Raja Harishchandra

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Raja Harischandra
Publicity poster for film, Raja Harishchandra (1913).jpg
Publicity poster for film show at the Coronation Cinema, Girgaon, Mumbai
Directed by Dadasaheb Phalke
Produced by Dadasaheb Phalke
Screenplay by Dadasaheb Phalke
Starring
Cinematography Trymbak B. Telang
Edited by Dadasaheb Phalke
Production
company
Phalke's Films
Release date
  • 3 May 1913 (1913-05-03)
Running time
40 minutes
Country India
Language Silent

Raja Harishchandra (lit. King Harishchandra) is a 1913 Indian silent film, directed and produced by Dadasaheb Phalke, and is often considered as the first full-length Indian feature film. It features Dattatraya Damodar Dabke, Anna Salunke, Bhalchandra Phalke, and Gajanan Vasudev Sane and is based on the legend of Harishchandra, recounted in the Ramayana and Mahabharata. The film, being silent, had intertitles in English and Hindi language.

Phalke decided to make a feature film after watching The Life of Christ (1906) at a theatre in Mumbai, he went to London for two weeks to learn the filmmaking techniques and founded "Phalke Films". He imported the hardware required for the filmmaking and exhibition from England, France, Germany, and the United States. Phalke shot a short film Ankurachi Wadh (Growth of a Pea Plant) to get the investors for his venture, he published advertisements in various newspapers calling for the cast and crew. As no women was available for playing female leads, the male actors performed the female roles. Phalke was in charge of scriptment, direction, production design, make-up, editing, along with film processing and camera was handled by Trymbak B. Telang. The filming was completed in six months and 27 days to produce a film of 3,700 feet, about four reels.

The film had a premiere at the Olympia Theatre, Mumbai on 21 April 1913 and had its theatrical release on Saturday, 3 May 1913 at the Coronation Cinema, Girgaon, Mumbai. It was a commercial success and laid the foundation of the film industry in the country, the film is partially lost as only the first and last reels of the film are preserved at the National Film Archive of India. Some film historians believe that they belong to a 1917 remake of the film, named Satyavadi Raja Harishchandra, by Phalke.

The status for Raja Harischandra as the first full-length Indian feature film has been argued over, some film historians consider Dadasaheb Torne's silent film Shree Pundalik as the maiden Indian film which was released on 18 May 1912. The Government of India recognises Raja Harischandra as the first Indian feature film.

Plot[edit]

King Harishchandra (D. D. Dabke) is shown to teach his son, Rohitashva, (Bhalchandra Phalke) to shoot with a bow and arrow, in presence of queen Taramati (Anna Salunke). He is requested by his citizen to go on a hunting expedition. While on hunt, Harishchandra hears the cries of some women, he reaches a place where the sage Vishwamitra (Gajanan Sane) is performing the yajna to get help from Trigunashakti (Three powers) against their will. The King unwillingly interrupts Vishvamitra in the midst of his yajna by releasing three powers. To appease Vishvamitra's wrath, Harishchandra offers his kingdom. King visits the royal palace and informs the Queen Taramati about the happenings. Vishwamitra sends Harishchandra, Taramati, and Rohitashva to arrange for the Dakshina. While in exile, Rohitashva dies. Harishchandra sends Taramati to request the Domb King for a free cremation, on her way to meet the king, Vishwamitra frames Taramati for the murder of the prince of Kashi. Taramati faces the trial, pleaded guilty and is ordered to be beheaded by Harishchandra. When he raises his sword to complete his task, pleased Lord Shiva appears. Vishwamitra also reveals that he was examining Harishchandra's integrity, gives back the crown to the King and rejuvenates Rohitashva.[1][2]

Cast[edit]

  • Dattatraya Damodar Dabke as Harishchandra
  • Anna Salunke as Taramati, Harishchandra's wife
  • Bhalchandra Phalke as Rohitashva, son of Harishchandra and Taramati
  • Gajanan Vasudev Sane as Vishvamitra

Other artists in the film were:[3]

  • Dattatreya Kshirsagar
  • Dattatreya Telang
  • Ganpat G. Shinde
  • Vishnu Hari Aundhkar
  • Nath T. Telang

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

While The Life of Christ was rolling fast before my physical eyes, I was mentally visualising the Gods, Shri Krishna, Shri Ramachandra, their Gokul and their Ayodhya. I was gripped by a strange spell. I bought another ticket and saw the film again, this time I felt my imagination taking shape on the screen. Could this really happen? Could we, the sons of India, ever be able to see the Indian images on the screen?

 – Phalke on watching Jesus on the screen[4]

On 14 April 1911, Phalke along with his elder son Bhalchandra went to see a film, Amazing Animals, at the America India Picture Palace,[5] Girgaon, Mumbai.[6] Surprised by seeing animals on the screen, Bhalchandra informed his mother, Saraswatibai, about his experience earlier that day. None of the family members believed them, so Phalke took his family to see the film next day, as it was Easter, a film about Jesus, The Life of Christ (1906) by the French director Alice Guy-Blaché,[4] was screened at the theatre.[6] While watching Jesus on the screen, Phalke envisioned Hindu deities Rama and Krishna instead and decided to start the business of "moving pictures",[6] after completing his two weeks trip to London to learn the filmmaking techniques, he founded "Phalke Films" on 1 April 1912.[7]

During his London trip, Phalke had placed an order for a Williamson camera and Kodak raw films and a perforator which reached Mumbai in May 1912,[8][9] he set up processing room and taught his family to perforate and develop the film.[8] Though Phalke was certain of his idea of filmmaking, he did not find any investors. So, he decided to make a short film to demonstrate the techniques, he planted some peas in a pot with camera placed in front of it and shot one frame a day for one and a quarter month. This resulted in a video of the seed growing, sprouting, and changing into a climber and lasted for about one and a quarter minutes, the short film was titled Ankurachi Wadh (Growth of a Pea Plant) and was shown to selective people. Some of them including Yashwantrao Nadkarni and Narayanrao Devhare offered a loan to Phalke.[9][10]

Story[edit]

A coloured painting of Harishchandra parting with his wife and son
Painting by Raja Ravi Varma, depicting Harishchandra parting with his wife and son

In his Marathi language magazine Suvarnamala, Phalke had written a story Surabaichi Kahani (A Tale of Sura). The story was his initial consideration for the filmmaking which depicted the ill effects of alcoholism, after watching several American films that were screened in Mumbai, he observed that the films based on mystery and romance were liked by the audience. The family members suggested that the storyline should appeal middle class people and women and should also highlight Indian culture,[11] after considering various stories depicted in Hindu mythology, Phalke family shortlisted legends of Krishna, Savitri and Satyavan, and Harishchandra.[8] A play based on the legends of Harishchandra was then popular on Marathi and Urdu stage.[12] Friends and neighbours had often labelled Phalke as "Harishchandra" for having sold all his belongings, except his wife's Mangala sutra, to fulfil his filmmaking dream.[10] So, Phalke finalised on the legends of Harishchandra and wrote the script for the feature film.[12]

Casting[edit]

Wanted actors, carpenters, washermen, barbers and painters. Bipeds who are drunkards, loafers or ugly should not bother to apply for actor, it would do if those who are handsome and without physical defect are dumb. Artistes must be good actors, those who are given to immoral living or have ungainly looks or manners should not take pains to visit.

 – Casting call published in various newspapers[13]

Phalke published advertisements in various newspapers like Induprakash calling for the cast and crew required for the film, it was well received and huge number of applicants came in for the auditions. As the film was being made as silent, Phalke also allowed dumb artists to appear for an audition, despite increasing response to the advertisement, Phalke was not satisfied with the skills of performers. He discontinued the advertisements and decided to scout for the artists through theatre companies.[13]

Padurang Gadhadhar Sane and Gajanan Vasudev Sane were among the first artists to join "Phalke Films",[14] the former was doing female roles in a theatre company "Natyakala" and latter was performing in Urdu plays.[13] Both joined on the salary of 40 per month. Gajanan Sane introduced his acquaintance Dattatraya Damodar Dabke. Phalke was impressed with Dabke's good physique and personality and offered him the lead role of Harishchandra.[14]

In response to the advertisement, four prostitutes auditioned for the role of Taramati. Phalke rejected them for not having satisfactory looks and revised the advertisement to include "Only good-looking women should come for interview".[14] Two more prostitutes auditioned but left after two days. A young lady with "passable appearance", who was a mistress, auditioned and Phalke selected her for the female lead, she did rehearsals for four days. However, on the fifth day, her master objected her working in the films and took her away.[14] Phalke also visited the red-light area Kamathipura of Grant Road in despair. He was asked either to pay high enumeration or marry the woman.[15] One day, while having tea at a restaurant at Grant Road,[15] Phalke noticed Krishna Hari alias Anna Salunke, an effeminate young man having slender features and hands.[16] Salunke was working as a cook or waiter at the restaurant on a monthly salary of ₹10,[16][17] he agreed to work in films when Phalke offered him a raise of five.[18][a]

Phalke took auditions of many boys for the role of Rohitashva, son of Harishchandra and Taramati, but none of the parents allowed their children to work in the film as the character would have to live in the forests and was to die. Finally, Phalke's elder son Bhalchandra was assigned the role,[14] he became the first child actor of the Indian cinema.[20]

Pre-production[edit]

A black-and-white picture of a man looking at the filmstrip
Phalke seated on a chair with a small roll of film in his hands

Phalke hired around forty people in his film studio which was called as "factory" in those days.[15][21] Working in the films was a taboo, Phalke advised his artists to tell others that they are working in the factory of a man named Harishchandra,[22] he saw several foreign films to learn about the screenplay writing and accordingly completed the script for Raja Harishchandra.[23] The film had an all-male cast as no woman was available for playing female leads,[24] after coming to the studio, all male actors doing female roles were asked to wear sari and do women's chores like sifting rice, making flour to help Phalke's wife, Saraswatibai.[25] Though some actors were associated with theatres, majority of the cast did not have any prior acting experience. Phalke took several rehearsals from the actors. Often, he had to wear sari himself and enact the scene.[10] A number of photographs from English periodicals showing various expressions where hung up at the place of the rehearsal studio. All the actors had to go through the mandatory exercise where they were asked to show similar expressions.[23]

About the same time, a drama company "Rajapurkar Natak Mandali" visited at Mumbai, the company had many of its shows based on Hindu mythology. Phalke acquainted the proprietor of the company, Babajirao Rane, and explained him his idea of indigenous film production. Rane was impressed by the idea and offered his support by lending his actors and their costumes. Phalke decided to use required material like Harishchandra's crown, wig, swords, shields, and bows and arrows in the film.[26] Phalke's brother-in-law who owned two drama companies, "Belgaokar Natak Mandali" and "Saraswati Natak Mandali", offered similar help but Phalke politely declined as majority of the cast and crew was finalised.[25] Phalke designed the costumes and stage scenes from the paintings of Raja Ravi Varma and M. V. Dhurandhar. He painted the scenes of palace, jungle, mountains, fields, caves himself on curtains. Painter Rangnekar was appointed on the monthly salary of 60.[27]

Phalke imported the hardware required for the filmmaking and exhibition from England, France, Germany, and the United States which included manufacturers like Houghton Butcher, Zeiss Tessar, and Pathé. It included negative and positive film stocks, cameras, lights, Film laboratory equipments, printing and editing machines, negative cutting tools, and film projectors,[28] he decided to take on the responsibility for the scriptment, direction, production design, make-up, editing, and film processing. He requested Trymbak B. Telang, his childhood friend from Nashik, to come to Mumbai. Telang was working as a priest at Trimbakeshwar Shiva Temple. Phalke had taught him still photography as a childhood hobby,[26] after coming to Mumbai, Telang was trained in the operation of the Williamson camera and was appointed as a cinematographer for the film.[29]

Filming[edit]

Production design for the film started after the monsoon season of 1912. While the sets were being erected at Phalke's bungalow at Dadar, an outdoor shooting was scheduled at Vangani, a village on the central line of the Mumbai suburban railway network.[27] Some of the male actors doing female roles including Anna Salunke, who was playing the female lead, were not ready to shave off their moustache because as per Hinduism, it is considered to be one of the rituals to be performed after the death of a father.[10][30] Phalke persuaded the actors and their fathers and the unit left for Vangani.[23][27]

The unit was lodged at the village temple and continued their rehearsals till Phalke arrived from Mumbai, the villagers were frightened to see the troupe of people wearing costumes, wielding swords, shields, and spears and practising the scenes. They informed the Patil, village headman, that the dacoits have entered the village, he immediately reported to the Faujdar who visited the temple.[27] The unit explained them about cinema but the Faujdar did not believe in their story and arrested the complete unit. When Phalke reached the village, he immediately met the Patil and the Fauzdar and explained them about cinema, shooting and showed them the technical instruments. Without loading the film into the camera, he asked his unit to enact one of the scenes from the film and went through the motion of filming a scene, after viewing the scene, the Fauzdar got an idea about Phalke's new venture and released the unit.[31]

While playing with other kids, Bhalchandra fell on a rock and started bleeding from the head. Phalke treated him with first aid kit but he remained unconscious, it was suggested by various unit members that Bhalchandra should be taken to Mumbai for further treatment and once he is completely recovered, the shooting could be resumed. The scene that was to be filmed showed Rohitashva, the character played by Bhalchandra, to be dead and placed on the funeral pyre. Resuming the outdoor shoot after Bhalchandra's recovery would have delayed the production and incurred the cost. To avoid both, Phalke stoically decided to shoot the scene with unconscious Bhalchandra,[10][31] as per the legends of Harishchandra, king along with Taramati and Rohitashva visit Kashi.[32] It was financially challenging for Phalke to go to Kashi and shoot scenes there. So, he took his unit to Trimbakeshwar, where they camped for about a month and filmed the required scenes. Phalke used to develop the film at night for the scenes shot during the day, he would re-shoot the scenes next day if they were not of desired quality. The filming was completed in six months and 27 days to produce a film of 3,700 feet, about four reels.[31]

Phalke used trick photography for shooting one of the scenes, the film negative stocks used were of limited spectral sensitivity with low sensitivity to red band of the spectrum. Thus, sets, costumes, and make-up for the artists avoided red colour,[28] during early nineteenth century, the plays had an introductory episode, compere by Sutradhar, the narrator, commentator, and interposer along with his female counterpart, Nati.[33] It was suggested by unit members that the film should also have similar introductory episode with Phalke and his wife playing the roles of Sutradhar and Nati. Phalke agreed to the idea but could not convince Saraswatibai to act in front of a camera. Finally, Padurang Gadhadhar Sane did the role of Nati.[34]

Release[edit]

Film premiere[edit]

Phalke had difficulties getting a theatre for screening as criticism of his work had already started, he decided to show the film to a selective audience and arranged for a premiere at the Olympia Theatre, Mumbai on 21 April 1913 at 9 PM.[35] The invitees included Bhalchandra Bhatavdekar, R. G. Bhandarkar, Vima Dalal, Justice Donald, the editors and representatives of the newspapers along with some intellectuals and prominent personalities from Mumbai.[36] As Phalke's infant daughter, Mandakini, was ill with pneumonia, his elder brother, Shivrampant, advised him to postponed the premiere to some other day.[35] But, all the invitations had already been sent and the theatre was available only on 21 April, Phalke could not change the decision.[36]

The premiere was inaugurated by Bhatavdekar, who acknowledge Phalke for his "daring". Justice Donald noted that the film would help Europeans learn more about Hindu mythology. Anant Narayan Kowlgekar of Kesari in his review mentioned that "Phalke has grandly brought his skill to the notice of the world."[37] The Times of India in their review noted that the scenes depicted in the film are "simply marvellous" and "[I]t is really a pleasure to see this piece of Indian workmanship".[38] With the favourable reviews generated, Nanasaheb Chitre, Manager of Coronation Cinema, then called Coronation Cinematograph and Variety Hall, expressed his desired to screen the film.[39]

Theatrical release[edit]

The film had its theatrical release on Saturday, 3 May 1913 at the Coronation Cinema, Girgaon, the show included a dance by Irene Delmar, a comic act by McClements, foot-juggling by Alexandroff, and Tip-Top comic items followed by the film.[20] The show duration was of one-and-half hour with four shows scheduled in a day at 6 PM, 8 PM, 10 PM, and 11:45 PM. An advertisement of the film was published in The Bombay Chronicle had a note added at the end that the ticket rates would be double the usual rates,[39] the film had an overfull run for a week and it was extended for twelve more days. A special show was scheduled on 17 May for only women and children at half rates. Initially, 18 May was advertised as the last show but the film continued its run on popular demands,[40] the film ran continuously for twenty-three days till 25 May and had a re-run at the Alexandra Theatre on 28 June.[5][20][40]

The success of the film in Mumbai was spread in India and there were demands to screen the film in various locations, as there were no film distributors in those days, Phalke had to carry the film, the projector, an operator, and some assistants from place to place. When the film was screened for a week at Nawabi Theatre in Surat, Phalke signed a temporary agreement for 50% partnership with the theatre owner, despite of advertising the film, the first show of the film had a lukewarm response. Disappointed by the earnings of only three, the owner requested Phalke to either cancel the show, increase the duration of the show or reduce the ticket rates. Phalke politely rejected all the suggestions,[40] he issued an advertisement in Gujarati language calling people to see "57,000 photographs of three quarters of an inch width and two miles length", in just one Indian anna. He also made his actors enact some of the scenes at the crossroads.The promotion had desired effect and the earnings increased to 300.[21][41] Later, the film was also screened at Pune, Colombo, London, and Rangoon.[39][21][42] The Bombay Chronicle in its issue of 5 May 1913 mentioned that "this wonderful drama is splendidly represented by the company of actors" and praised the "beauty and ingenuity" with which Phalke succeeded in presenting the film scenes.[38]

Legacy[edit]

Film historian Firoze Rangoonwalla agrees that the film made "a wide impression and appealed to a large audience in difference places" and its box office success provided "the seal of acceptance and laid the foundation of the film industry" in the country.[20] Director and cinematographer Govind Nihalani explains that the film was shot partly outdoors in direct sunlight and partly in outdoor studios with sunlight blocked by white muslin producing soft and diffused light, he appreciates the tonal gradation, lighting, and camera movements. He, further, notes that the scene where the God appears and disappears from behind the smoke of sage Vishvamitra's Yajna-kund gives an impression that the scene have been filmed in a single shot,[28] the film critic Satish Bahadur points out that though the title cards in the film were in English and Hindi, "there was something unmistakably Maharashtrian" in the film. He also mentions that the interior architecture and dresses of countries in the film are more of Deccan Peshwai style than North Indian.[9] Ashish Rajadhyaksha in his The Phalke Era: Conflict of Traditional Form and Modern Technology (1993) mentions that the narrative style of the film has been borrowed from painting, theatre and traditional arts to attract the audience into cinema.[43] Dilip Rajput of the National Film Archive of India notes that the film scenes appear to run faster because of the current projector speed of 24-frames-per-second as compared to 16 to 18-frames-per-second speed of projector that was used for the film.[1]

Directed by Paresh Mokashi, 2009 Marathi film Harishchandrachi Factory (Harishchandra's factory) depicts the making of Raja Harishchandra. The film won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Marathi at the 56th National Film Awards.[44] It was selected as India's official entry to the 82nd Academy Awards in the Best Foreign Language Film category along with the 62nd British Academy Film Awards and the 66th Golden Globe Awards but was not listed among the final five nominations.[45]

Extant prints[edit]

The original length of a film was 3,700 feet, about four reels;[31] in 1917, the last print of the film caught fire due to the constant friction and the exposure to high temperatures while it was being transported from one theatre to another, by a bullock cart. Phalke readily re-shot the film to produce the version that exists today.[46][47] Only the first and last reels of the film are preserved at the National Film Archive of India (NFAI) making it a partially lost film, some film historians believe that they belong to a 1917 remake of the film, named Satyavadi Raja Harishchandra.[48][49] The film was duplicated by the NFAI but around twenty percent of the left side of the screen was lost in the transfer,[50] it was believed that the remaining reels of the film were destroyed along with 1,700 nitrate-based films in the fire at the Film and Television Institute of India on 8 January 2002.[51] The prints were later retrieved from a private collection of Phalke's children,[52][53] the NFAI has restored and digitized the film.[54]

Classification as first full-length Indian film[edit]

The status for Raja Harischandra as the first full-length Indian feature film has been argued over, some film historians consider Dadasaheb Torne's silent film Shree Pundalik as the maiden Indian film.[55][56] Torne's film was released on 18 May 1912 at the same theatre of Raja Harischandra,[3][57] the arguments have also been made in favour of Raja Harischandra that Shree Pundalik is a cinematographic recording of a play, using a single, fixed camera and it was filmed by British cameraman with the film stock processed in London.[58][59][60][61] The Government of India recognises Raja Harischandra as the first Indian feature film;[62] in 1969, it introduced Dadasaheb Phalke Award, country's highest award in cinema,[63] to commemorate Phalke's contribution to Indian cinema.[64]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Salunke later reprised the same role in Phalke's 1917 film Satyavadi Raja Harishchandra.[3] He also became the first actor to play the double role in Indian cinema by portraying the male lead Rama and his wife Sita, in Phalke's 1917 film Lanka Dahan.[19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Raheja & Kothari 2004, p. 17.
  2. ^ Rajadhyaksha, Ashish (1993). "The Phalke Era: Conflict of Traditional Form and Modern Technology" (PDF). In Niranjana, Tejaswini; Dhareshwar, Vivek; Sudhir, P. Interrogating Modernity: Culture and Colonialism in India. Seagull Books. p. 76–80. ISBN 978-81-7046-109-8. Archived from the original on 19 January 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c Rajadhyaksha & Willemen 1998, p. 243.
  4. ^ a b Dharap, B. V. (1985). Indian films. National Film Archive of India. p. 35. 
  5. ^ a b Kosambi 2017, p. 320.
  6. ^ a b c Watve 2012, p. 24–26.
  7. ^ Watve 2012, p. 33.
  8. ^ a b c Watve 2012, p. 35.
  9. ^ a b c Gokulsing, K. Moti; Dissanayake, Wimal (2013). Routledge Handbook of Indian Cinemas. Routledge. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-136-77284-9. 
  10. ^ a b c d e "मुलाखत: धुंडिराज गोविंद फाळके" [Interview: Dhundiraj Govind Phalke]. Kesari (in Marathi). Pune. 19 August 1913. 
  11. ^ Watve 2012, p. 34.
  12. ^ a b Watve 2012, p. 36.
  13. ^ a b c Watve 2012, p. 37.
  14. ^ a b c d e Watve 2012, p. 38.
  15. ^ a b c Watve 2012, p. 39.
  16. ^ a b Bose 2006, p. 50.
  17. ^ Dwyer, Rachel (2006). Filming the Gods: Religion and Indian Cinema. Routledge. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-203-08865-4. Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  18. ^ Schulze, Brigitte (2003). Humanist and Emotional Beginnings of a Nationalist Indian Cinema in Bombay: With Kracauer in the Footsteps of Phalke. Avinus. p. 127. ISBN 978-3-930064-12-0. Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  19. ^ Majumdar, Neepa (2009). Wanted Cultured Ladies Only!: Female Stardom and Cinema in India, 1930s–1950s. University of Illinois Press. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-252-09178-0. Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  20. ^ a b c d Gulzar, Nihalani & Chatterjee 2003, p. 29.
  21. ^ a b c Watve 2012, p. 52.
  22. ^ "'Raja Harishchandra': Indian Cinema Was Born This Day 105 Years Ago". Mid Day. 3 May 2017. Retrieved 29 June 2018. 
  23. ^ a b c Watve 2012, p. 40.
  24. ^ Jha, Subhash K. "10 pre-release big ones". Rediff.com. Archived from the original on 20 June 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  25. ^ a b "मुलाखत: सरस्वतीबाई धुंडिराज फाळके" [Interview: Saraswatibai Dhundiraj Phalke]. Dhanurdhari (in Marathi). Nashik. 16 February 1946. 
  26. ^ a b Watve 2012, p. 41.
  27. ^ a b c d Watve 2012, p. 42.
  28. ^ a b c Gulzar, Nihalani & Chatterjee 2003, p. 243.
  29. ^ Indian horizons. Indian Council for Cultural Relations. 1995. p. 8. Retrieved 2 October 2012. 
  30. ^ Parkes, Colin Murray; Laungani, Pittu; Young, William (2015) [2003]. Death and Bereavement Across Cultures (2 ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 66-67. ISBN 978-1-317-52092-4. Archived from the original on 30 June 2018. 
  31. ^ a b c d Watve 2012, p. 43.
  32. ^ Mittal, J. P. (2006). History Of Ancient India: From 7300 Bb To 4250 Bc. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 168. ISBN 978-81-269-0615-4. Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. 
  33. ^ Iyer, Natesan Sharda (2007). Musings on Indian Writing in English: Drama. 3. Sarup & Sons. p. 189. ISBN 978-81-7625-801-2. 
  34. ^ "पहिल्या भारतीय चित्रपटाच्या आठवणी" [Memories of the first Indian movie]. Shreeyut (in Marathi). May 1962. 
  35. ^ a b Watve 2012, p. 46.
  36. ^ a b Bhingarde, Santosh (21 April 2012). "भारतातील पहिल्या "प्रीमियर"चे आज शताब्दी वर्षात पदार्पण" [100 years for India's first premiere show]. Sakal (in Marathi). Mumbai. Archived from the original on 22 April 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2018. 
  37. ^ Watve 2012, p. 47.
  38. ^ a b Watve 2012, p. 183–184.
  39. ^ a b c Watve 2012, p. 48.
  40. ^ a b c Watve 2012, p. 50.
  41. ^ Dasgupta, Priyanka (28 September 2016). "Role reversal: Street play to promote cinema". Kolkata. Archived from the original on 30 June 2018. Retrieved 29 June 2018. 
  42. ^ Rajadhyaksha & Willemen 1998, p. 18.
  43. ^ Nelmes, Jill (2003). An Introduction to Film Studies. Psychology Press. p. 367. ISBN 978-0-415-26268-2. 
  44. ^ "56th National Film Awards" (PDF). Directorate of Film Festivals. pp. 82–83. Retrieved 26 June 2018. 
  45. ^ "UTV to release Harishchandrachi Factory". Indo-Asian News Service. New Delhi. Hindustan Times. 3 December 2009. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 24 September 2012. 
  46. ^ "Nitrate Fires: Reasons for the loss of India's cinematic heritage". Film Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 29 June 2018. 
  47. ^ Shrivastava, Vipra (4 May 2015). "10 times when fire caused damage to movie sets". India Today Group. Retrieved 29 June 2018. 
  48. ^ "Raja Harishchandra". National Film Archive of India. Archived from the original on 26 November 2017. Retrieved 29 June 2018. 
  49. ^ Chakravarty, Ipsita (4 May 2012). "Our no-show". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 29 June 2018. Retrieved 29 June 2018. 
  50. ^ Rajadhyaksha, Ashish (7 February 2017). "The Film Fragment: Survivals in Indian Silent Film". The Museum of Modern Art. Archived from the original on 29 June 2018. Retrieved 29 June 2018. 
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