Tim O'Brien (author)
In addition, he is known for his war novel, Going After Cacciato, written about wartime Vietnam. OBrien has held the chair at the MFA program of Texas State University–San Marcos every other year since the 2003-2004 year. OBrien was born in Austin, when he was seven, his family, including a younger sister and brother, moved to Worthington, in southern Minnesota. Worthington had a influence on O’Brien’s imagination and early development as an author. The town is located on Lake Okabena in the portion of the state and serves as the setting for some of his stories. OBrien earned his BA in Political Science from Macalester College, where he was student body president, in 1968. That same year he was drafted into the United States Army and was sent to Vietnam and he served in the division that contained a unit involved in the infamous My Lai Massacre the year before his arrival. OBrien has said that when his unit got to the area around My Lai and we did not know there had been a massacre there a year earlier.
The news about that came out later, while we were there. Upon completing his tour of duty, OBrien went on to school at Harvard University. His writing career was launched in 1973 with the release of If I Die in a Combat Zone, Box Me Up and Ship Me Home, in this memoir, OBrien writes, Can the foot soldier teach anything important about war, merely for having been there. While OBrien insists it is not his job or his place to discuss the politics of the Vietnam War, he does occasionally pass some basic commentary. Speaking years about his upbringing and the war, OBrien called his hometown a town that congratulates itself, day after day, on its own ignorance of the world, a town that got us into Vietnam. Uh, the people in that town sent me to that war, you know, contrasting the continuing American search for U. S. MIA/POWs in Vietnam with the reality of the Vietnamese war dead, he calls the American perspective A perverse and outrageous double standard. What if the Vietnamese were to ask us, or to us, to locate.
Numbers alone make it impossible,100,000 is a conservative estimate, from my own sliver of experience — one year at war, one set of eyes — I can testify to the lasting anonymity of a great many Vietnamese dead. One attribute of OBriens work is the blur between fiction and reality, labeled verisimilitude, his work contains actual details of the situations he experienced. Although this is a literary technique, his conscious, explicit
Minnesota is a state in the midwestern and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11,1858, the state has a large number of lakes, and is known by the slogan Land of 10,000 Lakes. Its official motto is LÉtoile du Nord, Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 21st most populous of the U. S. Minnesota is known for its progressive political orientation and its high rate of civic participation and voter turnout. Until European settlement, Minnesota was inhabited by the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe, in recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, and Latin America has broadened its historic demographic and cultural composition. Minnesotas standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state.
Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel. The state is part of the U. S. region known as the Upper Midwest and it shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, with 86,943 square miles, or approximately 2.25 percent of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has some of the Earths oldest rocks, gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean, the roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1, in more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the landscape of the state and sculpted its terrain. The Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago and these glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock.
This area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift, much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago and its bed created the fertile Red River valley, and its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling. Minnesota is geologically quiet today, it experiences earthquakes infrequently, the states high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, which is only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesotas northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed, precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean
Rainy River, Ontario
Rainy River is a town in north-western Ontario, southeast of Lake of the Woods. Rainy River is situated on the eponymous Rainy River, which part of the Ontario-Minnesota segment of the Canada–US border. Opposite Rainy River across the river is the town of Baudette, the two towns are connected by the Baudette – Rainy River International Bridge. Rainy River is at the terminus of Ontario Highway 11. The small village took the name Beaver Mills until it was incorporated as a town, the only method of transport at the time was by Steam ship so parts of the bridge arrived addressed to Rainy River. The town eventually accepted this as their name, the town grew rapidly because of the thriving lumber industry and its two large Mills and bolstered by the Railway. In 1910, a forest fire known as The Great Fire of 1910 originating in northern Minnesota swept north, the mill industry relocated as a result, contributing to a drop in population from more than 2000 people to its current less than 800. However, due to the railroad, since taken over by Canadian National Railways, the growing hunting/fishing tourism industry, the town remained firmly established
Northwestern Ontario is a secondary region of Northern Ontario which lies north and west of Lake Superior, and west of Hudson Bay and James Bay. It includes most of subarctic Ontario and its western boundary is the Canadian province of Manitoba, which disputed Ontarios claim to the western part of the region. Ontarios right to Northwestern Ontario was determined by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in 1884, for some purposes, Northwestern Ontario and Northeastern Ontario are treated as separate regions, while for other purposes they are grouped together as Northern Ontario. Northwestern Ontario consists of the districts of Kenora, Rainy River and Thunder Bay, major communities in the region include Thunder Bay, Dryden, Fort Frances, Sioux Lookout, Red Lake and Atikokan. There are several dozen First Nations in Northwestern Ontario, Northwestern Ontario is divided between the Eastern Time Zone and the Central Time Zone. Northwestern Ontario is the provinces most sparsely populated region —54 per cent of the entire population lives in the Thunder Bay census metropolitan area alone.
Aside from the city of Thunder Bay, Kenora is the other municipality in the entire region with a population of greater than 10,000 people. Northwestern Ontarians tend to lean left politically, mainly due to the history and influence of unions, a growing environmental ethic. At the federal level, Northwestern Ontario is represented by Liberal MPs Bob Nault in the Kenora District, Don Rusnak in Thunder Bay—Rainy River, provincially, NDP Sarah Campbell represents Kenora—Rainy River while Liberals Bill Mauro and Michael Gravelle represent Thunder Bay—Atikokan and Thunder Bay—Superior North respectively. In 2005, some residents of the region expressed dissatisfaction at the level of attention paid to the region by the provincial government, Northern Ontario Northeastern Ontario Gateway to Northwestern Ontario History
It is the largest lake within southern Canadas borders, and it is part of the most undeveloped large watershed of southern Canada. It is the eleventh-largest freshwater lake on Earth, the lakes east side has pristine boreal forests and rivers that are being promoted as a potential United Nations World Heritage Park. The lake is elongated and is 416 km from north to south, with sandy beaches, large limestone cliffs. Manitoba Hydro uses the lake as one of the largest reservoirs in the world, there are many islands, most of them undeveloped. The lakes watershed measures about 982,900 square kilometres, and covers much of Alberta, Manitoba, northwestern Ontario and its drainage is about 40 times larger than its surface, a ratio bigger than any other large lake in the world. Given the massive watershed and the small volume of water in the lake. It is not surprising to find it showing the effects of materials being added to it as a result of activities in the watershed. Lake Winnipeg drains northward into the Nelson River at an annual rate of 2,066 cubic metres per second, and forms part of the Hudson Bay watershed.
This watershed area was known as Ruperts Land when the Hudsons Bay Company was chartered in 1670. The Saskatchewan River flows in from the west through Cedar Lake, the Red River flows in from the south, the Dauphin River enters from the west draining Lake Manitoba and Lake Winnipegosis. The Bloodvein River, Berens River, Poplar River and the Manigotagan River flow in from the side of the lake which is within the Canadian Shield. A number of beaches are found on the southern end of the lake. The phosphorus levels are approaching a point that could be dangerous for human health, the Global Nature Fund has declared Lake Winnipeg as the threatened lake of the year for 2013. In 2015, there was an explosion of zebra mussels in Lake Winnipeg. The mussels are devastating to the opportunities of the lake. Lake Winnipeg and Lake Manitoba are remnants of prehistoric Glacial Lake Agassiz, the area between the lakes is called the Interlake Region, and the whole region is called the Manitoba Lowlands. It is believed Henry Kelsey was the first European to see the lake and he adopted the Cree language name for the lake, wīnipēk, meaning muddy waters.
La Vérendrye referred to the lake as Ouinipigon when he built the first forts in the area in the 1730s, the Red River Colony to its south took the lakes name for Winnipeg, the capital of Manitoba
Hudson's Bay Company
The Hudsons Bay Company, commonly referred to as The Bay, is a Canadian retail business group. HBCs head office is in the Simpson Tower in Toronto, the company is listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange under the symbol HBC. It was once the worlds largest landowner, with the area of the Hudson Bay watershed, known as Ruperts Land, having 15% of North American acreage. From its long-time headquarters at York Factory on Hudson Bay, the company controlled the fur trade throughout much of the English, undertaking early exploration, its traders and trappers forged relationships with many groups of aboriginal peoples. Its network of trading posts formed the nucleus for official authority in areas of Western Canada. By the mid-19th century, the company evolved into a business selling everything from furs to fine homeware. They quickly introduced a new type of client to the HBC – one that shopped for pleasure and not with skins, in July 2008, HBC was acquired by NRDC Equity Partners, which owns the upmarket American department store Lord & Taylor.
From 2008 to 2012, the HBC was run through a company of NRDC, Hudsons Bay Trading Company. Since 2012, the HBC directly oversees its Canadian subsidiaries Hudsons Bay and Home Outfitters, on 29 July 2013, the HBC announced its takeover of Saks, Inc. operator of the Saks Fifth Avenue brand. The merger was completed on 3 November 2013, in September 2015, HBC acquired the German department store chain Galeria Kaufhof and its Belgian subsidiary from Metro Group for $3.2 billion U. S. In May 2016, HBC announced it would expand to the Netherlands by taking over up to 20 former Vroom & Dreesmann sites by 2017, v&D was an historic Dutch department store chain that went bankrupt and shut down in early 2016. HBC said the expansion would cost CAD $340 million and create 2,500 jobs in the stores, the Dutch stores would operate under the Hudsons Bay and Saks Off Fifth brands. In January 2016, HBC announced it would expand deeper in the space with its acquisition of online flash sales site. In the 17th century the French had a de facto monopoly on the Canadian fur trade with their colony of New France.
Assuming this was Hudson Bay, they sought French backing for a plan to set up a trading post on the Bay, despite this refusal, in 1659 Radisson and Groseilliers set out for the upper Great Lakes basin. A year returned with premium furs, evidence of the potential of the Hudson Bay region. Subsequently, they were arrested for trading without a licence and fined, determined to establish trade in the Hudson Bay and Groseilliers approached a group of businessmen in Boston, Massachusetts to help finance their explorations. The Bostonians agreed on the plans merits but their speculative voyage in 1663 failed when their ship ran into pack ice in Hudson Strait, boston-based English commissioner Colonel George Cartwright learned of the expedition and brought the two to England to raise financing
Couchiching First Nation
The current band chief is Brian Perrault, elected after defeating incumbent Sara Mainville on February 25,2016. A council of six band members governs the band, but the 2016 election saw Chief Brian Perrault voted in both as the Chief and as a Council member, the council members elect currently sit at five. David Bruyere, Bill Perrault, Lucille Morrisseau, Patrick Morrisseau, Couchiching First Nations administers over a dozen programs within the reserve. Couchiching First Nation had early residences in the Wasaw area north of Frog Creek/Frog Lake, after 1909 flooding impacts and expropriation and taking of land for the railway and highway the community moved south of Frog Creek and along Sand Bay. The Wasaw companies include Wasaw Business Enterprises, Wasaw Project Inc, Wasaw Developments, and Wasaw Food Services, Inc. These companies are meant to create own source revenue for the community in order to build a base for the community. Wasaw means Far in the language of Couchiching, Couchiching First Nation official website Couchiching First Nation profile from AANDC Couchiching First Nation profile from Chiefs of Ontario our Economic Development website
Koochiching County, Minnesota
Koochiching County is a county located in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,311 and its county seat is International Falls. A portion of the Bois Forte Indian Reservation is in the county, a small part of Voyageurs National Park extends into its boundary, with Lake of the Woods County to its northwest. Historymakers of Koochiching County were of many occupations and they were explorers, traders and lumberjacks. They were teachers, merchants, settlers came at the beginning of the 1900s and suffered through isolation, harsh weather, and poverty. They built schools and good roads, Koochiching County is the second largest county in area next to Saint Louis County. It is one of the youngest counties in the state having been created in 1906 after it was separated from Itasca County. The name Koochiching comes from either the Ojibwe word Gojijiing or Cree Kocicīhk, about 10,000 years ago almost 90% of Koochiching County was covered by Lake Agassiz. When it receded it left low areas of decayed vegetation, as a result, three-quarters of northern Koochiching are underlain with 2 to 50 feet of peat.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 3,154 square miles. It is the second-largest county in Minnesota by land area and third-largest by total area, major rivers in the county are Big Fork River, Little Fork River, Rat Root River, Black River, and Rapid River. The highest altitude in the county is in the Northome area which is 1426 feet above sea level which is about 325 feet higher than Rainy Lake, the land surface is mostly flat with swampy areas where Lake Agassiz basin was deepest. There are deposits of peat from 1½ to 50 feet in the low areas which is a result from vegetation, the general surface of Koochiching County is flat with spots of land broken in places by ledges of precambrian rock. Bed rock in the area includes Ely greenstone and greenstone schists that are said to be among the oldest on the planet, in the northeastern tip of the county is a section of Voyageurs National Park and Black Bay. Franz Jevne State Park is located on Rainy River between International Falls and Baudette, the population density was 5 people per square mile.
There were 7,719 housing units at a density of 2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96. 12% White,0. 19% Black or African American,2. 15% Native American,0. 17% Asian,0. 06% Pacific Islander,0. 08% from other races, and 1. 23% from two or more races. 0. 56% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,21. 2% were of Norwegian,19. 8% German,12. 3% Swedish and 7. 0% Irish ancestry
Lake of the Woods
Lake of the Woods is a lake occupying parts of the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba and the U. S. state of Minnesota. It separates a small area of Minnesota from the rest of the United States. The Northwest Angle and the town of Angle Township can only be reached from the rest of Minnesota by crossing the lake or by traveling through Canada, the Northwest Angle is the northernmost part of the contiguous United States. Its northwesternmost point served as a landmark in treaties defining the international border. Lake of the Woods is fed by the Rainy River, Shoal Lake, Kakagi Lake, the lake drains into the Winnipeg River and into Lake Winnipeg. Ultimately, its outflow goes north through the Nelson River to Hudson Bay, Lake of the Woods is over 70 miles long and wide, and contains more than 14,552 islands and 65,000 miles of shoreline. It would amount to the longest coastline of any Canadian lake, Lake of the Woods is the sixth largest freshwater lake located in the United States, after the five Great Lakes.
There are several hundred nesting pairs of eagles in this area. Lake of the Woods, a translation of the original French name lac des Bois, was so named from its wooded setting, however, it may have been a mistranslation of the Indian name. The earliest name we find the lake known by is that given by Verandrye in his journey in 1731 and he says it was called Lake Minitie or Des Bois. The former of these names, seems to be Ojibway, the other name Lac des Bois, or Lake of the Woods, seems to have been a mis-translation of the Indian name by which the Lake was known. The construction of dams at the Lake of the Woods outlets in present-day Kenora in the late 19th century led to concerns over high, the federal governments of Canada and the United States referred the matter to the International Joint Commission in 1912. In 1917 the IJC recommended the creation of boards and the operating conditions they would apply to lake level management. The first of these boards, the Lake of the Woods Control Board, was established by Canadian Order-in-Council in 1919, in 1922 the Canada-Ontario-Manitoba Tripartite Agreement was signed by the respective governments.
Initially only Canada and Ontario appointed members to the board as, at that time, in 1958, having gained control over its natural resources, Manitoba passed its own Lake of the Woods Control Board Act. That same year and Ontario amended their original versions of the acts, as a result of these legislative changes, the LWCB now has one member appointed by Canada, two appointed by Ontario, and one appointed by Manitoba. This treaty established the water level operating range on Lake of the Woods, defined the purpose and general mode of operation, and provided for two boards to control regulation. In cases where agreement could not be reached between Canadian and American members of the board, the disputed matter would be referred to the IJC for final decision
The Things They Carried
The Things They Carried is a collection of linked short stories by Tim OBrien, about a platoon of American soldiers in the Vietnam War. His third book about the war, it is based upon his experiences as a soldier in the 23rd Infantry Division and it is in part this ignorance that drove O’Brien to author The Things They Carried. It was initially published by Houghton Mifflin in 1990, many of the characters are semi-autobiographical, sharing similarities with characters from his memoir If I Die in a Combat Zone, Box Me Up and Ship Me Home. The book works heavily with metafiction, employing a tactic called verisimilitude. The use of names and inclusion of himself as the protagonist within the book creates a style that meshes. The Things They Carried is dedicated to the men of the Alpha Company in order to make the novel feel like a war memoir. The Things They Carried The reader is introduced to Lieutenant Jimmy Cross and he carries physical reminders of Martha, the object of his unrequited love.
A death in the squad causes Cross to reconsider his priorities, love We are privy to a conversation between Cross and O’Brien, reminiscing about the war and about Martha. O’Brien asks if he can write a story about Cross, detailing his memories and hopes for the future, Cross agrees, thinking that perhaps Martha will read it, on the Rainy River O’Brien gets drafted straight out of college. He is reluctant to go to war and considers fleeing the draft, near the border, he encounters an elderly stranger who allows him to work through his internal struggle. O’Brien is given the opportunity to escape, the pressures are too much for him. He goes to war ashamed with his inability to face the consequences of leaving and Friends Told in two sections, we see the developing relationship between soldiers Jensen and Strunk. At first regularly antagonized by one another, the two are drawn toward respect and friendship by the stress and horrors of wartime existence, they agree that if one should be wounded, the other must deal the fatal blow as a form of mercy.
How to Tell a True War Story O’Brien uses examples of tales from his soldiers to illustrate the fact that truth is a delicate. After all, anything can be faked, but generally, only the worst events can be proven real. He concludes that in the end, the truth of a story doesn’t matter so much as what the story is trying to say. The Dentist In order to mourn Curt Lemon, a man O’Brien did not know well, who is afraid of dentists, faints before the dentist can examine him. Later that night, however, he complains of a tooth ache so severe a tooth is pulled - even though it’s perfectly healthy