A dealing shoe or dealer's shoe is a gaming device used in casinos, to hold multiple decks of playing cards. The shoe allows for more games to be played by reducing the time between shuffles and less chance of dealer cheating. In some games, such as blackjack, using multiple decks of cards can increase the house edge. Prior to 1961 in Las Vegas casinos, all blackjack was being dealt from a single deck. John Scarne proposed to the Nevada Gaming Control Board that a state ruling be enacted such that Blackjack must be dealt from a shoe. While no such ruling was passed, most Nevada casinos now deal from a multi-deck shoe; as gaming advisor to the Havana Hilton, Scarne introduced the shoe to Puerto Rico and Cuba. The device is so named because the earliest versions of it resembled a woman's high-heel shoe, were painted red or black in color. Dealing shoes come in many colors and sizes, depending on the number of decks they are capable of holding; when the cards are placed in the shoe, the dealer will insert a brightly colored blank plastic card.
When this card is drawn it indicates. This helps mitigate player advantage via card counting, as a significant portion of the full inventory of cards never comes into play; the percentage of cards that are dealt is sometimes called the penetration. Scarne, John. Scarne's New Complete Guide to Gambling. Fireside. ISBN 978-0-671-63063-8
Mark Johnson (producer)
Mark Johnson is an American film and television producer. Johnson won the Best Picture Academy Award for producing the 1988 drama movie Rain Man, starring Dustin Hoffman and Tom Cruise; the film, winner of four Oscars captured a Golden Globe for Best Picture. Johnson was born in Washington, D. C. the son of Dorothy, a realtor, Emery Johnson, who worked in the air cargo business. He graduated from the University of Virginia in 1971. Johnson first became involved in show business in 1965, as an actor playing the sheriff's deputy in the Spanish "spaghetti western" Brandy, directed by Jose Luis Borau, he spent ten years of his youth in Spain, where he worked as a movie extra in films such as Franklin Schaffner's Nicholas and Alexandra and David Lean's Dr. Zhivago, his early experiences led to small acting roles in the European western Ride and Kill and the 1964 drama The Thin Red Line. After earning an undergraduate degree in Drama from the University of Virginia and an MA in Film Scholarship from the University of Iowa, Johnson moved to New York.
There he entered the Director's Guild training program. One of his first projects was Greenwich Village. Johnson relocated to Los Angeles and worked as an assistant director on such projects as Movie Movie, The Brink's Job, Escape from Alcatraz and Mel Brooks's High Anxiety, co-written by future business partner Barry Levinson; as part of Baltimore Pictures, his partnership with Levinson, Johnson produced all of the writer-director's films from 1982–1994. In addition to Rain Man, their diverse slate of features includes Good Morning, The Natural, Tin Men, Young Sherlock Holmes, Avalon and Bugsy, nominated for ten Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Director. Bugsy captured a Best Picture Golden Globe Award. In 1994, Johnson established his own independent production company, Gran Via Productions, won the Los Angeles Film Critics New Generation Award for his first effort. Under his new banner, Johnson produced the comedy Home Fries, starring Drew Barrymore, the dramatic thriller Donnie Brasco, starring Al Pacino and Johnny Depp.
He served as executive producer for CBS-TV's L. A. Doctors and Falcone, for the hit drama The Guardian. Johnson's recent slate of motion pictures includes The Alamo and The Rookie, both directed by John Lee Hancock. In recent years, Johnson produced Nick Cassavetes's drama The Notebook, The Wendell Baker Story, which marked the directorial debuts of brothers Luke and Andrew Wilson, How to Eat Fried Worms. Johnson has either presented or executive produced Luis Llosa's directorial debut, Tim Robbins's directorial debut, Bob Roberts, Steven Soderbergh's Kafka, Robert Redford's Oscar-nominated Quiz Show and Journey of Hope, winner of the 1999 Foreign Language Academy Award. Recent projects include The Hunting Party, starring Richard Gere, Lake City, starring Sissy Spacek, the critically acclaimed debut of director Lance Hammer, My Sister's Keeper, starring Cameron Diaz, Alec Baldwin and Abigail Breslin, he is working with Guillermo del Toro to produce the movie adaption of David Moody's novel Hater..
In 2005, Johnson produced The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, directed by Andrew Adamson and starring Tilda Swinton. The film was nominated for three BAFTAs, winning one of each. In 2008 he produced Prince Caspian; the third film in the Narnia series, The Voyage of the Dawn Treader, directed by Michael Apted, was released December 10, 2010. Johnson has three feature films due for release in 2012, he produced 2015's thriller Secret in Their Eyes. Johnson was an executive producer on AMC's Emmy Award-winning series Breaking Bad, he is an executive producer on the Sundance Channel original series Rectify, AMC's Breaking Bad spinoff, Better Call Saul. Johnson is a member of the Board of Governors of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Mark Johnson Biography – Yahoo Movies Mark Johnson on IMDb
Las Vegas Strip
The Las Vegas Strip is a stretch of South Las Vegas Boulevard in Clark County, Nevada, known for its concentration of resort hotels and casinos. The Strip is 4.2 miles in length, located south of the Las Vegas city limits in the unincorporated towns of Paradise and Winchester. However, the Strip is referred to as being in Las Vegas. Many of the largest hotel and resort properties in the world are located on the Strip; the boulevard's cityscape is highlighted by its use of contemporary architecture, a wide variety of attractions. Its hotels, restaurants, residential high-rises, entertainment offerings, skyline have established the Strip as one of the most popular and iconic tourist destinations in the world. Most of the Strip has been designated as an All-American Road and is considered a scenic route at night; the casinos that were not in Downtown Las Vegas along Fremont Street were limited to outside the city limits on Las Vegas Boulevard. In 1959, the Welcome to Fabulous Las Vegas sign was constructed 4.5 miles outside the city limits.
The sign is today located in the median just south of Russell Road, across from the now-demolished Klondike Hotel & Casino, about 0.4 miles south of the southernmost entrance to Mandalay Bay. In the strictest sense, "the Strip" refers only to the stretch of Las Vegas Boulevard, between Sahara Avenue and Russell Road, a distance of 4.2 miles. However, the term is used to refer not only to the road but to the various casinos and resorts that line the road, to properties that are not on the road but are in proximity to it. Phrases such as Strip Area, Resort Corridor or Resort District are sometimes used to indicate a larger geographical area, including properties 1 mile or more away from Las Vegas Boulevard, such as the Hard Rock, Rio and Hooters casinos. A long-standing definition considers the Strip's northern terminus as the SLS, though travel guides extend it to include the Stratosphere 0.4 miles to the north. Mandalay Bay, located just north of Russell Road, is the southernmost resort considered to be on the Strip.
Because of the number and size of the resorts, the resort corridor can be quite wide. Interstate 15 runs parallel and 0.5 to 0.8 miles to the west of Las Vegas Boulevard for the entire length of the Strip. Paradise Road runs to the east in a similar fashion, ends at St. Louis Avenue; the eastern side of the Strip is bounded by McCarran International Airport south of Tropicana Avenue. North of this point, the resort corridor can be considered to extend as far east as Paradise Road, although some consider Koval Lane as a less inclusive boundary. Interstate 15 is sometimes considered the western edge of the resort corridor from Interstate 215 to Spring Mountain Road. North of this point, Industrial Road serves as the western edge. Newer hotels and resorts such as South Point, Grandview Resort, M Resort are on Las Vegas Boulevard South as distant as 8 miles south of the "Welcome to Fabulous Las Vegas" sign. Marketing for these casinos states that they are on southern Las Vegas Boulevard and not "Strip" properties.
The first casino to be built on Highway 91 was the Pair-o-Dice Club in 1931, but the first resort on what is the Strip was the El Rancho Vegas, opening on April 3, 1941, with 63 rooms. That casino/ resort stood for 20 years before being destroyed by a fire in 1960, its success spawned a second hotel on what would become the Strip, the Hotel Last Frontier in 1942. Organized crime figures such as New York's Bugsy Siegel took interest in the growing gaming center leading to other resorts such as the Flamingo, which opened in 1946, the Desert Inn, which opened in 1950; the funding for many projects was provided through the American National Insurance Company, based in the notorious gambling empire of Galveston, Texas. Las Vegas Boulevard South was called Arrowhead Highway, or Los Angeles Highway; the Strip was named by Los Angeles police officer and businessman Guy McAfee, after his hometown's Sunset Strip. Caesars Palace was established in 1966. In 1968, Kirk Kerkorian purchased the Flamingo and hired Sahara Hotels Vice President Alex Shoofey as President.
Alex Shoofey brought along 33 of Sahara's top executives. The Flamingo was used to train future employees of the International Hotel, under construction. Opening in 1969, the International Hotel, with 1,512 rooms, began the era of mega-resorts; the International is known as Westgate Las Vegas today. The first MGM Grand Hotel and Casino a Kerkorian property, opened in 1973 with 2,084 rooms. At the time, this was one of the largest hotels in the world by number of rooms; the Rossiya Hotel built in 1967 in Moscow, for instance, had 3,200 rooms. On November 21, 1980, the MGM Grand suffered the worst resort fire in the history of Las Vegas as a result of electrical problems, killing 87 people, it reopened eight months later. In 1986, Kerkorian sold the MGM Grand to Bally Manufacturing, it was renamed Bally's; the Wet'n Wild water park was located on the south side of the Sahara hotel. It closed at the end of the 2004 season and was demolished; the opening of The Mirage in 1989 set a new level to the Las Vegas experience, as smaller hotels and casinos made way for the larger mega-resorts.
The Rio and the Excalibur opened in 1990. These huge facil
Thomas Cruise is an American actor and producer. Known for his work in action films for which he performs risky stunts, he has received several accolades for more dramatic work, including three Golden Globe Awards and nominations for three Academy Awards. One of the best-paid actors in the world, his films have earned over $3.9 billion in North America, making him one of the highest-grossing actors of all time. Cruise began acting in the early 1980s and made his breakthrough with leading roles in the comedy Risky Business and the action drama Top Gun. Critical acclaim came with his roles in the dramas The Color of Money, Rain Man, Born on the Fourth of July. For portraying Ron Kovic in the latter, he won a Golden Globe Award and received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor; as a leading Hollywood star in the 1990s, Cruise starred in several commercially successful films, including the drama A Few Good Men, the thriller The Firm, the horror Interview with the Vampire, the romance Jerry Maguire, for which he won another Golden Globe and received his second Oscar nomination.
His performance as a motivational speaker in the 1999 drama Magnolia, earned him a third Golden Globe and a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. As an action star, Cruise has played Ethan Hunt in six films of the Mission: Impossible film series from 1996 to 2018, he continued to feature in several science fiction and action films, including Vanilla Sky, Minority Report, The Last Samurai, War of the Worlds and Day, Jack Reacher and Edge of Tomorrow. Cruise has been married three times, to actresses Mimi Rogers, Nicole Kidman, Katie Holmes, has three children, two of which were adopted during his marriage to Kidman and the other a biological daughter with Holmes. Cruise is an outspoken advocate for the Church of Scientology and its associated social programs, credits it with helping him overcome dyslexia. In the 2000s, he sparked controversy with his Church-affiliated criticisms of psychiatry and anti-depressant drugs, his efforts to promote Scientology as a religion in Europe, a leaked video interview of him promoting Scientology.
Cruise was born in Syracuse, New York, the son of Mary Lee, a special education teacher, Thomas Cruise Mapother III, an electrical engineer, both from Louisville, Kentucky. He has three sisters: Lee Anne and Cass, they are of English and Irish ancestry. One of Cruise's paternal 3x great-grandfathers, Patrick Russell Cruise, was born in north County Dublin in 1799, they settled in New York. They had a daughter, Mary Paulina Russell Cruise, whose son Thomas Cruise Mapother was Cruise's great-grandfather. A cousin, William Mapother, is an actor. Cruise grew up in near poverty, had a Catholic upbringing; the family was dominated by his abusive father, whom Cruise has described as "a merchant of chaos." Cruise has said that he was beaten by his father, whom he has called a "bully and coward." He stated, "He was the kind of person. It was a great lesson in my life—how he'd lull you in, make you feel safe and bang! For me, it was like,'There's something wrong with this guy. Don't trust him. Be careful around him.'"Cruise spent part of his childhood in Canada.
His family moved to Beacon Hill, Ottawa, in late 1971 so that Cruise's father could take a position as a defense consultant with the Canadian Armed Forces. There, Cruise attended the newly opened Robert Hopkins Public School for much of grade four and grade five. In grade four, Cruise first became involved under the tutelage of George Steinburg. Cruise and six other boys put on an improvised play to music called IT at the Carleton Elementary School drama festival. Drama organizer Val Wright, in the audience that night, reflected, "The movement and improvisation were excellent, it was a classic ensemble piece." Cruise enjoyed sports at the school and played floor hockey, though he was known more for his aggression than his talent. In sixth grade, Cruise went to Henry Munro Middle School in Ottawa, Canada. However, in the spring of that year, Cruise's mother left his father, taking Cruise and his sisters back to the United States, his father died of cancer in 1984. Cruise attended a Franciscan seminary in Cincinnati, Ohio, on a church scholarship and aspired to become a Catholic priest, before his interest in acting.
In his senior year, he played football for the varsity team as a linebacker, but he was cut from the squad after getting caught drinking beer before a game. In total, Cruise attended 15 schools in 14 years, including stints in at least two suburban New Jersey towns, including Glen Ridge. Cruise first appeared in a bit part in the 1981 film Endless Love, followed by a major supporting role as a crazed military academy student in Taps that year. In 1983, Cruise was part of the ensemble cast of The Outsiders; that same year he appeared in All the Right Moves and Risky Business, described as "A Generation X classic, a career-maker for Tom Cruise", which, along with 1986's Top Gun, cemented his status as a superstar. Cruise played the male lead in the Ridley Scott film Legend, released in 1985. Cruise followed up Top Gun with The Color of Money, which came out the same year, which paired him with Paul Newman. 1988 saw him star in Cocktail. That yea
Mental calculators are people with a prodigious ability in some area of mental calculation, such as adding, multiplying or dividing large numbers. Mental calculators were in great demand in research centers such as CERN before the advent of modern electronic calculators and computers. See, for instance, Steven B. Smith's 1983 book The Great Mental Calculators, or the 2016 book Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Who Helped Win the Space Race and the film adapted from it; the world's best mental calculators are invited every two years to compete for the Mental Calculation World Cup. On September 25, 2016, 27-year old Yuki Kimura of Japan, succeeded 13-year-old Granth Thakkar of India, as the current world champion.. Yuki Kimura is the 2nd Japanese person to win the Cup, after Naofumi Ogasawara won it in 2012. In 2005 a group of researchers led by Michael W. O'Boyle, an American psychologist working in Australia and now at Texas Tech University, has used MRI scanning of blood flow during mental operation in computational prodigies.
These math prodigies have shown increases in blood flow to parts of the brain responsible for mathematical operations during a mental rotation task that are greater than the typical increases. Aitken, Alexander Craig Ampère, André-Marie Bidder, George Parker Buxton, Jedediah Colburn, Zerah Dase, Johann Zacharias Devi, Shakuntala Diamandi, Pericles Dysart, Willis Eberstark, Hans Euler, Leonhard Finkelstein, Salo Fuller, Thomas Gauss, Carl Friedrich Griffith, Arthur F. Hamilton, William Rowan Inaudi, Jacques Klein, Wim McCartney, Daniel Neumann, John von Ramanujan, Srinivasa Riemann, Bernhard Ruckle, Gottfried Safford, Truman Henry Shelushkov, Igor Wallis, John In Frank Herbert's novel Dune, specially trained mental calculators known as Mentats have replaced mechanical computers completely. Several important supporting characters in the novel, namely Piter De Vries and Thufir Hawat, are Mentats. Paul Atreides was trained as one without his knowledge. However, these Mentats do not specialize in mathematical calculations, but in total recall of many different kinds of data.
For example, Thufir Hawat is able to recite various details of a mining operation, including the number of various pieces of equipment, the people to work them, the profits and costs involved, etc. In the novel he is never depicted as doing actual academic mathematical calculations. Mentats were valued for their capacity as humans to store data, because computers and "thinking machines" are outlawed. In Roald Dahl's novel Matilda, the lead character is portrayed having exceptional computational skills as she computes her father's profit without the need for paper computations. During class, she does large-number multiplication problems in her head instantly. In the 1988 movie Rain Man, Raymond Babbitt, who has savant syndrome, can mentally calculate large numbers, amongst other abilities. Andrew Jackson "Slipstick" Libby is a calculating prodigy in Robert A. Heinlein's Sci-Fi story Methuselah's Children. In the USA Network legal drama Suits, the main character, Mike Ross, is asked to multiply large numbers in his head to impress two girls, subsequently does so.
In Haruki Murakami's novel Hard-Boiled Wonderland and the End of the World, a class of mental calculators known as Calcutecs perform cryptography in a sealed-off portion of their brains, the results of which they are unable to access from their normal waking consciousness. In the Fox television show Malcolm in the Middle, Malcolm Wilkerson displays astounding feats of automatic mental calculation, which causes him to fear his family will see him as a "freak", causes his brother to ask, "Is Malcolm a robot?". In the 1991 movie Little Man Tate, Fred Tate in the audience blurts out the answer during a mental calculation contest. In the 1990s NBC TV sitcom NewsRadio, reporter/producer Lisa Miller can mentally calculate products and square roots effortlessly and instantaneosly, on demand. In the 1997 Sci-Fi thriller Cube, one of the prisoners, appears to be mentally disabled, but is revealed in the film to be an autistic savant, able to calculate prime factors in his head. In 1998 Darren Aronofsky's film Pi, Maximillian Cohen is asked a few times by a young child with a calculator to do large multiplications and divisions in his head, which he promptly does, correctly.
In 1998 film Mercury Rising, a 9-year-old autistic savant with prodigious math abilities cracks a top secret government code. In the 2006 film Stranger than Fiction, the main character, Harold Crick, is able to perform rapid arithmetic at the request of his co-workers. In the 2009 Japanese animated film Summer Wars, the main character, mathematical genius Kenji Koiso, is able to mentally break purely mathematical encryption codes generated by the OZ virtual world's security system, he can mentally calculate the day of the week a person was born, based on their birthday. In another Fox television show, Fringe, in the third episode of the third season and her fellow Fringe Division members encounter an individual with severe cognitive impairment, given experimental nootropics and as a result has become a mathematical genius; the individual is able to calculate hundreds of equations which he leverages to avoid being returned to his original state of cognitive impairment. In the 2012 film Safe, a female child math genius is kidnapped to be used by the Chinese Triad.
In the 2014 Sci-Fi novel Double Bill by S. Ayoade, Devi Singh, a mental calculator, is one of the 70 lucky children who win a trip to the moon. In the 2016 film The Accountant, a high-functioning autistic tracks insider financial decepti
Social engineering (security)
Social engineering, in the context of information security, refers to psychological manipulation of people into performing actions or divulging confidential information. This differs from social engineering within the social sciences, which does not contain the divulging of confidential information. A type of confidence trick for the purpose of information gathering, fraud, or system access, it differs from a traditional "con" in that it is one of many steps in a more complex fraud scheme, it has been defined as "any act that influences a person to take an action that may or may not be in their best interests." Employee behavior can have a big impact on information security in organizations. Cultural concepts can help different segments of the organization work or work against effectiveness towards information security within an organization. "Exploring the Relationship between Organizational Culture and Information Security Culture" provides the following definition of information security culture: "ISC is the totality of patterns of behavior in an organization that contribute to the protection of information of all kinds."Social engineering has been used extensively by Islamic State and other terrorist groups for recruiting and radicalising younger people into joining their cause.
Andersson and Reimers found that employees do not see themselves as part of the organization Information Security "effort" and take actions that ignore organizational information security best interests. Research shows. In "Information Security Culture from Analysis to Change", authors commented, "It's a never ending process, a cycle of evaluation and change or maintenance." To manage the information security culture, five steps should be taken: Pre-evaluation, strategic planning, operative planning and post-evaluation. Pre-Evaluation: to identify the awareness of information security within employees and to analysis current security policy. Strategic Planning: to come up a better awareness-program, we need to set clear targets. Clustering people is helpful to achieve it. Operative Planning: we can set a good security culture based on internal communication, management-buy-in, security awareness and training program. Implementation: four stages should be used to implement the information security culture.
They are commitment of the management, communication with organizational members, courses for all organizational members, commitment of the employees. All social engineering techniques are based on specific attributes of human decision-making known as cognitive biases; these biases, sometimes called "bugs in the human hardware", are exploited in various combinations to create attack techniques, some of which are listed below. The attacks used in social engineering can be used to steal employees' confidential information; the most common type of social engineering happens over the phone. Other examples of social engineering attacks are criminals posing as exterminators, fire marshals and technicians to go unnoticed as they steal company secrets. One example of social engineering is an individual who walks into a building and posts an official-looking announcement to the company bulletin that says the number for the help desk has changed. So, when employees call for help the individual asks them for their passwords and IDs thereby gaining the ability to access the company's private information.
Another example of social engineering would be that the hacker contacts the target on a social networking site and starts a conversation with the target. The hacker gains the trust of the target and uses that trust to get access to sensitive information like password or bank account details. Social engineering relies on the 6 principles of influence established by Robert Cialdini. Cialdini's theory of influence is based on six key principles: reciprocity and consistency, social proof, liking, scarcity. Reciprocity – People tend to return a favor, thus the pervasiveness of free samples in marketing. In his conferences, he uses the example of Ethiopia providing thousands of dollars in humanitarian aid to Mexico just after the 1985 earthquake, despite Ethiopia suffering from a crippling famine and civil war at the time. Ethiopia had been reciprocating the diplomatic support Mexico provided when Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1935; the good cop/bad cop strategy is based on this principle. Commitment and consistency – If people commit, orally or in writing, to an idea or goal, they are more to honor that commitment because they have stated that that idea or goal fits their self-image.
If the original incentive or motivation is removed after they have agreed, they will continue to honor the agreement. Cialdini notes Chinese brainwashing of American prisoners of war to rewrite their self-image and gain automatic unenforced compliance. Another example is marketers who make the user close popups by saying “I’ll sign up later” or "No thanks, I prefer not making money”. Social proof – People will do things that they see other people are doing. For example, in one experiment, one or more confederates would look up into the sky. At one point this experiment was aborted, as so many people were looking up that they stopped traffic. See conformity, the Asch conformity experiments. Authority – People will tend to obey authority figures if they are asked to perform objectionable acts. Cialdini cites incidents such as the Milgram experiments in the My Lai massacre. Liking – People are persuaded by other people whom they like. Cialdini cites the marketing of Tupperware in. People were mo
Interstate Highway System
The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highways that forms part of the National Highway System in the United States; the system is named for President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Construction was authorized by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, the original portion was completed 35 years although some urban routes were cancelled and never built; the network has since been extended. In 2016, it had a total length of 48,181 miles; as of 2016, about one-quarter of all vehicle miles driven in the country use the Interstate system. In 2006, the cost of construction was estimated at about $425 billion; the United States government's efforts to construct a national network of highways began on an ad hoc basis with the passage of the Federal Aid Road Act of 1916, which provided for $75 million over a five-year period for matching funds to the states for the construction and improvement of highways.
The nation's revenue needs associated with World War I prevented any significant implementation of this policy, which expired in 1921. In December 1918, E. J. Mehren, a civil engineer and the editor of Engineering News-Record, presented his "A Suggested National Highway Policy and Plan" during a gathering of the State Highway Officials and Highway Industries Association at the Congress Hotel in Chicago. In the plan, Mehren proposed a 50,000-mile system, consisting of five east–west routes and 10 north–south routes; the system would include two percent of all roads and would pass through every state at a cost of $25,000 per mile, providing commercial as well as military transport benefits. As the landmark 1916 law expired, new legislation was passed—the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921; this new road construction initiative once again provided for federal matching funds for road construction and improvement, $75 million allocated annually. Moreover, this new legislation for the first time sought to target these funds to the construction of a national road grid of interconnected "primary highways", setting up cooperation among the various state highway planning boards.
The Bureau of Public Roads asked the Army to provide a list of roads that it considered necessary for national defense. In 1922, General John J. Pershing, former head of the American Expeditionary Force in Europe during the war, complied by submitting a detailed network of 20,000 miles of interconnected primary highways—the so-called Pershing Map. A boom in road construction followed throughout the decade of the 1920s, with such projects as the New York parkway system constructed as part of a new national highway system; as automobile traffic increased, planners saw a need for such an interconnected national system to supplement the existing non-freeway, United States Numbered Highways system. By the late 1930s, planning had expanded to a system of new superhighways. In 1938, President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave Thomas MacDonald, chief at the Bureau of Public Roads, a hand-drawn map of the United States marked with eight superhighway corridors for study. In 1939, Bureau of Public Roads Division of Information chief Herbert S. Fairbank wrote a report called Toll Roads and Free Roads, "the first formal description of what became the interstate highway system" and, in 1944, the themed Interregional Highways.
The Interstate Highway System gained a champion in President Dwight D. Eisenhower, influenced by his experiences as a young Army officer crossing the country in the 1919 Army Convoy on the Lincoln Highway, the first road across America. Eisenhower gained an appreciation of the Reichsautobahn system, the first "national" implementation of modern Germany's Autobahn network, as a necessary component of a national defense system while he was serving as Supreme Commander Of Allied Forces in Europe during World War II, he recognized that the proposed system would provide key ground transport routes for military supplies and troop deployments in case of an emergency or foreign invasion. The publication in 1955 of the General Location of National System of Interstate Highways, informally known as the Yellow Book, mapped out what became the Interstate Highway System. Assisting in the planning was Charles Erwin Wilson, still head of General Motors when President Eisenhower selected him as Secretary of Defense in January 1953.
The Interstate Highway System was authorized on June 29, 1956 by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act of 1956. Three states have claimed the title of first Interstate Highway. Missouri claims that the first three contracts under the new program were signed in Missouri on August 2, 1956; the first contract signed was for upgrading a section of US Route 66 to what is now designated Interstate 44. On August 13, 1956, Missouri awarded the first contract based on new Interstate Highway funding. Kansas claims. Preliminary construction had taken place before the act was signed, paving started September 26, 1956; the state marked its portion of I-70 as the first project in the United States completed under the provisions of the new Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956. The Pennsylvania Turnpike could be considered one of the first Interstate Highways. On October 1, 1940, 162 miles of the highway now designated I‑70 and I‑76 opened between Irwin and Carlisle.
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania refers to the turnpike as the Granddaddy of the Pikes. Milestones in the construction of the Interstate Highway System include: October 17, 1974: Nebraska becomes