
He sought alliances with Bunge and Born, union leaders, former members of Montoneros, the AAA, people from the church, "Carapintadas", etc. He promise
National Congress of Argentina
The Congress of the Argentine Nation is the legislative branch of the government of Argentina. Its composition is bicameral, constituted by a 72-seat Senate and a 257-seat Chamber of Deputies; the Congressional Palace is located at the western end of Avenida de Mayo. The Kilometre Zero for all Argentine National Highways is marked on a milestone at the Congressional Plaza, next to the building; the Argentine National Congress is the Chamber of Deputies. The ordinary sessions span is from March 1 to November 30. Senators and deputies enjoy parliamentary immunity during their mandates, which may be revoked by their peers if a senator or deputy is caught in flagrante, in the midst of committing a crime; the Congress is in charge of setting customs, which must be uniform across the country. It rules the Central Bank of Argentina, manages internal and external debt payment, the value of national currency, it rules the legal codes on Civil, Penal, Minery and Social Welfare affairs, all of which cannot be in contradiction with the respective provincial codes.
Any changes on national or provincial limits, or the creation of new provinces, ought to be allowed by the Congress. The Congress is entitled to approve or reject every international treaty that Argentina signs with other states or international organizations; when approved, the treaties acquire priority over ordinary legislation. Declarations of war and the signing of peace, as well as the mobilization of the national troops, within or outside of the Argentine territory must be allowed by the Congress. From 1976 to 1983, the Congressional Palace of Argentina housed the CAL, a group of officers from the three Armed Forces. Commissioned to review and discuss laws before they were issued by the Executive Branch, they served a succession of de facto military presidents during the National Reorganization Process. In practice, this became a mechanism to detect and discuss the differences between the three commanders-in-chief of the Army and Air Force regarding a specific project; the CAL was established by the Acta del Proceso de Reorganización Nacional, the guiding document for the military government established after the coup d'état of March 24, 1976.
Following a 1994 reform of the Constitution, the Senate was expanded from 48 members to 72 members, whereby the party garnering second place in elections for Senator would be assured the third seat for the corresponding province. Opening of regular sessions of the National Congress of Argentina Argentine National Congress Palace List of current Argentine Senators List of current Argentine Deputies Politics of Argentina List of legislatures by country "National Constitution of Argentina". Constitution of Argentina. Archived from the original on 2004-06-17; the official website of Congress Satellite picture by Google Maps
Domingo Faustino Sarmiento Railway
The Domingo Faustino Sarmiento Railway, named after the former Argentine president, statesman and author Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, is one of the six state-owned Argentine railway divisions formed after President Juan Perón's nationalisation of the Argentine railway network in 1948. The six companies were managed by Ferrocarriles Argentinos, broken up during the process of railway privatisation beginning in 1991 during Carlos Menem's presidency; the principal lines departed from Once railway station in Buenos Aires to the west through the provinces of Buenos Aires, La Pampa, Córdoba, San Luis and Mendoza. The railway was created after the nationalization of 5 ft 6 in broad gauge lines on the British-owned company Buenos Aires Western Railway on 13 February 1947; the state-owned company created with the nationalization, Ferrocarriles Argentinos took over all the English and French railway lines. When Ferrocarriles Argentinos was dissolved and the long-distance services closed by the government of Argentina, the freight lines of the FC Sarmiento were given in concession to Ferroexpreso Pampeano.
On the other hand, some passenger services were taken over by Ferrobaires, a state-owned company established by the government of Buenos Aires Province. The urban and suburban services were operated by transitional company FEMESA until they were given in concession to local private company Trenes de Buenos Aires, criticized due to the poor conditions of its services. After the rail disaster of 2012, the government revoked its contract with TBA and the services were taken over by a newly created state-owned company, SOFSE, which renewed the urban parts of the network with new rolling stock and infrastructure; the interurban service of Ferrocarril Sarmiento is second in number of passengers after Ferrocarril General Roca. The Ferrocarril Sarmiento was the successor of Buenos Aires Western Railway, a company founded by a group of porteño people from the "Sociedad del Camino de Hierro de Buenos Aires al Oeste". A State company, this railway had been the first of Argentina, inaugurated on 29 August 1857.
During its first years the service covered a 10 km path from the Plaza Del Parque station to La Floresta part of San José de Flores Partido. The railway expanded its service to the most productive zones of Buenos Aires Province. During this period, the BAWR's main rival was the Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway so both companies were involved in a hard competition to extend their rails to the southwest territory of Buenos Aires. In 1887 the Argentine state and provincial governments sold all the public companies, with the argument "The State is the worst administrator". Therefore, the BAWR was sold to British company "The Buenos Aires Western Railway Limited" known for its Spanish form "Ferrocarril del Oeste". Once it was given to the British, the railway continued expanding along the country, reaching the La Pampa, San Luis and Mendoza Provinces. By 1914 the line extended to the Andes but the beginning of World War I frustrated the plans to cross to neighborhood Republic of Chile. After a brief period of prosperity during the decade of 1920, the situation becomes critical with the 1929 crash and the economic depression.
By 1945 the British and French companies were affected by the World War II, beginning contacts with the Government of Argentina to sell their railway lines that still operated in the country. As a result, the railway assets were acquired by the State of Argentina between 1 November 1947 and 1 March 1948. President Juan Domingo Perón sign the agreement whereby the government took over all the railway line; that same year, a decree by the presidency stated that the railway lines would be named with names of national heroes or notable people of Argentina. The Ferrocarril del Oeste received the name "Domingo Faustino Sarmiento", honoring the memory of educator and former President of Argentina born in San Juan Province; the branch Darragueira-Huinca Renancó of Bahía Blanca and North Western Railway, administrated by the Great Western Railway) was added to the FC Sarmiento. On 3 March 1949, a new service was opened on the initiative of Secretary of Transport Juan Castro, it was run through a tunnel by wooden-bodied coaches between Caballito and the inaugurated "1° de Marzo" station, located on the crossing of the Buenos Aires Port railway and Cangallo street, in Puerto Madero.
There were four daily services every 40 minutes. The length of the branch was 7.5 km with no stations between terminus, that allowed trains to run at 30 km/h. The most part of the voyage was underground; this branch was closed on 1 January 1951 due to the few number of passengers transported. The causes of the lack of passengers were the few daily services and the risk of accidents although the most important reason for the closure was the Line A of Buenos Aires Underground that offered a similar service but adding the possibility to combine with other services such as the branch to Moreno in Once de Septiembre station. In 1951 the Liniers-Ingeniero Brian freight branch was closed; the Perito Moreno Highway would be built over the tracks. Other branches closed were Villa Luro-Versalles and the "Basílica de Luján" In 1953 the first Grade crossing signals was installed in the Boyacá street level crossing of Flores district, having been the first in Argentina. In 1955 the works to improve the Once de Septiembre station began.
One year a new railway signalling system was installed on the Once-Moreno branc
Rosario and Puerto Belgrano Railway
The Rosario and Puerto Belgrano Railway was a French-owned railway company which operated a broad gauge, 5 ft 6 in, single track line between the cities of Rosario and Puerto Belgrano in Argentina. Puerto Belgrano, near the city of Bahía Blanca in Buenos Aires Province, is the main naval base in Argentina; the original idea behind the building of the railway was to link points that were closer to either Rosario or Bahía Blanca than they were to Buenos Aires, thereby taking traffic from the British-owned companies BA Great Southern and BA Western railways. Since the line was constructed after many other east to west lines had been laid these were crossed by constructing a large number of bridges; the otherwise near level course of the line was broken, at intervals, by short sharp gradients and this had an effect on the type of locomotives that could be used. In spite of this a considerable volume of goods and livestock traffic was carried by the line; the original concession for the construction of the railway was granted to Diego de Alvear with the promulgation of Law N° 4.279 of 1903.
That concession was transferred to French-owned company "Sociedad Anónima Compañía del Ferrocarril Rosario a Puerto Belgrano" in December 1906. The concessionary was committed to build a dock in terminus of the line; the Indian gauge 800-km. Length railway ran from north to south, joining the cities of Rosario, Santa Fe and Punta Alta, crossing most of the main British-owned railway tracks; the railway had a particular path with no stops in Buenos Aires but other cities of the Province such as Coronel Pringles and Coronel Suárez. The costs of construction were high so the railway required several engineering, for example the seven iron bridges that cross the Sauce Grande River, near Bahía Blanca; the north-south orientation of the railway path revealed the purpose of competing against British companies for the traffic of merchandises in Buenos Aires. The railway did not earn the expected profits due to better prices established by British railways. Besides, the RPBR crossed low developed agricultural areas instead of more fertile areas covered by British companies.
For those reasons, the RPBR suffered a chronic deficit. The line was built between 1906 and 1910 being inaugurated for passenger and freight services in 1912; the military port of Bahía Blanca received all the goods necessary for the construction of the railway, including rail tracks and prefabricated home for employees, steam locomotives and coaches. The line started in Rosario, reaching Punta Alta station and Puerto Belgrano dock, being built by then. A branch from Punta Alta to Bahía Blanca was built later; the construction included a total of 36 bridges, totalling 857 mt. The dock made for Puerto Belgrano was a 250-metre length structure where four 125-metre length ships could enter at a same time to unload their cargo. There were 12 cranes, 12 electric and 4 hydraulic. Once the dock was finished, it was acquired by the Government of Argentina and added to the Navy in 1914; the company made the arrangements to get a concession to build an extension branch to Bahía Blanca and an access to Port of ingeniero White through a junction with Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway to freight services exclusively.
Concession was granted. The line connected with Western railways in Rosario and Timote respectively; the company set headquarters in Villa Diego in 1909, where a passenger and freight station was built. The building included a locomotive warehouse, workshops and a switchyard; the buildings are part of Ciudad Universitaria de Rosario. The construction of a 27-km length branch from Punta Alta to Bahía Blanca allowed the company to stimulate passenger and freight traffic. Works were directed by Swiss Engineer Armin Reimman who died short after the line was inaugurated, being replaced by his colleague Lucien Capelle. In 1921 the new terminus was inaugurated, it was placed on Colón Avenue between B. de Irigoyen and Rivadavia streets. The station remained active until 1949. After some testings, on March 2, 1922, the inaugural trip from Rosario to Bahía Blanca was carried out, arriving to the Southern city at 15:30; when the whole Argentine railway network was nationalised by the Juan Peron's administration in 1948, the BA&PBR line was divided into two sections, the north became part of Mitre Railway while the south section was added to Roca Railway.
In order to reduce operative costs, Ferrocarriles Argentinos closed the Rosario station, moving passenger services to Rosario Central that would be closed in 1977. With the railway privatisation led by President Carlos Menem in early 1990s, the R&PB line was granted in concession to freight rail transport company Ferroexpreso Pampeano. British Steam on the Pampas by D. S. Purdom - Mechanical Engineering Publications Ltd, London - ISBN 978-0852983539 Foreign Capital, Local Interests and Railway Development in Argentina: French Investments in Railways 1900-1914 by Andrés Regalsky - Journal of Latin American studies - Cambridge Univ. Press