Rainer Maria Rilke

René Karl Wilhelm Johann Josef Maria Rilke, better known as Rainer Maria Rilke, was a Bohemian-Austrian poet and novelist. He is "widely recognized as one of the most lyrically intense German-language poets", he wrote both verse and lyrical prose. Several critics have described Rilke's work as "mystical", his writings include one novel, several collections of poetry and several volumes of correspondence in which he invokes images that focus on the difficulty of communion with the ineffable in an age of disbelief and anxiety. These themes position him as a transitional figure between modernist writers. Rilke travelled extensively throughout Europe and, in his years, settled in Switzerland — settings that were key to the genesis and inspiration for many of his poems. While Rilke is most known for his contributions to German literature, over 400 poems were written in French and dedicated to the canton of Valais in Switzerland. Among English-language readers, his best-known works include the poetry collections Duino Elegies and Sonnets to Orpheus, the semi-autobiographical novel The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge, a collection of ten letters, published after his death under the title Letters to a Young Poet.

In the 20th century, his work found new audiences through use by New Age theologians and self-help authors and frequent quotations by television programs and motion pictures. In the United States, Rilke remains among the more best-selling poets, he was born René Karl Wilhelm Johann Josef Maria Rilke in capital of Bohemia. His childhood and youth in Prague were not happy, his father, Josef Rilke, became a railway official after an unsuccessful military career. His mother, Sophie Entz, came from a well-to-do Prague family, the Entz-Kinzelbergers, who lived in a house on the Herrengasse 8, where René spent many of his early years; the relationship between Phia and her only son was coloured by her mourning for an earlier child, a daughter who had died only one week old. During Rilke's early years, Phia acted as if she sought to recover the lost girl through the boy by treating him as if he were a girl. According to Rilke, he had to wear "fine clothes" and "was a plaything, like a big doll", his parents' marriage failed in 1884.

His parents pressured the poetically and artistically talented youth into entering a military academy in Sankt Pölten, Lower Austria, which he attended from 1886 until 1891, when he left owing to illness. He moved to Linz. Expelled from school in May 1892, the 16-year-old prematurely returned to Prague. From 1892 to 1895, he was tutored for the university entrance exam, which he passed in 1895; until 1896, he studied literature, art history, philosophy in Prague and Munich. In 1897 in Munich, Rainer Maria Rilke met and fell in love with the travelled, intellectual woman of letters, Lou Andreas-Salomé. Rilke changed his first name from "René" to "Rainer" at Salomé's urging, because she thought that name to be more masculine and Germanic, his relationship with this married woman, with whom he undertook two extensive trips to Russia, lasted until 1900. After their separation, Salomé continued to be Rilke's most important confidante until the end of his life. Having trained from 1912 to 1913 as a psychoanalyst with Sigmund Freud, she shared her knowledge of psychoanalysis with Rilke.

In 1898, Rilke undertook a journey lasting several weeks to Italy. In 1899, he travelled with Lou and her husband, Friedrich Carl Andreas, to Moscow where he met the novelist Leo Tolstoy. Between May and August 1900, a second journey to Russia, accompanied only by Lou, again took him to Moscow and Saint Petersburg, where he met the family of Boris Pasternak and Spiridon Drozhzhin, a peasant poet. Author Anna A. Tavis cites the cultures of Bohemia and Russia as the key influences on Rilke's poetry and consciousness. In 1900, Rilke stayed at the artists' colony at Worpswede, it was here. Their daughter Ruth was born in December 1901. In the summer of 1902, Rilke left home and travelled to Paris to write a monograph on the sculptor Auguste Rodin. Before long his wife joined Rilke there; the relationship between Rilke and Clara Westhoff continued for the rest of his life. At first, Rilke had a difficult time in Paris, an experience that he called upon in the first part of his only novel, The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge.

At the same time his encounter with modernism was stimulating: Rilke became involved with the sculpture of Rodin and the work of Paul Cézanne. For a time, he acted as Rodin's secretary lecturing and writing a long essay on Rodin and his work. Rodin taught him the value of objective observation and, under this influence, Rilke transformed his poetic style from the subjective and sometimes incantatory language of his earlier work into something quite new in European literature; the result was the New Poems, famous for the "thing-poems" expressing Rilke's rejuvenated artistic vision. During these years, Paris increa

Yongchuan International Tournament

The Yongchuan International Tournament is an invitational women's football tournament, originated in another women's football tournament Four Nations Tournament. It is staged annually in October in Yongchuan District, China; the Four Nations Tournament was held in Guangzhou annually before 2010. When Guangzhou renounced to host the tournament due to celebrating the 2010 Asian Games, Yongchuan District of Chongqing was agreed to take over the hosting right by the Chinese Football Association; the tournament was hosted by Yongchuan between January 2011 and January 2014. In 2015, considering for better preparation for the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup, CFA moved the tournament to Shenzhen, closer to China women's national football team's winter training base Guangzhou. Yongchuan International Tournament was set as a compensation. England and Australia were invited to the inaugural edition in October 2015; as of 2019

Tyva Kyzy

Tyva Kyzy is an all-female folk ensemble performing Tuvan throat-singing, under the direction of Choduraa Tumat. It is the only women's group in Tuva that performs all styles of Tuvan throat-singing. There were a few female throat-singers in Tuva's history, though it was believed a woman performing throat-singing could hurt her male relatives and cause her difficulties during childbirth. Choldak-Kara Oyun, the mother of the famous throat singer Soruktu Kyrgys and grandmother of the husband of famous Tuvan actress Kara-Kys Namzatovna Munzuk, throat-sang throughout her life while milking her cows, singing lullabies to her children and sometimes while she was drinking Tuvan araga. Close relatives of famous singers, like Khunashtaar-ool's niece and Kombu's daughter, performed khoomei in public more than once; the wife of the throat-singing shaman Bilek-ool from Manchurek, Aldinsova Tortoyavna, said that she has always sung khoomei "because it was innate to from birth." She could not resist singing khoomei after she got married and had children, sang khoomei in public in the 1950s and 1960s.

But her sister, who sang khoomei as a girl, gave up when others reminded her of the supposed dangers. In the Soviet era it was rare for women to perform on stage, except during Republican festivals. Valentina Salchak performed throat-singing in public in 1979. Valentina Chuldum from Mongun-Taiga toured European countries as a throat-singer in the early 1990s. With the start of the International Symposium of Khoomei women could sing publicly there. Since its inception in 1998, Tyva Kyzy has participated in numerous international festivals of world music in Europe and Japan, they toured the United States in October 2005. Tyva Kyzy performs the five main styles of khöömei with traditional female vocal styles, they utilize a range of folk instruments including their own signature instrument the chadagan. Several members perform in the Tuvan National Orchestra and member Ayana Mongush conducts the orchestra, their songs are a blend of contemporary and traditional culture, some old and some written and composed by the group or for them.

Tyva Kyzy performs a number of songs relating to the life of women, songs of their elders and of the land. They were recognized as the best players of national instruments in the Ustu-Hure Festival in Chadan, Tyva; the group fosters growth and confidence in women and girls by teaching in Tuvan schools and leading workshops internationally. They aim to strengthen the livelihood of female khöömei and add an important new element and history to the development of Tuvan music. Female khöömei are still considered sometimes controversial in Tuva. Tyva Kyzy is at the forefront of the effort to establish women among the great Tuvan throat singers, their first CD, "setkilemden sergek yr-dyr" was released in March 2006. Their second CD, "igi unu - iyem unu" was released in 2009. Both CDs are available from the Tuva Trader website. Review from Asian Art Museum San Francisco Concert. Article about throat-singing, featuring Tyva Kyzy, by Sarah Wallin. Tyva Kyzy - Russian page