Directorate-General for External Security
The General Directorate for External Security is France's external intelligence agency. The French equivalent to the United Kingdom's MI6 and the United States' CIA, the DGSE operates under the direction of the French Ministry of Defence and works alongside its domestic counterpart, the DGSI, in providing intelligence and safeguarding national security, notably by performing paramilitary and counterintelligence operations abroad; as with most other intelligence agencies, details of its operations and organization are not made public. The DGSE's head office is in the 20th arrondissement of Paris; the DGSE—like the intelligence services of other states—has a record of both failures and accomplishments. It engages in a significant amount of economic espionage; the DGSE can trace its roots back to November 27, 1943, when a central external intelligence agency, known as the DGSS, was founded by politician Jacques Soustelle. The name of the agency was changed on October 26, 1944 for DGER; as this beginning was marred by numerous cases of nepotism and political feuds, Soustelle was removed from his position as Director.
Former free-fighter André Dewavrin aka "Colonel Passy" was tasked to reform the DGER. The SDECE combined under one head a variety of separate agencies – some, such as the best-known Deuxième Bureau aka 2e Bureau, created by the military circa 1871-1873 in the wake of the birth of the French Third Republic. During the WWII, from July 1940 to November 27, 1943 more was created a wartime intelligence agency known as the BCRA, with André Dewavrin as its head. On April 2, 1982, the new socialist government of François Mitterrand reformed the SDECE and renamed this agency DGSE; the SDECE had remained independent until the mid-1960s, when it was discovered to have been involved in the kidnapping and presumed murder of Mehdi Ben Barka, a Moroccan revolutionary living in Paris. Following this scandal, it is said, the agency was placed under the control of the French Ministry of Defence, but in reality, foreign intelligence activities in France have always been supervised by the military since 1871. Exceptions related to telecommunications interception and cyphering and code-breaking, which were carried on by the police in territorial France, by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs abroad.
And economic and financial intelligence, which first were carried on by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, from 1915 on by the Ministry of Commerce until the aftermath of WWII, when the SDECE of the Ministry of Defence took over the specialty in partnership with the Ministry for the Economy and Finance. In 1992, most of the defence responsibilities of the DGSE, no longer suitable to the post-Cold War context, were transferred to the Military Intelligence Directorate, a new military agency. Combining the skills and knowledge of five military groups, the DRM was created to close the intelligence gaps of the 1991 Gulf War; the SDECE and DGSE have been shaken by numerous scandals. In 1968, for example, Philippe Thyraud de Vosjoli, an important officer in the French intelligence system for 20 years, asserted in published memoirs that the SDECE had been penetrated by the Soviet KGB in the 1950s, he indicated that there had been periods of intense rivalry between the French and U. S. intelligence systems.
In the early 1990s a senior French intelligence officer created another major scandal by revealing that the DGSE had conducted economic intelligence operations against American businessmen in France. Dominique Poirier, ex-employee of the DGSE, confirms in a thick and detailed book about the DGSE he published in May 2018 that the priority targets of this agency are the United States and its allies, he tells about missions and operations against the United States in particular in which he took part. Furthermore, not only Dominique Poirier reveals from first-hand knowledge a close cooperation of the DGSE with Russian foreign intelligence, which he say would date back to the 1970s as far as he could know it, but he brings upon numerous clues and evidences of the existence of a secret and long-lasting special relationship between France and Russia. A major scandal for the service in the late Cold War was the sinking of the Rainbow Warrior in 1985; the Rainbow Warrior was sunk by operatives in what the service named Opération Satanique, killing one of the crew.
The operation was ordered by François Mitterrand. New Zealand was outraged that its sovereignty was violated by an ally, as was the Netherlands since the killed Greenpeace activist was a Dutch citizen and the ship had Amsterdam as its port of origin; the agency was conventionally run by French military personnel until 1999, when former diplomat Jean-Claude Cousseran was appointed its head. Cousseran had served as an ambassador to Turkey and Syria, as well as a strategist in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Cousseran reorganized the agency to improve the flow of information, following a series of reforms drafted by Bruno Joubert, the agency's director of strategy at that time; this came during a period when the French government was formed as a cohabitation between left and right parties. Cousseran, linked to the Socialist Party, was therefore obliged to appoint Jean-Pierre
A commando is a soldier or operative of an elite light infantry or special operations force specializing in amphibious landings, parachuting or abseiling. "a commando" was a type of combat unit, as opposed to an individual in that unit. In other languages and kommando denote a "command", including the sense of a military or an elite special operations unit. In the militaries and governments of most countries, commandos are distinctive in that they specialize in assault on unconventional high-value targets. However, the term commando is sometimes used in relation to units carrying out the latter tasks. Commandos differ from other types of special forces in that they operate in overt combat, front-line reconnaissance, raiding, rather than long range reconnaissance and unconventional warfare. In English to distinguish between an individual commando and the unit Commando, the unit is capitalized; the word stems from the Afrikaans word kommando, which translates to "mobile infantry regiment". This term referred to mounted infantry regiments, who fought against the British Army in the first and second Boer Wars.
It is possible the word was adopted into Afrikaans from interactions with Portuguese colonies. Less it is a High German loan word, borrowed from Italian in the 17th century, from the sizable minority of German settlers in the initial European colonization of South Africa; the officer commanding an Afrikaans kommando is called a kommandant, a regimental commander equivalent to a lieutenant-colonel or a colonel. The Oxford English Dictionary ties the English use of the word meaning " member of a body of picked men..." directly into its Afrikaans' origins: 1943 Combined Operations i. Lt. Lieutenant-Colonel D. W. Clarke... produced the outline of a scheme.... The men for this type of irregular warfare should, he suggested, be formed into units to be known as Commandos.... Nor was the historical parallel far-fetched. After the victories of Roberts and Kitchener had scattered the Boer army, the guerrilla tactics of its individual units... prevented decisive victory.... His ideas were accepted. During World War II, newspaper reports of the deeds of "the commandos" led to readers thinking that the singular meant one man rather than one military unit, this new usage became established.
After the Dutch Cape Colony was established in 1652, the word was used to describe bands of militia. The first "Commando Law" was instated by the original Dutch East India Company chartered settlements and similar laws were maintained through the independent Boer Orange Free State and South African Republic; the law compelled Burghers to equip themselves with a firearm when required in defense. The implementation of these laws was called the "Commando System". A group of mounted militiamen were organized in a unit known as a commando and headed by a Commandant, elected from inside the unit. Men called up to serve were said to be "on commando". British experience with this system led to the widespread adoption of the word "commandeer" into English in the 1880s. During the "Great Trek", conflicts with Southern African peoples such as the Xhosa and the Zulu caused the Boers to retain the commando system despite being free of colonial laws; the word became used to describe any armed raid. During this period, the Boers developed guerrilla techniques for use against numerically superior but less mobile bands of natives such as the Zulu who fought in large, complex formations.
In the First Boer War, Boer commandos were able to use superior marksmanship, fieldcraft and mobility to expel an occupying British force from the Transvaal. These tactics were continued throughout the Second Boer War. In the final phase of the war, 75,000 Boers carried out asymmetric warfare against the 450,000-strong British Imperial forces for two years after the British had captured the capital cities of the two Boer republics. During these conflicts the word entered English, retaining its general Afrikaans meaning of a "militia unit" or a "raid". Robert Baden-Powell recognised the importance of fieldcraft and was inspired to form the scouting movement. In 1941, Lieutenant-Colonel D. W. Clarke of the British Imperial General Staff, suggested the name Commando for specialized raiding units of the British Army Special Service in evocation of the effectiveness and tactics of the Boer commandos. During World War II, American and British publications, confused over the use of the plural "commandos" for that type of British military units, gave rise to the modern common habit of using "a commando" to mean one member of such a unit, or one man engaged on a raiding-type operation.
Since the 20th century and World War II in particular, commandos have been set apart from other military units by virtue of their extreme training regimes. The British Commandos were instrumental in founding many other international commando units during World War II; some international commando units were formed from members who served as part of or alongside British Commandos, such as the Dutch Korps Commandotroepen, the Belgian 5th Special Air Service, or Greek Sacred Band. In 1944 the SAS Brigade was formed from the British 1st and 2nd SAS, the French 3rd and 4th SAS, the Belgian 5th SAS; the French Army special forces still use the
A fishing trawler is a commercial fishing vessel designed to operate fishing trawls. Trawling is a method of fishing that involves dragging or pulling a trawl through the water behind one or more trawlers. Trawls are fishing nets that are pulled along the bottom of the sea or in midwater at a specified depth. A trawler may operate two or more trawl nets simultaneously. There are many variants of trawling gear, they vary according to local traditions, bottom conditions, how large and powerful the trawling boats are. A trawling boat can be a small open boat with only 30 horsepower or a large factory ship with 10,000 horsepower. Trawl variants include beam trawls, large-opening midwater trawls, large bottom trawls, such as "rock hoppers" that are rigged with heavy rubber wheels that let the net crawl over rocky bottom. During the 17th century, the British developed the Dogger, an early type of sailing trawler operated in the North Sea; the Dogger takes its name from the Dutch word dogger. Doggers were slow but sturdy.
The modern fishing trawler was developed in the 19th century, at the English fishing port of Brixham. By the early 19th century, the fishermen at Brixham needed to expand their fishing area further than before due to the ongoing depletion of stocks, occurring in the overfished waters of South Devon; the Brixham trawler that evolved there was of a sleek build and had a tall gaff rig, which gave the vessel sufficient speed to make long distance trips out to the fishing grounds in the ocean. They were sufficiently robust to be able to tow large trawls in deep water; the great trawling fleet that built up at Brixham, earned the village the title of'Mother of Deep-Sea Fisheries'. This revolutionary design made large scale trawling in the ocean possible for the first time, resulting in a massive migration of fishermen from the ports in the South of England, to villages further north, such as Scarborough, Grimsby and Yarmouth, that were points of access to the large fishing grounds in the Atlantic Ocean.
The small village of Grimsby grew to become the'largest fishing port in the world' by the mid 19th century. With the tremendous expansion in the fishing industry, the Grimsby Dock Company was opened in 1854 as the first modern fishing port; the facilities incorporated many innovations of the time – the dock gates and cranes were operated by hydraulic power, the 300-foot Grimsby Dock Tower was built to provide a head of water with sufficient pressure by William Armstrong. The elegant Brixham trawler spread across the world. By the end of the 19th century, there were over 3,000 fishing trawlers in commission in Britain, with 1,000 at Grimsby; these trawlers were sold to fishermen including from the Netherlands and Scandinavia. Twelve trawlers went on to form the nucleus of the German fishing fleet; the earliest steam powered fishing boats first appeared in the 1870s and used the trawl system of fishing as well as lines and drift nets. These were large boats 80–90 feet in length with a beam of around 20 feet.
They travelled at 9 -- 11 knots. The earliest purpose built fishing vessels were designed and made by David Allan in Leith in March 1875, when he converted a drifter to steam power. In 1877, he built; this vessel was Pioneer LH854. She was of wooden construction with two masts and carried a gaff rigged main and mizen using booms, a single foresail. Allan argued; however local fishermen saw power trawling as a threat. Allan built a total of ten boats at Leith between 1877 and 1881. Twenty-one boats were completed at Granton, his last vessel being Degrave in 1886. Most of these were sold to foreign owners in France, Belgium and the West Indies; the first steam boats were made of wood, but steel hulls were soon introduced and were divided into watertight compartments. They were well designed for the crew with a large building that contained the wheelhouse and the deckhouse; the boats built in the 20th century only had a mizzen sail, used to help steady the boat when its nets were out. The main function of the mast was now as a crane for lifting the catch ashore.
It had a steam capstan on the foredeck near the mast for hauling nets. These boats had a crew of twelve made up of a skipper, driver and nine deck hands. Steam fishing boats had many advantages, they were about 20 ft longer than the sailing vessels so they could carry more nets and catch more fish. This was important, as the market was growing at the beginning of the 20th century, they could travel faster and further and with greater freedom from weather and tide. Because less time was spent travelling to and from the fishing grounds, more time could be spent fishing; the steam boats gained the highest prices for their fish, as they could return to harbour with their fresh catch. Steam trawlers were introduced at Hull in the 1880s. In 1890 it was estimated; the steam drifter was not used in the herring fishery until 1897. The last sailing fishing trawler was built in 1925 in Grimsby. Trawler designs adapted as the way they were powered changed from sail to coal-fired steam by World War I to diesel and turbines by the end of World War II.
The first trawlers fished over the side, rather than over the stern. In 1947, the company Christian Salvesen, based in Leith, refitted a surplus Algerine-class minesw
A yacht is a watercraft used for pleasure or sports. The term originates from the Dutch word jacht, was referencing light fast sailing vessels that the Dutch Republic navy used to pursue pirates and other transgressors around and into the shallow waters of the Low Countries; the yacht was popularized by Charles II of England as a pleasure or recreation vessel following his restoration in 1660. Today's yachts differ from other vessels by their leisure purpose. A yacht is any power vessel used for pleasure, cruising or racing. A yacht does not have to have luxury accommodations to be a yacht, in fact many racing yachts are stripped out vessels with the minimum of accommodations; the term'sailboat' is sometimes used in America to differentiate sail from powerboat. See also'yachting'. There are about 6,500 yacht over 24m on the market. Charter yachts are a subset of yachts used for pleasure, cruising or racing, but run as a business for profit. Ownership can be corporate; the paid crews of these vessels call themselves'yachties'.
Yacht lengths range from 7 metres up to dozens of meters. A luxury craft smaller than 12 metres is more called a cabin cruiser or a cruiser. A superyacht refers to any yacht above 24 m and a megayacht refers to any yacht over 50 metres. A few countries have a special flag worn by recreational boats or ships, which indicates the nationality of the ship. Although inspired by the national flag, the yacht ensign does not always correspond with the civil or merchant ensign of the state in question; the US yacht ensign for example, has a circle of 13 stars and a fouled anchor in the canton instead of the 50 stars, being quite different from the ensign of the United States, the flag of the United States. Yacht ensigns differ from merchant ensigns in order to signal that the yacht is not carrying cargo that requires a customs declaration. Carrying commercial cargo on a boat with a yacht ensign is deemed to be smuggling in many jurisdictions; until the 1950s all yachts were made of wood or steel, but a much wider range of materials is used today.
Although wood hulls are still in production, the most common construction material is fibreglass, followed by aluminium, carbon fibre, ferrocement. The use of wood has changed and is no longer limited to traditional board-based methods, but include modern products such as plywood, skinned balsa and epoxy resins. Wood is used by hobbyists or wooden boat purists when building an individual boat. Apart from materials like carbon fibre and aramid fibre, spruce veneers laminated with epoxy resins have the best weight-to-strength ratios of all boatbuilding materials. Sailing yachts can range in overall length from about 6 metres to well over 30 metres, where the distinction between a yacht and a ship becomes blurred. Most owned yachts fall in the range of about 7 metres -14 metres. In the United States, sailors tend to refer to smaller yachts as sailboats, while referring to the general sport of sailing as yachting. Within the limited context of sailboat racing, a yacht is any sailing vessel taking part in a race, regardless of size.
Many modern racing sail yachts have efficient sail-plans, most notably the Bermuda rig, that allow them to sail close to the wind. This capability is the result of a hull design oriented towards this capability. Day sailing yachts are small, at under 6 metres in length. Sometimes called sailing dinghies, they have a retractable keel, centreboard, or daggerboard. Most day sailing yachts do not have a cabin, as they are designed for hourly or daily use and not for overnight journeys, they may have a'cuddy' cabin, where the front part of the hull has a raised solid roof to provide a place to store equipment or to offer shelter from wind or spray. Weekender yachts are larger, at under 9.5 metres in length. They may have twin keels or lifting keels such as in trailer sailers; this allows them to operate in shallow waters, if needed "dry out"—become beached as the tide falls. This is important in UK waters; the hull shape allows the boat to sit upright. Such boats are designed to undertake short journeys lasting more than 2 or 3 days.
In coastal areas, long trips may be undertaken in a series of short hops. Weekenders have only a simple cabin consisting of a single "saloon" with bedspace for two to four people. Clever use of ergonomics allows space in the saloon for a galley and navigation equipment. There is limited space for stores of food. Most are single-masted "Bermuda sloops", with a single foresail of the jib or genoa type and a single mainsail; some are gaff rigged. The smallest of this type called pocket yachts or pocket cruisers, trailer sailers can be transported on special trailers. Cruising yachts are by far the most common yacht in private use, making up most of the 7–14-metre range; these vessels can be quite complex in design, as they need a balance between docile handling qualities, interior space, good light-wind performance and on-board comfort. The huge range of such craft, from dozens of builders worldwide, makes it hard to give a single illustrative description. However, most favor a teardrop-planform hull, with a fine bow, a wide, flat bottom and deep single-fin keel with ample beam to give good stability.
Most are single-masted Bermuda rigged sloops, with a single fo
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Rongelap Atoll RONG-gə-lap is a coral atoll of 61 islands in the Pacific Ocean, forms a legislative district of the Ralik Chain of the Marshall Islands. Its total land area is 8 square miles, it encloses a lagoon with an area of 1,000 square miles. It is notable for its close proximity to US hydrogen bomb tests in 1954, was devastated by fallout from the Castle Bravo test; the population was evacuated from Rongelap following the test due to high radiation levels, however according to the most recent census in 2011 it has begun to recover with about eighty people living on the atoll. The first sighting recorded by Europeans was by Spanish navigator Álvaro de Saavedra on 1 January 1528. Together with Utirik and Toke atolls, they were charted as Islas de los Reyes due to the proximity of Epiphany. Fourteen years it was visited by the Spanish expedition of Ruy López de Villalobos. Rongelap Atoll was claimed by the Empire of Germany along with the rest of the Marshall Islands in 1884, the Germans established a trading outpost.
After World War I, the island came under the South Pacific Mandate of the Empire of Japan. Following the end of World War II, Rongelap came under the control of the United States as part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. 1946: United States Navy evacuates Bikini Atoll Islanders prior to nuclear weapons tests. March 1, 1954: United States detonates 15-megaton hydrogen bomb unaware that fallout will reach Rongelap. March 3, 1954: US evacuates Rongelap inhabitants to Kwajalein Atoll. Islanders have vomiting, skin burns, some experience hair loss. 1955-1957: Internally displaced Rongelapese inhabitants request permission from the US Government to return to their atoll. 1957: Atomic Energy Commission declares Rongelap safe for re-habitation. US scientists note: "The habitation of these people on the island will afford most valuable ecological radiation data on human beings."1958: Rates of Rongelap miscarriages and stillbirths twice the rate of unexposed women. 1963: First thyroid tumors begin to appear.
1971: Independent Japanese medical team invited by Rongelap magistrate denied permissionto visit by US citing "visa problems." 1976: Report finds 69% of Rongelap children who were under 10 in 1954 have developed thyroid tumors.1984: Marshall Islands senator Jeton Anjain requests evacuation assistance from Greenpeace. 1985: Rainbow Warrior makes three trips to evacuate the Rongelap community to Majetto and Ebeye islands in Kwajalein Atoll. 1986: Nuclear test compensation approved, setting aside a $US150 million trust fund. 1989: United States Department of Energy determines Rongelap safe for habitation. 1994: Independent scientific studyfinds that depending on dietary restrictions, 25 to 75% of Rongelap population would exceed the 100 mrem maximum annual exposure limit set. 2000: Marshall Islands government submits Change of Circumstances petition asking for more compensation than the $US150m. 2005: Bush Administration determines it has no legal responsibility to provide additional nuclear test compensation.
2007: The Nuclear Claims Tribunal awards Rongelap more than $1 billion as fair damages for its land damage claim, since the $US150m trust fund is completely depleted this compensation can never be paid.2009: United States government reasserts its position that it has satisfactorily compensated Rongelap victims. From 1946 through 1958 the United States military conducted numerous atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, including hydrogen bomb tests at Bikini Atoll, about 120 kilometres from Rongelap Atoll. On March 1, 1954, the testing of the Castle Bravo hydrogen device produced an explosion, 2½ times more powerful than predicted, produced unexpected amounts of fallout that resulted in widespread radioactive contamination; the blast cloud contaminated more than 7,000 square miles of the surrounding Pacific Ocean including some of the inhabited surrounding islands including Rongerik Atoll, Rongelap Atoll and Utirik Atoll. Irradiated debris fell up to 2 centimetres deep over the island. A United States military medical team visited the island with geiger counters the day after the fallout, but left without telling the islanders of the danger they had been exposed to.
All the inhabitants experienced severe radiation sickness, including itchiness, sore skin, vomiting and fatigue. Their symptoms included burning eyes and swelling of the neck and legs; the inhabitants were forced to abandon the islands, leaving all their belongings, three days after the test. They were relocated to Kwajalein for medical treatment. Six days after the Castle Bravo test, the U. S government set up a secret project to study the medical effects of the weapon on the residents of the Marshall Islands; the United States was subsequently accused of having used the inhabitants in medical research to study the effects of nuclear exposure. Until that time, the United States Atomic Energy Commission had given little thought to the potential impact of widespread fallout contamination and health and ecological impacts beyond the formally designated boundary of the test site. In 1957, three years the United States government declared the area'clean and safe' and allowed the islanders to return, though they were told to stick to canned foods and avoid the northern islets of the atoll.
Evidence of continued contamination mounted, however, as many residents developed thyroid-tumors, many children died of leukemia. The magistrate of Rongelap, John Anjain, whose own son died of leukemia, app
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala