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Rainbow flag

A rainbow flag is a multicolored flag consisting of the colors of the rainbow. The designs differ, but many of the colors are based on the seven spectral colors of red, yellow, blue and violet that compose the visible light spectrum; the actual color attributed as "blue" is cyan. There are several independent rainbow flags in use today; the pride flag represents LGBT pride. The international peace flag is popular in Italy; the International Co-operative Alliance adopted a rainbow flag in 1925. A similar flag is used in Andean indigenism in Peru and Bolivia to represent the legacy of the Inca Empire. American Revolutionary War writer Thomas Paine proposed that a rainbow flag be used as a maritime flag, to signify neutral ships in time of war. A flag with a seven-striped rainbow design is used in Peru and Ecuador as a symbol of native ethnic groups and culture, is anachronistically associated with the Tawantin Suyu, or Inca territory. Although believed in Peru to be a flag of the Incan Empire, the oldest known rainbow flag dates back only to 18th century and was used by Túpac Amaru II during his indigenous revolt against the Spanish.

María Rostworowski, a Peruvian historian known for her extensive and detailed publications about Peruvian Ancient Cultures and the Inca Empire, said about this: "I bet my life, the Inca never had that flag, it never existed, no chronicler mentioned it". The National Academy of Peruvian History has stated on the topic: "The official use of the wrongly called'Tawantinsuyu flag' is a mistake. In the pre-Hispanic Andean world the concept of flags did not exist, it did not belong to their historic context". – National Academy of Peruvian History The Flag of Cusco was introduced in 1978 and is still the official city emblem. In Ecuador, a rainbow flag is used by the Pachakutik political party, composed of left-wing indigenous people. Rainbow flag proposed after Armenia regained independence after World War I, it was designed by famous Armenian artist Martiros Saryan. It was not adopted as the country instead went with three stripes using the colors used in a past Armenian kingdom; the artists used muted, richer colors reflecting Armenian carpets.

The leftist Herri Batasuna party used a rainbow version of the Ikurriña from 1978 until it was dissolved in 2001. In 1961, Rabbi Zalman Schachter-Shalomi designed the rainbow tallit as a symbol of the Kabalah for the members of the Jewish Bene Ohr, it is a vertically presented rainbow, with each colour separated by black stripes of varying thicknesses. The colors represent aspects of God. A flag to represent Buddhism was designed in Sri Lanka in 1885 and modified to its current form in 1886. In 1950 it was adopted by the World Fellowship of Buddhists to be a symbol of all forms of Buddhism around the world, it consists of six vertical colored segments, the first five of which are blue, red and orange, while the sixth is a combination of the first five. Variant colors are found. A seven-colour rainbow flag is a common symbol of the international cooperative movement; the rainbow flag has been the cooperative emblem since 1921 when the International Co-operative Congress of World Co-op Leaders met in Basel, Switzerland to identify and define the growing cooperative movement’s common values and ideals to help unite co-ops around the world.

In Essen, Germany in 1922, the International Co-operative Alliance designed an international co-op symbol and a flag for the first "Co-operators' Day,", held in July 1923. After some experiments with different designs, a famous French cooperator, Professor Charles Gide, suggested using the seven colours of the rainbow for the flag, he pointed out that the rainbow symbolized unity in diversity and the power of light and progress. The first co-op rainbow flag was completed in 1924 and was adopted as an official symbol of the international cooperative movement in 1925. In 2001, the ICA's official flag was changed from a rainbow flag to a rainbow logo flag on a white field, to promote and strengthen the cooperative image, but still use the rainbow image. Other organizations sometimes use the traditional rainbow flag as a symbol of cooperation. Like the rainbow, this flag is a symbol of peace; the seven colours from flags around the world fly in harmony. Each of the seven colours in the co-operative flag have been assigned the following meaning: red: stands for courage.

Dark blue: suggests pessimism: a reminder that less fortunate people have needs that may be met through the benefits of cooperation. Violet: is the colour of warmth and friendship; the ICA has been flying a flag with its official logo since April 2001, when its Board decided to replace the traditional rainbow flag. Its use by a number of non-cooperative groups led to confusion in several countries around the world. Another variation of rainbow flag is used by Jewish Autonomous Oblast, situated in the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia, by the Chinese border. Proportions 2:3. Adopted first of October 1996; the Jewish Autonomous Oblast has a flag with a seven-colour rainbow. The number of colours is meant to symbolize the seven-branched Jewish Menorah; the rainbow flag was popularized as a symbol of the

Old Hampden Academy Building

The Old Hampden Academy Building is a historic school building on United States Route 1A in Hampden, Maine. Built in 1842-43, it was the home of Hampden Academy, now the town's public high school, for many years; the building is now part the campus of a local elementary school. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975 for its educational and architectural significance; the former Hampden Academy building stands on the west side of US Route 1A in Hampden village, just south of its junction with Cottage Street. It stands at the back of a semicircular drive, now completely surrounded by parking for the McGraw School, whose modern section is attached to the rear of this building; the academy building is a ​2 1⁄2-story brick building, with a front-facing gable roof and granite foundation. A square tower rises above the roof ridge, with a short first stage, a taller belfry stage with louvered round-arch openings; the front facade is symmetrical, three bays wide, with a projecting entry vestibule in the center bay, a pedimented gable with a half-round louver at its center.

The entry has pilasters at all four corners and the entrance is recessed in a paneled opening, with a balustrade balcony above. Hampden Academy was established in 1803 and constructed its first building on this site in 1806; that building was destroyed by fire in February 1842, the present building was built soon thereafter. It is one of a handful of brick Greek Revival academy buildings, resembling the Bloomfield Academy in Skowhegan and the Somerset Academy in Athens, it was damaged by fire in 1854, closed due to low enrollment in the 1880s. It has been used since as a classroom facility by the Hampden Academy and the local school district. National Register of Historic Places listings in Penobscot County, Maine


Burnupena is a genus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Buccinidae, the true whelks. Species within the genus Burnupena include: Burnupena catarrhacta Burnupena cincta Burnupena denseliriata Dempster & Branch, 1999 Burnupena lagenaria Burnupena papyracea Burnupena pubescens Burnupena rotunda Dempster & Branch, 1999Species brought into synonymy Burnupena delalandii: synonym of Burnupena catarrhacta Burnupena dunkeri]': synonym of Burnupena catarrhacta Burnupena limbosa: synonym of Burnupena cincta limbosa Burnupena tigrina: synonym of Burnupena pubescens Iredale, T.. Molluscan nomenclatural problems and solutions.- No. 1. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London. 13: 28-40

Schweizer Radio und Fernsehen

Schweizer Radio und Fernsehen is a Swiss broadcasting company, created on 1 January 2011, through the merger of radio company, Schweizer Radio DRS and television company, Schweizer Fernsehen. The new business unit of SRG SSR, became the largest electronic media house of German-speaking Switzerland. About 2,150 employees work for SRF in the four main studios in Bern and Zürich. Radio SRF 1 – general programming Radio SRF 2 Kultur – cultural, intellectual programming and jazz music Radio SRF 3 – youth programming Radio SRF 4 News – news Radio SRF Musikwelle – pop music and schlager Radio SRF Virus – alternative music to Radio SRF 3 SRF 1 SRF zwei SRF info Television in Switzerland Official website


Boer is Dutch and Afrikaans for "farmer". In South African contexts, "Boers" refers to the descendants of the proto-Afrikaans-speaking settlers of the eastern Cape frontier in Southern Africa during the 18th and much of the 19th century. From 1652 to 1795 the Dutch East India Company controlled this area, but the United Kingdom incorporated it into the British Empire in 1806. In addition, the term "Boeren" applied to those who left the Cape Colony during the 19th century to settle in the Orange Free State, to a lesser extent Natal, they emigrated from the Cape to escape British rule and to get away from the constant border wars between the British imperial government and the indigenous peoples on the eastern frontier. The term Afrikaner is used in modern-day South Africa for the Afrikaans-speaking white population of South Africa, the descendants of boer settlers and the bulk of White Africans; the Dutch East India Company had been formed in the Dutch Republic in 1602, the Dutch had entered keenly into the competition for the colonial and imperial trade of commerce in Southeast Asia.

The end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648 saw European soldiers and refugees dispersed across Europe. Immigrants from Germany and Switzerland journeyed to Holland in the hope of finding employment at the VOC. During the same year one of their ships was stranded near Cape Town in Table Bay, the shipwrecked crew had to forage for themselves on shore for several months, they were so impressed with the natural resources of the country that on their return to the Republic, they represented to the directors of the company the great advantages to the Dutch Eastern trade to be had from a properly provided and fortified station of call at the Cape. The result was that in 1652, a Dutch expedition led by surgeon Jan van Riebeek constructed a fort and laid out vegetable gardens at Table Bay. Landing at Table Bay, Van Riebeek took control over Cape Town, after ten years and one month of governing the settlement, in 1662, Jan van Riebeeck stepped down as Commander at the Cape; the VOC favoured the idea of freemen at the Cape and many settlers requested to be discharged in order to become free burghers, as a result Jan van Riebeeck approved the notion on favorable conditions and earmarked two areas near the Liesbeek River for farming purposes in 1657.

The two areas which were allocated to the freemen, for agricultural purposes, were named'Groeneveld' and'Dutch Garden'. These areas were separated by the Amstel River. Nine of the best applicants were selected to use the land for agricultural purposes; the freemen or free burghers as they were afterwards termed, thus became subjects, were no longer servants, of the Company. In 1671 the Dutch first purchased land from the native Khoikhoi beyond the limits of the fort built by Van Riebeek; as the result of the investigations of a 1685 commissioner, the government worked to recruit a greater variety of immigrants to develop a stable community. They formed part of the class of "vrijlieden" known as "vrijburgers", former Company employees who remained at the Cape after serving their contracts. A large number of vrijburgers became independent farmers and applied for grants of land, as well as loans of seed and tools, from the Company administration; the authorities of the East India Company had been endeavouring to induce gardeners and small farmers to emigrate from Europe to South Africa, but with little success.

Now and again they were able to send out to their eastern possessions a few families who were attracted by the tales of wealth. But the Cape had little charm in comparison. In October 1670, the Chamber of Amsterdam announced that a few families were willing to leave for the Cape and Mauritius during the following December. Among the new names of burghers at this time are found those of Jacob and Dirk van Niekerk, Johannes van As, Francois Villion, Jacob Brouwer, Jan van Eden, Hermanus Potgieter, Albertus Gildenhuis, Jacobus van den Berg. During 1688–1689, the colony was strengthened by the arrival of nearly two hundred French Huguenots. Political refugees from the religious wars in France, following the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, they were settled at Stellenbosch, Drakenstein and Paarl; the influence of this small body of immigrants on the character of the Dutch settlers was marked. The Company in 1701 directed; this resulted in the Huguenots assimilating by the middle of the 18th century, with a loss to the community in the use and knowledge of French.

The little settlement spread eastwards, in 1754 the country as far as Algoa Bay was included in the colony. At this time the European colonists numbered eight to ten thousand, they possessed numerous slaves, grew wheat in sufficient quantity to make it a commodity crop for export, were famed for the good quality of their wines. But their chief wealth was in cattle, they enjoyed considerable prosperity. Through the latter half of the 17th and the whole of the 18th century, troubles arose between the colonists and the government; the administration of the Dutch East India Company was despotic. Its policies were not directed to using it to profit the Company; the Company closed the colony against free immigration, kept the whole of the trade in its own hands, combined the administrative and judicial powers in one body, prescribed to the farmers the nature of the crops they were to grow, demanded a large part of their produce as a kind of tax, made other exacti

2005–06 Malaysia Premier League

The 2005–06 Liga Premier known as the TM Liga Premier due to sponsorship reasons, was the third season of the Liga Premier, the second-tier professional football league in Malaysia. The season began on 4 December 2005 and concluded on 22 May 2006; the champions for the 2005–06 season was Kedah which defeated Malacca during the final with a score of 1–0. Both clubs were promoted to 2006–07 Liga Super. Note: Due to exclusion of Public Bank, relegated from 2005 Liga Super and MK Land, who were suspended for 5 years from all competitions due to pulling out of the Malaysian League, the relegations of Malacca and PDRM were revoked and both teams remained in the Liga Premier for 2005–06 season. Jenderata changed its name to UPB to reflect its ownership. For the 2005-06 season, the Football Association of Brunei entered a club team, DPMM, rather than the squad from national team, the Brunei