Bagindo Azizchan, is the Mayor of Padang second after independence, inaugurated on August 15, 1946 replacing Mr. Abubakar Jaar, he died at the age of 36 years after being involved in a battle against the Netherlands. His body was interred at Bukittinggi. On 9 November 2005 Azizchan was declared a National Hero of Indonesia
Selangor known by its Arabic honorific Darul Ehsan, or "Abode of Sincerity", is one of the 13 states of Malaysia. It is on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and is bordered by Perak to the north, Pahang to the east, Negeri Sembilan to the south and the Strait of Malacca to the west. Selangor surrounds the federal territories of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya, both of which were part of it; the state capital of Selangor is Shah Alam and its royal capital is Klang. Petaling Jaya, was awarded city status in 2006. Selangor is one of three Malaysian states; the state of Selangor has the largest economy in Malaysia in terms of gross domestic product, with RM 239.968 billion in 2015, comprising 22.6% of the country's GDP. It is the most developed state in Malaysia; the origin of the name Selangor is uncertain. A common suggestion is that the name refers to the Malay word langau, a large fly or blowfly, found in the marshes along the Selangor River in the state's north-west. According to local lore, a warrior who escaped from Malacca after the Portuguese conquest, took a break from his journey north and rested under a tree here.
However, he was disturbed by whereupon he decided to explore the area. When he found the place to be his liking and chose to settle there, he named the place "satu langau" meaning "a large blowfly". Another suggestion is that the name may have originate from a kind of tree found in Kuala Selangor and along Selangor River named mentangau. In the absence of a firm etymological explanation, alternative theories abound. One theory claims the state's name is derived from the term Salang Ur where ur means "town" or "village" in Tamil, meaning village of the salang people, it has been proposed that the name is derived from a combination of salang and jemur, indicating that it was once a place where traitors were stabbed left to roast in the sun. Tho most important settlement of the area in the ancient period may have been Klang. Ancient artefacts including Bronze Age axes and bronze bell dating from the 2nd century BC, iron tools called "tulang mawas" have been found in or near Klang; the Mao Kun map dating to the Ming dynasty and used by the Admiral Zheng He during his voyages of expedition between 1405 and 1433 refers to places in Selangor such as the Klang River estuary and a hilly area.
The Malay Annals indicates that the Selangor area was under the control of the Sultanate of Malacca in the 15th century. According to the Malay Annals, Tun Perak was appointed the chief of Klang during the reign of Muzaffar Shah; the son of Mansur Shah and Hang Li Po named Paduka Sri Cina was made raja of Jeram near Langat, which may be due to the presence of Chinese miners there. After the fall of Malacca to the Portuguese in 1511, the area came under the control of Johor Sultanate and was governed by Sri Agar Diraja, son of the Bendahara family of Johor. In the 17th century, Johor was involved in a war against Jambi, the Sultan of Johor engaged the help of Bugis mercenaries from Sulawesi to fight against Jambi. After Johor won in 1679, the Bugis started to gain power in the region. Many Bugis settled along the coast of Selangor and some inland regions. In some places, the Bugis displaced the Minangkabaus; the Bugis and the Minangkabaus from Sumatra struggled for control of Johor. In order to establish a power base, the Bugis led by Raja Salehuddin founded the present hereditary Selangor Sultanate with its capital at Kuala Selangor in 1766.
Selangor is unique as the only state on the Malay Peninsula, founded by the Bugis. In the 19th century, the economy of Selangor boomed due to the exploitation of its tin reserves. In 1854, the Sultan of Selangor granted Raja Abdullah control of Klang, passing over Raja Mahdi, the son of the chief who ruled Klang, leading to the Selangor Civil War of 1867 to 1874, a struggle for control of the revenues from tin. Tin mining attracted a large influx of Chinese migrant labourers. Chinese clans allied; the conflicts between Malay and Chinese factions in Perak and Selangor, as well as concerns over piracy that affected coastal trade, led to increasing British involvement in the affairs of the Malay states. In 1874, Sultan Abdul Samad of Selangor accepted a British Resident in a system that allowed the British to govern while the Sultan remained the apparent ruler. Klang was the capital of the British colonial administration for Selangor from 1875 until 1880 when it was moved to Kuala Lumpur. Under the stability imposed by the British, Selangor again prospered.
In 1896 through the coordination of the Resident Frank Swettenham, Selangor united with Negeri Sembilan and Pahang to form the Federated Malay States, with Kuala Lumpur its capital. The Federated Malay States evolved into the Federation of Malaya in 1948, which became independent in 1957 and was renamed Malaysia in 1963; the city of Kuala Lumpur functioned as the national capital of Malaysia and as the state capital of Selangor. In 1974, Selangor
Riau-Lingga Sultanate known as the Lingga-Riau Sultanate, Riau Sultanate or Lingga Sultanate was a Malay sultanate that existed from 1824 to 1911, before being dissolved following Dutch intervention. The sultanate came into existence as a result of the partition of the Johor-Riau Sultanate that separated Peninsular Johor, together with the island of Singapore, from the Riau archipelago; this partition followed the succession dispute following the death of Mahmud III of Johor, when Abdul Rahman was crowned as the first Sultan of Riau-Lingga. The maritime kingdom was recognised by both the British and the Dutch following the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824; the Riau Archipelago became a part of the Malaccan Empire after the expansion by Tun Perak in the 15th century, following the decline of the Srivijaya Empire. After the fall of Malacca at the hands of the Portuguese, the axis of regional power was inherited by the Johor Sultanate. During the golden age of Johor, the kingdom stretched across half of the Malay Peninsular, eastern Sumatra, Bangka and the Riau Islands.
According to the 1849 Johor Annals, on 27 September 1673 the Laksamana of Johor, Tun Abdul Jamil, was ordered by Abdul Jalil Shah III to found a settlement in Sungai Carang, Ulu Riau, on Bintan Island. The settlement in Sungai Carang was known as Riau Lama. A fortress to protect the Johor Empire, Riau Lama prospered and became an prominent entrepôt for regional trade in the Strait of Malacca. Ulu Riau became the capital of Johor during the reign of Sultan Ibrahim when he relocated the capital from Batu Sawar, Kota Tinggi in Peninsular Johor after the old capital was sacked by Jambi forces on 4 October 1722. Riau Lama became the capital of the empire for 65 years, from 1722 to 1787; the importance of Lingga began during the reign of Mahmud Shah III. In 1788, he relocated the capital from Ulu Riau, Bintan to Daik, Lingga; the Sultan did this. He requested aid from his distant relative, Raja Ismail, a local ruler of Tempasuk to organise a successful campaign against the Dutch. Out of fear of retaliation by the Dutch, he organised a mass transfer of the populace: the Sultan left for Lingga with 2000 people, the Bendahara went to Pahang with 1000 people while others headed to Terengganu.
When the Dutch arrived in Riau, there were only a few Chinese planters left, who persuaded the Dutch not to chase the Orang-orang Melayu. The Sultan developed Lingga and welcomed new settlers to the island. Dato Kaya Megat was appointed as the new Bendahara of Lingga. New dwellings were constructed, roads were built and buildings were improved, he found unprecedented new wealth. Both the British and Dutch restored his claim on the Riau island, he began to revive maritime trade discreetly with the British as a major source of commodities valuable tin and spices. In 1812, the Johor-Riau Sultanate experienced a succession crisis; the death of the Mahmud Shah III in Lingga left no heir apparent. Royal custom required; however at the time Mahmud Shah III died, the eldest prince, Tengku Hussein, was in Pahang to celebrate his marriage to the daughter of the Bendahara. The other candidate was Tengku Abdul Rahman. To complicate matters, neither of the candidates was of full royal blood; the mother of Tengku Hussein, Cik Mariam, owed her origin to a Balinese slave lady and a Bugis commoner.
Tengku Abdul Rahman had a lowborn mother, Cik Halimah. The only unquestionably royal wife and consort of Mahmud Shah was Engku Puteri Hamidah, whose only child had died an hour after birth. In the following chaos, Engku Puteri was expected to install Tengku Hussein as the next sultan, because he had been preferred by the late Mahmud Shah. Based on the royal adat, the consent of Engku Puteri was crucial as she was the holder of the Cogan of Johor-Riau, the installation of a new sultan was only valid if it took place with the regalia; the regalia was fundamental to the installation of the sultan. Nonetheless, Yang Dipertuan Muda Jaafar supported the reluctant Tengku Abdul Rahman, adhering to the rules of royal protocol, as he had been present at the late Sultan's deathbed. Unwilling and furious, the outspoken Queen is reported to have said, "Who elected Abdul Rahman as sovereign of Johor? Was it my brother Raja Jaafar or by what law of succession has it happened? It is owing to this act of injustice that the ancient empire of Johor is fast falling to decay".
Rivalry between the British and the Dutch now came into play. The British had earlier gained Malacca from the Dutch under the Treaty of The Hague in 1795 and saw an opportunity to increase their regional influence, they crowned Tengku Hussein in Singapore, he took the title Hussein Shah of Johor. The British were involved in the Johor-Riau administration between 1812–1818, their intervention further strengthened their dominance in the Strait of Malacca; the British recognised Johor-Riau as a sovereign state and offered to pay Engku Puteri 50,000 Ringgits for the royal regalia, which she refused. Seeing the diplomatic advantage gained in the region by the British, the Dutch responded by crowning Tengku Abdul Rahman as sultan instead, they obtained, at the Congress of Vienna, a withdrawal of British recognition of Johor-Riau sovereignty. To further curtail the British domination over the re
The Riau Islands is a province of Indonesia. It comprises a total of 1,796 islands lying between the Malacca Strait, the Karimata Strait and the South China Sea; the province is located on one of the world's busiest shipping lanes, sharing water borders with Singapore and Vietnam. Part of the province of Riau, the Riau Islands became Indonesia's third-youngest province in September 2002; the capital is Tanjung Pinang and the largest city is Batam. The native inhabitant of the Riau Islands, called Orang Laut, formed the backbone of most Malay kingdoms from Srivijaya to the Johor Sultanate for the control of trade routes going through the Malacca Strait. After the fall of Malacca in 1511, the Riau islands became the centre of political power of the mighty Sultanate of Johor-Riau, based on Bintan Island, were for long considered the centre of Malay culture; the origin of Riau Islands name comes from the name "Riau". Riau is derived from the word "riuh" which in Malay means loud or noisy; this is because the area of the Riau Islands was once a center of crowd.
This name developed with the use of the name Riau in the name of the Sultanate of Lingga. In the colonial period, the name Riau was changed to Riouw; the island of Batam, which lies within the central core group of islands, contains a majority of the province's population. Since becoming part of an economic zone with Singapore in 2006, it has experienced high population growth rates. Other populated islands in the Riau Archipelago include Bintan and Karimun, while the archipelago includes islands such as Bulan and Kundur. There are around 3,200 islands in the province, which has its capital at Tanjung Pinang in the south of Bintan Island; the Riau Islands province includes the Lingga Islands to the south of the main Riau Archipelago, while to the northeast lies the Tudjuh Archipelago, between Borneo and mainland Malaysia. The 2015 census count was 1,968,313, less than estimated but it was still the second fastest growing province in Indonesia. Riau Islands Province was established based on Law No. 25 of 2002 is the 32nd Province in Indonesia covering Tanjungpinang City, Batam City, Bintan Regency, Karimun Regency, Natuna Regency, Lingga Regency and Anambas Regency.
Overall the Riau Islands region consists of 5 districts and 2 cities, 42 subdistricts and 256 villages with 2,408 big and small islands where 40% has not been named and populated. The total area is 252,601 km2, where 95% of it is ocean and only 5% is land area, with boundaries as follows: With strategic geographical location and supported by an abundance of natural potential, Riau Islands is could become one of the economic growth centers for the Republic of Indonesia in the future. Now that in some areas of the Riau Islands, a pilot project for the development of Special Economic Zones is being pursued through cooperation with the Singapore regime; the implementation of the SEZ policy in Batam-Bintan-Karimun, is a close cooperation between the central government and local government, the participation of the business world. This KEK/SER will be the nodes of the leading economic activity centers, supported by excellent service facilities and internationally competitive infrastructure capacity.
Every business actor located within it will receive services and facilities of the highest quality that can compete with best practices from similar areas in Asia-Pacific. As an archipelago, climatic conditions are affected by wind. Riau Islands Province has wet tropical climate, there is rainy season and dry season interspersed with transition season with the lowest average temperature 20.4 °C. In November to February monsoon winds comes from the north and between June to December the monsoon winds comes from the south. During the northern monsoon the wind velocity at sea could range from 20-30 knots, on land the wind can range from 3-15 knots; this causes extreme weather in Riau Islands with rainfall of about 150-200 millimeters and wave height between 1.2 meters up to 3 meters. From Srivijayan times until the 16th century, Riau was a natural part of greater Malay kingdoms or sultanates, in the heart of what is called the Malay World, which stretched from eastern Sumatra to Borneo. Orang Laut inhabited the islands and formed the backbone of most Malay kingdoms from Srivijaya to the Johor Sultanate for the control of trade routes going through the straits.
After the fall of Malacca in 1511, the Riau islands became the centre of political power of the mighty Sultanate of Johor or Johor-Riau, based on Bintan Island, were for long considered the centre of Malay culture. But history changed the fate of Riau as a political, cultural or economic centre when European powers struggled to control the regional trade routes and took advantage of political weaknesses within the sultanate. Singapore island, for centuries part of the same greater Malay kingdoms and sultanates, under direct control of the Sultan of Johor, came under control of the British; the creation of a European-controlled territory in the heart of the Johor-Riau natural boundaries broke the sultanate into two parts, destroying the cultural and political unity that had existed for centuries. The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 consolidated this separation, with the British controlling all territories north of the Singapore strait and the Dutch controlling territories from Riau to Java. After the European powers withdrew from the region
Ernest Douwes Dekker
Ernest François Eugène Douwes Dekker known as Setyabudi or Setiabudi was an Indonesian-Dutch nationalist and politician of Indo descent. He was related to the famous Dutch anti-colonialism writer Multatuli, whose real name was Eduard Douwes Dekker. In his youth, he fought in the Second Boer War in South Africa on the Boer side, his thoughts were influential in the early years of the Indonesian freedom movement. After Indonesian independence, he adopted the Sundanese name Danoedirdja Setiaboedi. Douwes Dekker was born in the north eastern city of Java, 80 km south of Surabaya, his father was Auguste Henri Edouard Douwes Dekker, a broker and bank agent, of a Dutch family living in the then-Dutch East Indies. His Indo mother was Louisa Margaretha Neumann, of half-Javanese descent. Douwes Dekker's great-uncle was author of Max Havelaar. After studying in Lower School in Pasuruan, he moved to Surabaya, to Batavia. In 1897, he worked on a coffee plantation in Malang, East Java, he moved to a sugar plantation in Kraksaan, East Java.
During his years in these plantations, he came in contact with ordinary Javanese and saw the realities of their hard work. In 1900, along with his brothers Julius and Guido, he decided to volunteer for service in the Second Boer War, they arrived in Transvaal, became citizens of that state. He based his actions on the belief that the Boers were victims of British expansionism, as fellow descendant of the Dutch, he was obliged to help. In the course of the war, he was placed in an internment camp on Ceylon. Dekker was released and returned to the Dutch East Indies via Paris in 1903. In the Dutch East Indies, Dekker still in his twenties, started a career as a journalist, first in Semarang and in Batavia. There he worked with Indo activist Karel Zaalberg, the chief editor of the newspaper Bataviaasch Nieuwsblad, whom he befriended. On 5 May 1903 he married Clara Charlotte Deije. Unlike other people of European descent, he did not favour colonialism advocating self-management, the independence, of the Dutch East Indies.
This was prompted by his experience in watching the lives of plantation workers and by discrimination he had suffered, through being only considered half-Dutch and a second-class citizen. During these times, he published many articles advocating independence, "Indies nationalism". In 1913, close associates of Douwes Dekker, including physicians Tjipto Mangunkusumo and Suwardi Surjaningrat, established the Native Committee in Bandung, which became the Indische Partij; this was considered a breakthrough, because most organisations had never so advocated independence. In March 1913, the party claimed 7000 members 5500 of whom were Indos along with 1500 native Indonesians; the Colonial government became worried and the party was forbidden. This led to the exile to the Netherlands of his two Javanese associates. In exile, they worked with liberal compatriot students, it is believed that the term Indonesia was first used in the name of an organization, the Indonesian Alliance of Students, with which they were associated during the early 1920s.
After his party was forbidden it directly inspired the foundation of the Insulinde and an Indo-European party named'Indo Europeesch Verbond' chaired by his friend Karel Zaalberg and advocated independence. Many of the former ` Indische Partij' members joined the new party. In 1918 he was allowed to return to the East Indies and was responsible for reforming the'Insulinde' into the new'National Indische Party'. Together with his new associate P. F. Dahler and old companion Tjipto Mangoenkoesoemo, he became a prominent leader of the NIP. After the NIP was involved in the Surakarta farmers' strike he was imprisoned again by the colonial authorities in 1921. After his release from prison in 1922, he taught in Bandung in a lower school. Two years as head of the school, he renamed it the "Ksatrian Institute"; this institute was recognised by the government in 1926. In the same year, he married Johanna Mussel, one of its teachers, six years after divorcing his first wife. Sukarno was a teacher at one of his schools.
However, his activities were branded illegal, in 1936 he was condemned to three months in prison. He was still advocating independence and sharing his thoughts with other intellectuals, among them Sukarno, who considered Douwes Dekker as his teacher. However, his influence was overshadowed by the politics of his student Sukarno's Indonesian National Party, Islamist Sarekat Islam, Communist Party of Indonesia. During World War II, Dutch authorities, who considered him a dangerous activist, exiled him, along with many Indo-European of German descent, to Suriname, he would spend years in a forest prison camp called Jodensavanne. Dekker returned to Indonesia on 2 January 1947. After he returned to Indonesia, he was appointed a member of the provisional parliament, or Komite Nasional Indonesia Pusat. In February 1947, he changed his name to Danudirja Setiabudi which means'powerful substance, faithful spirit'. In 1947 he divorced his second wife and married the Indo European Nelly Alberta Kruymel, who had changed her name to Haroemi Wanasita, in an Islamic ceremony.
In December 1948 he was lifted from his sick bed and arrested by Dutch troops, but released due to his poor health. He spent his last years in Bandung, writing his autobiography
Taylor & Francis
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals. It is a division of a United Kingdom-based publisher and conference company; the company was founded in 1852 when William Francis joined Richard Taylor in his publishing business. Taylor founded his company in 1798, their subjects covered agriculture, education, geography, mathematics and social sciences. From 1917 to 1930 Francis' son, Richard Taunton Francis was sole partner in the firm. In 1965 Taylor & Francis began book publishing. In 1988 it acquired Hemisphere Publishing and the company was renamed Taylor & Francis Group to reflect the growing number of imprints. In 1990 Taylor & Francis exited from the printing business to concentrate on publishing. In 1998 Taylor & Francis Group went public on the London Stock Exchange and in the same year the group purchased its academic publishing rival Routledge for £90 million. Acquisitions of other publishers has remained a core part of the group's business strategy.
Taylor & Francis merged with Informa in 2004 to create a new company called T&F Informa, since renamed back to Informa. Following the merger, T&F closed the historic Routledge books office in New Fetter Lane and relocated to its current headquarters in Milton Park, Oxfordshire. Taylor & Francis Group is now the academic publishing arm of Informa and accounted for 30.2% of Group Revenue and 38.1% of Adjusted Profit in 2017. Taylor & Francis publishes more than 2,700 journals, 7,000 new books each year, with a backlist of over 140,000 titles available in print and digital formats, it uses the Routledge imprint for its publishing in humanities, social sciences, behavioural sciences and education and the CRC Press imprint for its publishing in science, technology and mathematics. In 2017, T&F sold assets from its Garland Science imprint to W. W. Norton & Company and ceased to use that brand. Although considered the smallest of the'Big Four' STEM publishers, its Routledge imprint is claimed to be the largest global academic publisher within humanities and social sciences.
The company's journals have been delivered through the Taylor & Francis Online website since June 2011. Prior to that they were provided through the Informaworld website. Taylor & Francis ebooks are now available via the TaylorFrancis website. Taylor & Francis operates a number of Web services for its digital content including Routledge Handbooks Online, the Routledge Performance Archive, Secret Intelligence Files and Routledge Encyclopedia of Modernism. Taylor & Francis offers Open Access publishing options in both its books and journals divisions and through its Cogent Open Access journals imprint. Taylor & Francis is a member of several professional publishing bodies including the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association, the International Association of Scientific and Medical Publishers, the Association of Learned & Professional Society Publishers and The Publishers Association. In 2017, after collaborating for several years, T&F purchased specialist digital resources company Colwiz.
The group has 1,800 employees located in at least 18 offices worldwide. Its head office is based in Milton Park, Abingdon in the United Kingdom, with other offices in Stockholm, New York, Boca Raton, Kentucky, Kuala Lumpur, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Melbourne, Cape Town and New Delhi; the old Taylor and Francis logo depicts a hand pouring oil into a lit lamp, along with the Latin phrase "alere flammam" - to feed the flame. The modern logo is a stylised oil lamp in a circle. In 2013, the entire board of the Journal of Library Administration resigned in a dispute over author licensing agreements. In 2016 Critical Reviews in Toxicology was accused of being a "broker of junk science" by the Center for Public Integrity. Monsanto was found to have worked with an outside consulting firm to induce the journal to publish a biased review of the health effects of its product "Roundup". In 2017, Taylor & Francis was criticized for getting rid of the editor-in-chief of International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, who accepted articles critical of corporate interests.
The company replaced the editor with a corporate consultant without consulting the editorial board. The journal Cogent Social Sciences accepted a hoax article, "The conceptual penis as a social construct", rejected by another Taylor & Francis journal, NORMA: International Journal for Masculinity Studies; when the authors announced the hoax, the article was retracted. In December 2018, the journal Dynamical Systems accepted the paper Saturation of Generalized Partially Hyperbolic Attractors only to have it retracted after publication due to the Iranian nationality of the authors; the European Mathematical Society condemned the retraction and announced that Taylor & Francis had agreed to reverse the decision. Previous instances of Taylor & Francis journals discriminating against Iranian authors were reported in 2013. Taylor & Francis academic journals Munroe, Mary H.. "Taylor & Francis". The Academic Publishing Industry: A Story of Merger and Acquisition. Northern Illinois University Libraries. Archived from the original on 2012-05-04.
Retrieved 2008-06-20. Brock, W. H. & Meadows, A. J.. The Lamp Of Learning: Taylor & Francis And Two Centuries Of Publishing. Taylor & Francis. Official website Taylor & Francis online journals and reference works Taylor & Francis eBooks Informa Divisions - Academic Publishing
Tuhfat al-Nafis is a work of Malay literature written by Raja Ali Haji in Jawi in around 1866-70. Who is of Malay-Bugis descent, it records and chronicles events those of the 19th century, that occurred in several Malay states. Some of the events recorded in the work include the founding of the state of Terengganu and the murder of Sultan Mahmud Shah II of Johor. Tuhfat al-Nafis means "the precious gift" in the Arabic language. There are four manuscripts of Tuhfat al-Nafis. A manuscript copied in 1890 and published in 1923 is in the Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, London. Tuhfat al-Nafis begins with a summary taken from the Sulalatus Salatin, tell a more detailed history of the Johor-Riau Sultanate. Tuhfat was a dynamic figure in the Bugis principality, who with military and diplomatic dexterity managed to gain an important position in the Riau states, Selangor and Matan-Sukadana. A recurrent theme in the first half of Tuhfat al-Nafis is conflict between the Minangkabau people of Riau as well as Bugis and Malay alliance forces.
The conflict occurred both in the provinces of Riau and in Kedah, Selangor and Kalimantan. The second half covers the middle of the 18th century until 1864, showing the growing hostility between the Bugis and Malays in Riau, two raids led by the Bugis people of Malacca to the Dutch in 1756 and 1784; the last attack ended when the Dutch signed a treaty with the Sultan of Riau who conceded his kingdom as a fief of the Dutch East India Company