Benares or Banaras State was a princely state in what is today India during the British Raj. On 15 October 1948 Benares' last ruler signed the accession to the Indian Union; the state was founded by the local zamindar, a Bhumihar Brahmin, Raja Balwant Singh, who assumed the title of "Raja of Benares" in 18th century, taking advantage of the Mughal Empire's disintegration. His descendants ruled the area around Benares as feudatories of Nawab of Awadh and East India Company. In 1910, Benares became a full-fledged state of British India; the state was merged in India after India's independence in 1947, but today the Kashi Naresh is revered by the people of Varanasi. He is a religious leader and the people of Varanasi consider him an incarnation of Shiva, he is the chief cultural patron and an essential part of all religious celebrations. The ruling family claims descent from the God Shiva and benefits from pilgrimages to Benares. In 1948 the 88th ruler of Kashi Sir Vibhuti Narayan Singh accepted the request of the first Indian Prime minister Jawahar Lal Nehru.
The earliest rulers of the princely state of Benares were zamindaris for the Awadh province of the Mughal Empire. As the Mughal suzerainty weakened, the Benares zamindari estate became Banaras State, thus the rulers they regained control of their territories and declared themselves Maharajas of Benares between 1739 and 1760; the region ceded by the Nawab of Oudh to the Company Rule in India in 1775, who recognized Benares as a family dominion. Benares became a princely state in 1911, it was given the privilege of 13-gun salute. Most of the area known as Varanasi was acquired by Mansa Ram, a zamindar of Utaria. Balwant Singh, the ruler of Utaria in 1737, took over the territories of Jaunpur and Chunar in 1740 from the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah of Delhi; the Kingdom of Benaras started in this way during the Mughal dynasty. Other places under the kingship of Kashi Naresh were Chandauli, Chakia, Mirzapur, Mint House and Vindhyachal. With the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Bhumihar Brahmins under the leadership of Kashi Naresh strengthened their sway in the area south of Avadh and in the fertile rice growing areas of Benares, Gorakhpur, Deoria, Ghazipur and Bihar and on the fringes of Bengal.
The strong clan organisation on which they rested, brought success to the lesser Hindu princes. There were as many as 100,000 men backing the power of the Benares rajas in what became the districts of Benares and Azamgarh; this proved a decisive advantage when the dynasty faced a rival and the nominal suzerain, the Nawab of Oudh, in the 1750s and the 1760s. An exhausting guerrilla war, waged by the Benares ruler against the Oudh camp, using his troops, forced the Nawab to withdraw his main force; the rulers of the state carried the title "Maharaja Bahadur" from 1859 onwards. 1737-1740 Mansa Ram 1740 - 19 Aug 1770 Balwant Singh 19 Aug 1770 – 14 Sep 1781 Chait Singh 14 Sep 1781 – 12 Sep 1795 Mahipat Narayan Singh 12 Sep 1795 - 4 Apr 1835 Udit Narayan Singh 4 Apr 1835 – 13 Jun 1889 Ishvari Prasad Narayan Singh 13 Jun 1889 - 1 Apr 1911 Prabhu Narayan Singh 1 Apr 1911 - 4 Aug 1931 Sir Prabhu Narayan Singh 4 Aug 1931 - 5 Apr 1939 Aditya Narayan Singh 5 Apr 1939 – 15 Aug 1947 Vibhuti Narayan Singh The Narayan dynasty have continued to adopt the title of Kashi Naresh after the end of the State, using it as a form of religious leadership.
From 1737, the state included most of present-day Bhadohi, Jaunpur, Mirzapur and Varanasi districts, including the city of Varanasi. Balwant Singh expelled Fazl Ali from present-day Ghazipur and Ballia, added it to his domains. Between 1775 and 1795, the British took over administration of most of the state, leaving the rajas to directly administer two separate areas – an eastern portion, corresponding to present-day Bhadohi district, a southern portion, comprising present-day Chakia tehsil of Chandauli district; these two areas made up the princely state of Benares from 1911 to 1948. The rajas retained certain revenues from rents, certain administrative rights, in the rest of the territory, which the British administered as Benares Division, part of the United Provinces; the rajas made their main residence in Ramnagar. The residential palace of the Naresh is the Ramnagar Fort at Ramnagar near Varanasi, next to the river Ganges; the Ramnagar Fort was built by Kashi Naresh Raja Balwant Singh with creamy chunar sandstone in the eighteenth century.
It is a Mughal style of architecture with carved balconies, open courtyards, picturesque pavilions. Kashi Naresh donated over 1,300 acres of land on the outskirts of the city to build the campus of Banaras Hindu University. On 28 January 1983, the Kashi Vishwanath Temple was taken over by the government of Uttar Pradesh and its management was transferred to a trust, with the late Vibhuti Narayan Singh Kashi Naresh, as President, an executive committee with the Divisional Commissioner as Chairman; when the Dussehra festivities are inaugurated with a colourful pageant, the Kashi Naresh rides an elephant at the head of the procession. Resplendent in silk and brocade, he inaugurates the month-long folk theatre of Ramlila at Ramnagar; the Ramlila is a cycle of plays which recounts the epi
Punjab States Agency
The Punjab States Agency was a political office of the British Indian Empire. The agency was created in the 1930s, on the model of the Central India Agency and Rajputana Agency, dealt with forty princely states in northwest India dealt with by the British province of the Punjab. After 1947, most of the states chose to accede to the Union of India, the rest to the Dominion of Pakistan; the princely states had come under the suzerainty of the British crown after the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814–16 and went on to be known as the Punjab Native States and the Simla Hill States. They came into direct diplomatic relations with the British province of Punjab, with the exception of Tehri Garhwal State, which had a connection instead with the United Provinces; the Punjab States Agency was established in 1933 out of the previous Punjab Native States, which had received advice from the Lieutenant Governor of Punjab Province, the Simla Hill States, advised by the Deputy Commissioner of Simla district. The agency was created under the direct authority of the Governor General of India, with its headquarters in Shimla.
After Indian Independence in 1947, the states all acceded to the new Dominion of India, most of them becoming part of the new state of Himachal Pradesh, with Tehri Garhwal State becoming part of Uttar Pradesh. In 2000, the northern portion of Uttar Pradesh, including the former state of Tehri-Garhwal, became the new state of Uttarakhand. Salute states, by precedence: Patiala, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 17-guns Bahawalpur, title Nawab, Hereditary salute of 17-guns Jind, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 13-guns Kapurthala, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 13-guns Nabha, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 13-guns Kaithal, title Bhai Hereditary salute 13-guns Bilaspur, title Raja, Hereditary salute of 11-guns Chamba, title Raja, Hereditary salute of 11-guns Faridkot, title Raja, Hereditary salute of 11-guns Maler Kotla, title Nawab, Hereditary salute of 11-guns Mandi, title Raja, Hereditary salute of 11-guns Sirmur, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 11-guns Suket, title Raja, Hereditary salute of 11-guns Loharu, title Nawab, Hereditary salute of 9-gunsNon-salute states, alphabetically: Mamdot Pataudi Salute state: Bashahr, title Raja, Personal 9 guns-saluteNon-salute states, alphabetically: Political integration of India
Hyderabad State known as Hyderabad Deccan, was an Indian princely state located in the south-central region of India with its capital at the city of Hyderabad. It is now divided into Telangana state, Hyderabad-Karnataka region of Karnataka and Marathwada region of Maharashtra; the state was ruled from 1724 to 1857 by the Nizam, a viceroy of the Great Mogul in the Deccan. Hyderabad became the first princely state to come under British paramountcy signing a subsidiary alliance agreement. Under the leadership of Asaf Jah V it changed its traditional heraldic flag; the dynasty declared itself an independent monarchy during the final years of the British Raj. After the Partition of India, Hyderabad signed a standstill agreement with the new dominion of India, continuing all previous arrangements except for the stationing of Indian troops in the state. Hyderabad's location in the middle of the Indian union, as well as its diverse cultural heritage, was a driving force behind India's invasion and annexation of the state in 1948.
Subsequently, Mir Osman Ali Khan, the 7th Nizam, signed an instrument of accession. Hyderabad State was founded by Mir Qamar-ud-din Khan, the governor of Deccan under the Mughals from 1713 to 1721. In 1724, he resumed rule under the title of Asaf Jah, his other title, Nizam ul-Mulk, became the title of his position "Nizam of Hyderabad". By the end of his rule, the Nizam had become independent from the Mughals, had founded the Asaf Jahi dynasty. Following the decline of the Mughal power, the region of Deccan saw the rise of Maratha Empire; the Nizam himself saw many invasions by the Marathas in the 1720s, which resulted in the Nizam paying a regular tax to the Marathas. The major battles fought between the Marathas and the Nizam include Palkhed and Kharda. Following the conquest of Deccan by Bajirao I and the imposition of chauth by him, Nizam remained a tributary of the Marathas for all intent and purposes. From 1778, a British resident and soldiers were installed in his dominions. In 1795, the Nizam lost some of his own territories to the Marathas.
The territorial gains of the Nizam from Mysore as an ally of the British were ceded to the British to meet the cost of maintaining the British soldiers. Hyderabad was a 212,000 km2 region in the Deccan, ruled by the head of the Asaf Jahi dynasty, who had the title of Nizam and on whom was bestowed the style of "His Exalted Highness" by the British; the last Nizam, Osman Ali Khan, was one of the world's richest men in the 1930s. In 1798, Nizam ʿĀlī Khan was forced to enter into an agreement that put Hyderabad under British protection, he was the first Indian prince to sign such an agreement. The Crown retained the right to intervene in case of misrule. Hyderabad under Asaf Jah II was a British ally in the second and third Maratha Wars, Anglo-Mysore wars, would remain loyal to the British during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, his son, Asaf Jah III Mir Akbar Ali Khan ruled from 1768 to 1829. During his rule, a British cantonment was built in Hyderabad and the area was named in his honor, Secunderabad.
The British Residency at Koti was built during his reign by the British Resident James Achilles Kirkpatrick. Sikander Jah was succeeded by Asaf Jah IV, who ruled from 1829 to 1857, was succeeded by his son Asaf Jah V. Asaf Jah V's reign from 1857 to 1869 was marked by reforms by his Prime Minister Salar Jung I. Before this time, there was no regular or systematic form of administration, the duties were in the hand of the Diwan, corruption was thus widespread. In 1867, the State was divided into five divisions and seventeen districts, subedars were appointed for the five Divisions and talukdars and tehsildars for the districts; the judicial, public works, educational and police departments were re-organised. In 1868, sadr-i-mahams were appointed for the Judicial, Revenue and Miscellaneous Departments. Asaf Jah VI Mir Mahbub Ali Khan became the Nizam at the age of three years, his regents were Salar Jung I and Shams-ul-Umra III. He assumed full rule at the age of 17, ruled until his death in 1911.
The Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway was established during his reign to connect Hyderabad State to the rest of British India. It was headquartered at Secunderabad Railway Station; the railway marked the beginning of industry in Hyderabad, factories were built in Hyderabad city. During his rule, the Great Musi Flood of 1908 struck the city of Hyderabad, which killed an estimated 50,000 people; the Nizam opened all his palaces for public asylum. He abolished Sati where women used to jump into their husband's burning pyre, by issuing a royal Firman; the last Nizam of Hyderabad Mir Osman Ali Khan ruled the state from 1911 until 1948. He was given the title "Faithful Ally of the British Empire". Hyderabad was considered peaceful, during this time; the Nizam's rule saw growth of culturally. The Osmania University and several schools and colleges were founded throughout the state. Many writers, poets and other eminent people migrated from all parts of India to Hyderabad during the reign of Asaf Jah VII, his father and predecessor Asaf Jah VI.
The Nizam established Hyderabad State Bank. Hyderabad was the only state in British India which had the Hyderabadi rupee; the Begumpet Airp
Shivaji Bhonsle was an Indian warrior king and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan. Shivaji carved out an enclave from the declining Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur that formed the genesis of the Maratha Empire. In 1674, he was formally crowned as the chhatrapati of his realm at Raigad. Over the course of his life, Shivaji engaged in both alliances and hostilities with the Mughal Empire, Sultanate of Golkonda, Sultanate of Bijapur, as well as European colonial powers. Shivaji's military forces expanded the Maratha sphere of influence and building forts, forming a Maratha navy. Shivaji established a competent and progressive civil rule with well-structured administrative organisations, he revived ancient Hindu political traditions and court conventions and promoted the usage of Marathi and Sanskrit, rather than Persian, in court and administration. Shivaji's legacy was to vary by observer and time but he began to take on increased importance with the emergence of the Indian independence movement, as many elevated him as a proto-nationalist and hero of the Hindus.
In Maharashtra, debates over his history and role have engendered great passion and sometimes violence as disparate groups have sought to characterise him and his legacy. Shivaji was born near the city of Junnar in what is now Pune district. Scholars disagree on his date of birth; the Government of Maharashtra lists 19 February as a holiday commemorating Shivaji's birth. Shivaji was named after the goddess Shivai. Shivaji's father Shahaji Bhonsle was a Maratha general, his mother was Jijabai, the daughter of Lakhuji Jadhavrao of Sindhkhed, a Mughal-aligned sardar claiming descent from a Yadav royal family of Devagiri. At the time of Shivaji's birth, power in Deccan was shared by three Islamic sultanates: Bijapur and Golkonda. Shahaji changed his loyalty between the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar, the Adilshah of Bijapur and the Mughals, but always kept his jagir at Pune and his small army. Shivaji was devoted to his mother Jijabai, religious, his studies of the Hindu epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata influenced his lifelong defence of Hindu values.
He was interested in religious teachings, sought the company of Hindu and Sufi saints. Shahaji, meanwhile had married Tuka Bai from the Mohite family. Having made peace with the Mughals, ceding them six forts, he went to serve the Sultanate of Bijapur, he moved Shivaji and Jijabai from Shivneri to Pune and left them in the care of his jagir administrator, Dadoji Konddeo, credited with overseeing the education and training of young Shivaji. Many of Shivaji's comrades, a number of his soldiers, came from the Maval region, including Yesaji Kank, Suryaji Kakade, Baji Pasalkar, Baji Prabhu Deshpande and Tanaji Malusare. Shivaji traveled the hills and forests of the Sahyadri range with his Maval friends, gaining skills and familiarity with the land that would prove useful in his military career. Shivaji's independent spirit and his association with the Maval youths did not sit well with Dadoji, who complained without success to Shahaji. In 1639, Shahaji was stationed at Bangalore, conquered from the nayaks who had taken control after the demise of the Vijayanagara Empire.
He was asked to settle the area. Shivaji was taken to Bangalore where he, his elder brother Sambhaji, his half brother Ekoji I were further formally trained, he married Saibai from the prominent Nimbalkar family in 1640. As early as 1645, the teenage Shivaji expressed his concept in a letter. In 1645, the 15-year-old Shivaji bribed or persuaded Inayat Khan, the Bijapuri commander of the Torna Fort, to hand over possession of the fort to him; the Maratha Firangoji Narsala, who held the Chakan fort, professed his loyalty to Shivaji, the fort of Kondana was acquired by bribing the Bijapuri governor. On 25 July 1648, Shahaji was imprisoned by Baji Ghorpade under the orders of Bijapuri ruler Mohammed Adilshah, in a bid to contain Shivaji. According to Sarkar, Shahaji was released in 1649 after the capture of Jinji secured Adilshah's position in Karnataka. During these developments, from 1649–1655 Shivaji paused in his conquests and consolidated his gains. After his release, Shahaji retired from public life, died around 1664–1665 in a hunting accident.
Following his father's release, Shivaji resumed raiding, in 1656, under controversial circumstances, killed Chandrarao More, a fellow Maratha feudatory of Bijapur, seized from him the valley of Javali. Adilshah was displeased at his losses to Shivaji's forces. Having ended his conflict with the Mughals and having a greater ability to respond, in 1657 Adilshah sent Afzal Khan, a veteran general, to arrest Shivaji. Before engaging him, the Bijapuri forces desecrated the Tulja Bhavani Temple, holy to Shivaji's family, the Vithoba temple at Pandharpur, a major pilgrimage site for the Hindus. Pursued by Bijapuri forces, Shivaji retreated to Pratapgad fort, where many of his colleagues pressed him to surrender; the two forces found themselves at a stalemate, with Shivaji unable to break the siege, while Afzal Khan, having a powerful cavalry but lacking siege equipment, was unable to take the fort. After two months, Afzal Khan sent an envoy to Shivaji suggesting the two leaders meet in private outside the fort to parley.
The two met in a hut at the foothills of Pratapgad fort on 10 November 1659. The arrangements had dictated that each come armed only with a sword, attended by one follower. Shivaji, either suspecting Afzal Khan would arrest or attack him, o
A princely state called native state, feudatory state or Indian state, was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj. Though the history of the princely states of the subcontinent dates from at least the classical period of Indian history, the predominant usage of the term princely state refers to a semi-sovereign principality on the Indian subcontinent during the British Raj, not directly governed by the British, but rather by a local ruler, subject to a form of indirect rule on some matters. In actual fact, the imprecise doctrine of paramountcy allowed the government of British India to interfere in the internal affairs of princely states individually or collectively and issue edicts that applied to all of India when it deemed it necessary. At the time of the British withdrawal, 565 princely states were recognised in the Indian subcontinent, apart from thousands of thakurs, taluqdars and jagirs. In 1947, princely states covered 40% of area of pre-Independent India and constituted 23% of its population.
The most important states had their own British Political Residencies: Hyderabad and Travancore in the South followed by Jammu and Kashmir and Sikkim in the Himalayas, Indore in Central India. The most prominent among those – a quarter of the total – had the status of a salute state, one whose ruler was entitled to a set number of gun salutes on ceremonial occasions; the princely states varied in status and wealth. In 1941, Hyderabad had a population of over 16 million, while Jammu and Kashmir had a population of over 4 million. At the other end of the scale, the non-salute principality of Lawa covered an area of 49 km2, with a population of just below 3,000; some two hundred of the lesser states had an area of less than 25 km2. The era of the princely states ended with Indian independence in 1947. By 1950 all of the principalities had acceded to either India or Pakistan; the accession process was peaceful, except in the cases of Jammu and Kashmir, Junagadh. and Kalat. As per the terms of accession, the erstwhile Indian princes received privy purses, retained their statuses and autonomy in internal matters during a transitional period which lasted until 1956.
During this time, the former princely states were merged into unions, each of, headed by a former ruling prince with the title of Rajpramukh, equivalent to a state governor. In 1956, the position of Rajpramukh was abolished and the federations dissolved, the former principalities becoming part of Indian states; the states which acceded to Pakistan retained their status until the promulgation of a new constitution in 1956, when most became part of the province of West Pakistan. The Indian Government formally derecognised the princely families in 1971, followed by the Government of Pakistan in 1972. Though principalities and chiefdoms existed on the Indian subcontinent from at least the Iron Age, the history of princely states on the Indian subcontinent dates to at least the 5th–6th centuries C. E. during the rise of the middle kingdoms of India following the collapse of the Gupta Empire. Many of the future ruling clan groups – notably the Rajputs – began to emerge during this period; the widespread expansion of Islam during this time brought many principalities into tributary relations with Islamic sultanates, notably with the Mughal Empire.
In the south, the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire remained dominant until the mid-17th century. The Turco-Mongol Mughal Empire brought a majority of the existing Indian kingdoms and principalities under its suzerainty by the 17th century, beginning with its foundation in the early 16th century; the advent of Sikhism resulted in the Jat sikh creation of the Sikh Empire in the north by the early 18th century, by which time the Mughal Empire was in full decline. At the same time, the Marathas carved out their own states to form the Maratha Empire. Through the 18th century, former Mughal governors formed their own independent states. In the north-west, some of those – such as Tonk – allied themselves with various groups, including the Marathas and the Durrani Empire, itself formed in 1747 from a loose agglomeration of tribal chiefdoms that composed former Mughal territories. In the south, the principalities of Hyderabad and Arcot were established by the 1760s, though they nominally remained vassals of the Mughal Emperor.
India under the British Raj consisted of two types of territory: British India and the Native states or Princely states. In its Interpretation Act 1889, the British Parliament adopted the following definitions: The expression "British India" shall mean all territories and places within Her Majesty's dominions which are for the time being governed by Her Majesty through the Governor-General of India or through any govern
Amer, now a part of the Jaipur Municipal Corporation, was a city of the Rajasthan state, India. The picturesque situation of Amer at the mouth of a rocky mountain gorge, in which nestles a lake, has attracted the admiration of travellers, including Victor Jacquemont and Reginald Heber, it is seen to be a remarkable example for its combined Rajput-Mughal architecture. The Amer Fort, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the top tourist attraction in the Jaipur area; the first structure was started by Raja Kakil Dev when Amer became his capital in 1036, on the site of present-day Jaigarh Fort. Around 1037 AD, Amer was conquered by the Kachwaha clan of Rajputs. Much of the present structure known as Amer Fort is the palace built by Raja Man Singh who ruled from 1590 to 1614 AD; the palace contains several spectacular buildings, such as the Diwan-i-Khas, the elaborately painted Ganesh Pole built by the renowned warlord Mirza Raja Jai Singh I. The old and original fort of Amer, dating from earlier Rajas or the Meena period, is what is known in the present day as Jaigarh Fort, the main defensive structure rather than the palace itself.
The two structures are interconnected by a series of encompassing fortifications. Amer was capital of the Kachwaha] until 1727 when the ruler of Amer, Sawai Jai Singh II founded a capital Jainagara, named after him, about nine kilometers south of Amer. After the founding of this new town, the royal palace and houses of prominent persons were shifted to Jaipur; the priests of Shila Devi temple, who were Bengali Brahmins, continued to live in the fort, while the Jaigarh fort above the palace remained garrisoned. The capital of Kachwaha was supplanted by the modern city of Jaipur, the capital of the Rajasthan state in India. Poor site management and development pressures have altered the historical integrity of Amer; the building that rings around the Jaleb Chwok courtyard "has been converted to a market place with shops selling showpieces and dresses. They have cyber cafés, etc.", according to the Times of India. In the summer of 2009, the Rajasthan High Court launched a three-member panel charged with investigating the controversial renovations and determining to what extent the cultural heritage of the site was compromised.
Amer Fort Maota Lake Jagat shiromani Temple Jaigarh Fort Nahargarh Biological Park Step well pool Water Gateways This park is home to species whose numbers have declined over the years, such as the Indian leopard. The flora is composed of plants that are representative of the ecoregion, Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests. Nahargarh Fort Rajasthani people Rajasthan Ramgarh Dam
Residencies of British India
The Residencies of British India were political offices, each managed by a Resident, which dealt in diplomatic form with the colonial relations between British India and each one or a territorial set of native rulers from a large number of princely states. The Residency system has its origins in the system of subsidiary alliances devised by the British after the Battle of Plassey in 1757, to secure Bengal from attack by deploying East India Company troops of the Bengal Army within friendly Native States. Through this system, the Indian Princes of these Native States were assured of protection from internal and external aggression, through deployment of company troops. In return they had to pay for the maintenance of those troops and accept a British Resident in their court; the Resident was a senior British official posted in the capital of these Princely States, technically a diplomat but responsible for keeping the ruler to his alliance. This was seen as a system of indirect rule, controlled by the British Resident.
His role included advising in governance, intervening in succession disputes, ensuring that the States did not maintain military forces other than for internal policing or else form diplomatic alliances with other States. The Residents attempted to modernize these Native States through promotion of European notions of progressive government; the first Native States to enter such subsidiary alliances included Arcot and Hyderabad. Before the Rebellion of 1857, the role of the British Resident in Delhi was more important than that of other Residents, because of the tension that existed between the declining Mughal Empire and the emerging power of the East India Company. After the establishment of Crown rule of British India in 1858, the indigenous States ruled by the Indian princes retained their internal autonomy in terms of political and administrative control, while their external relations and defence became the responsibility of the Crown. An area over two-fifths of the Indian subcontinent was administered by native princes, although nothing like such a high proportion in terms of population.
The continuation of Princely rule allowed the British to concentrate their resources on the more economically significant areas under their direct control and obscured the effective loss of independence of these States in their external relations. The Resident was a permanent reminder of the subsidiary relationship between the indigenous ruler and the European power; the physical manifestation of this was the Residency itself, a complex of buildings and land modified according to the aesthetic values of the suzerain power. The Residency was a symbol of power because of its position within the prince's capital. In many instances, the local prince paid for the erection of these Residencies, as a gesture of his support for and allegiance to the British; the Nawab of Oudh, one of the richest native princes, paid for and erected a splendid Residency in Lucknow as a part of a wider programme of civic improvements. Under the Central India Agency Gwalior Residency Indore ResidencyDivisions of Rajputana Agency, whose political agent served as ex officio Chief Commissioner of the Province of Ajmer-Merwara Jaipur Residency Mewar Residency, at Udaipur Western Rajputana States ResidencyOther in British India proper Baroda Residency, see Baroda and Gujarat States Agency Kolhapur Residency, merged into Deccan States Agency Quilon Residency, in Travancore Mysore Residency, at and for Maisur, whose political agent served as ex officio Chief Commissioner of the Chief Commissioner's Province of CoorgAssociated, notably in Arabia Aden Residency, British territory in Yemen, placed under the Bombay Presidency till 1932 directly as a Chief Commissioner's Province of British India until 1937.