In Shia Islam, the imamah is the doctrine that the figures known as imams are rightfully the central figures of the ummah. Shi'ites believe that the Imams are the true Caliphs or rightful successors of Muhammad, further that Imams are possessed of divine knowledge and authority as well as being part of the Ahl al-Bayt, the family of Muhammad; these Imams have the role of providing commentary and interpretation of the Quran as well as guidance. According to Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, the Imam is a means through which humans receive divine grace, because "He brings men closer to obedience and keeps them away from disobedience." As fulfilling the human being is his wish, it is logical that God appoints Imams to subject man to his wishes. So his existence and his deeds display two forms of grace of God toward man; the word "Imām" denotes a person who stands or walks "in front". For Sunni Islam, the word is used to mean a person who leads the course of prayer in the mosque, it means the head of a madhhab.
However, from the Shia point of view this is the basic understanding of the word in the Arabic language and, for its proper religious usage, the word "Imam" is applicable only to those members of the house of Muhammad designated as infallible by the preceding Imam. The Shia further believe only these A'immah have the right to be Caliphs, meaning that all other caliphs, whether elected by consensus or not, are usurpers of the Caliphate so those were political positions not divine positions. All Muslims believe that Muhammad had said: "To whomsoever I am Mawla, Ali is his Mawla." This hadith has been narrated in different ways by many different sources in no less than 45 hadith books of both Sunni and Shia collections. This hadith has been narrated by the collector of hadiths, al-Tirmidhi, 3713; the major point of conflict between the Sunni and the Shia is in the interpretation of the word'Mawla'. For the Shia the word means'Master' and has the same elevated significance as when the term had been used to address Muhammad himself during his lifetime.
Thus, when Muhammad and physically transferred this title and manner of addressing Ali as the Mawla for all Muslims at Ghadiri Khum Oasis just a few months before his death, the people that came to look upon Ali as Muhammad's immediate successor before Muhamamd's death came to be known as the Shia. However, for the Sunnis the word means the'beloved' or the'revered' and has no other significance at all. Within Shia Islam, the various sects came into being because they differed over their Imams' successions, just as the Shia - Sunni separation within Islam itself had come into being from the dispute that had arisen over the succession to Muhammad; each succession dispute brought forth a different tariqah within Shia Islam. Each Shia tariqah followed its own particular Imam's dynasty, thus resulting in different numbers of Imams for each particular Shia tariqah; when the dynastic line of the separating successor Imam ended with no heir to succeed him either he or his unborn successor was believed to have gone into concealment, that is, The Occultation.
The Shia tariqah with a majority of adherents are the Twelvers who are known as the "Shia". After that come the Nizari Ismailis known as the Ismailis; the Druze tariqah were part of the Fatimid Ismailis and separated from them after the death of the Fatimid Imam and Caliph al Hakim Bi Amrillah. The Shia Sevener tariqah no longer exists. Another small tariqah is the Zaidi Shias known as the Fivers and who do not believe in The Occultation of their last Imam. Although all these different Shia tariqahs belong to the Shia group in Islam, there are major doctrinal differences between the main Shia tariqahs. After that there is the complete doctrinal break between all the different Shia tariqahs whose last Imams have gone into Occultation and the Shia Nizari Ismailis who deny the concept of Occultation; the Shia Nizari Ismailis by definition have to have a living Imam until the end of time. Thus if any living Nizari Ismaili Imam fails to leave behind a successor after him the Nizari Ismailism’s cardinal principle would be broken and it’s raison d'être would come to an end.
Shias believe. As the verse 4:165 of Quran expresses the necessity to the appointment of the prophets; the same logic that necessitated the assignment of prophets is applied for Imamah. That is Allah must assign someone similar to prophet in his attributes and Ismah as his successor to guide the people without any deviation in religion, they refer to the verse 5:3 of Quran, revealed to the prophet when he appointed Ali as his successor at the day of Ghadir Khumm. By the verse Quran, 2:124, Shias believe that Imamah is a divine position always Imamah is accompanied by the word guidance, of course a guidance by God's Command. A kind of guidance which bring
Kufa is a city in Iraq, about 170 kilometres south of Baghdad, 10 kilometres northeast of Najaf. It is located on the banks of the Euphrates River; the estimated population in 2003 was 110,000. Kufa and Najaf are joined into a single urban area, commonly known to the outside world as'Najaf'. Along with Samarra, Karbala and Najaf, Kufa is one of five Iraqi cities that are of great importance to Shi'ite Muslims; the city was the final capital of the fourth Rashidun Caliph, Ali ibn Abu Talib, was founded during 639 CE by the second Rashidun Caliph, Umar ibn Al-Khattab. It is related that Muslims after conquest of Al-Madain were searching for a suitable place for habitation. Others and Hudhayfa bin al-Yamman were looking for. After choosing the land, they offered prayers there. In the days of the Rashidun Caliphate, Kufa was prominent in literacy and politics, being founded before Uthman. From the perspective of 8th-century CE Medina and Damascus, Kufa was associated with "variant" readings and interpretations of the Qur'an in the name of Ibn Mas'ud and read from the pulpit as if they were part of the Qur'an itself.
It became said that Uthman had sent an exemplar of the text to Kufa, but that it was burnt during the wars of Mukhtar and Ibn Zubayr. Al-Hajjaj restored or at any rate promulgated the standard text under Abd al-Malik, castigating the memory of Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud as "Ibn Umm Abd", but a faction in Kufa preserved the readings "of ‘Abd Allah/Ibn Mas‘ud", whence Mujahid and his fellow mujtahids compiled them along with other readings and interpretations. From there these readings entered the vast repository of Near Eastern hadith to be written down into collections of hadith and tafsir; the Arabs, led by Caliph Umar, conquered Iraq and began ruling Suristan around 637. Umar, who assigned the land of the Jews in Arabia to his warriors, ordered the relocation of the Jews of Khaybar to a strip of land in Kufa, in 640. After the Arab victory against the East Roman Empire at Battle of Yarmouk in 636, Kufa was founded and given its name in 637–638 CE, about the same time as Basrah; the Companion of the Prophet Saʻd ibn Abī Waqqas founded it as an encampment adjacent to the Lakhmid Arab city of Al-Hīrah, incorporated it as a city of seven divisions.
Non-Arabs knew the city under alternate names: Hīrah and Aqulah, before the consolidations of ʻAbdu l-Mālik in 691. However, in the 640s, the Kufan commons were agitated that Umar's governor was distributing the spoils of war unfairly. In 642 ʻUmar summoned Saʻd to Medina with his accusers. Despite finding Sa'd to be innocent, Umar deposed him to avert ill feelings. At first, Umar appointed Ammar ibn Yasir and secondly Basra's first Governor Abū Mūsā al-Ashʻarī. ʻUmar and the Kufans agreed on Al-Mughīrah ibn Shuʻbah. The city was built in a circular plan according to the Partho-Sasanian architecture. Following Umar's death, his successor Uthman replaced Mughirah with Al-Walid ibn Uqba in 645; this happened while the Arabs were continuing their conquest of western Persia under Uthman ibn Hakam from Tawwaj, but late in the 640s, these forces suffered setbacks. Uthman in 650 reorganised the Iranian frontier; the few but noticeable trouble makers in Kufa sought in 654 and had Sa'id deposed and instead showed satisfaction with the return of Abu Musa, which Uthman approved seeking to please all.
Kufa remained a source of instigations albeit from a minority. In 656 when the Egyptian instigators, in co-operation with those in Kufa, marched onto the Caliph Uthman in Medina, Abu Musa counselled the instigators to no avail. Upon Uthman's assassination by rebels, governor Abu Musa attempted to restore a non-violent atmosphere in Kufa; the Muslims in Medina and elsewhere supported the right of Ali ibn Abu Talib to the caliphate. In order to manage the Military frontiers more efficiently, Ali shifted the capital from Medina to Kufa; the people of Syria and their governor, who seized the Caliphate for himself and his family by using the confusion caused by the assassination of Caliph Uthman and being disturbed by the brutal assassination of the Caliph Uthman, demanded retribution. As Muawiyah mounted his campaign to hold Ali responsible for the murder of Uthman, factions developed. In an emotionally charged atmosphere, Muawiyah's refusal to give allegiance to Ali as the Caliph without Ali avenging Uthman first led to war.
While praying in the Great Mosque of Kufa, Ali was attacked by the Khawarij Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam. He was wounded by ibn Muljam's poison-coated sword while prostrating in the Fajr prayer. Muawiyah I appointed Ziyad ibn Abihi as the Governor of Kufa, after Hasan's migration to Medina, a peace treaty which dictated he abdicate his right to caliphate to avoid an open war among Muslims; some of Hasan's followers, like Hujr ibn Adi, were unhappy with the peace treaty, did not change their ways according to the edicts of the new Governor. This became noticeable, since it created a rebellion against the ruler. However, Ziyad ibn Abihi was an keen strategist and politician, was able to put down all challenges posed by the rebels against his rule. Throughout the Umayyad era, as was the case since the inception of the city by Umar ibn Khattab, there were those among Kufa's inhabitants who were re
In astronomy, the new moon is the first lunar phase, when the Moon and Sun have the same ecliptic longitude. At this phase, the lunar disk is not visible to the unaided eye, except when silhouetted during a solar eclipse. Daylight outshines the earthlight; the actual phase is a thin crescent. The original meaning of the term new moon, still sometimes used in non-astronomical contexts, was the first visible crescent of the Moon, after conjunction with the Sun; this crescent moon is visible when low above the western horizon shortly after sunset and before moonset. A lunation or synodic month is the average time from one new moon to the next. In the J2000.0 epoch, the average length of a lunation is 29.530588 days. However, the length of any one synodic month can vary from 29.26 to 29.80 days due to the perturbing effects of the Sun's gravity on the Moon's eccentric orbit. In a lunar calendar, each month corresponds to a lunation; each lunar cycle can be assigned a unique lunation number to identify it.
The length of a lunation is about 29.53 days. Its precise duration is linked to many phenomena in nature, such as the variation between spring and neap tides. An approximate formula to compute the mean moments of new moon for successive months is: d = 5.597661 + 29.5305888610 × N + × N 2 where N is an integer, starting with 0 for the first new moon in the year 2000, and, incremented by 1 for each successive synodic month. To obtain this moment expressed in Universal Time, add the result of following approximate correction to the result d obtained above: − 0.000739 − × N 2 daysPeriodic perturbations change the time of true conjunction from these mean values. For all new moons between 1601 and 2401, the maximum difference is 0.592 days = 14h13m in either direction. The duration of a lunation varies in this period between 29.272 and 29.833 days, i.e. −0.259d = 6h12m shorter, or +0.302d = 7h15m longer than average. This range is smaller than the difference between mean and true conjunction, because during one lunation the periodic terms cannot all change to their maximum opposite value.
See the article on the full moon cycle for a simple method to compute the moment of new moon more accurately. The long-term error of the formula is approximately: 1 cy2 seconds in TT, 11 cy2 seconds in UT The moment of mean conjunction can be computed from an expression for the mean ecliptical longitude of the Moon minus the mean ecliptical longitude of the Sun. Jean Meeus gave formulae to compute this in his Astronomical Formulae for Calculators based on the ephemerides of Brown and Newcomb; these are now outdated: Chapront et al. published improved parameters. Meeus's formula uses a fractional variable to allow computation of the four main phases, uses a second variable for the secular terms. For the convenience of the reader, the formula given above is based on Chapront's latest parameters and expressed with a single integer variable, the following additional terms have been added: constant term: Like Meeus, apply the constant terms of the aberration of light for the Sun's motion and light-time correction for the Moon to obtain the apparent difference in ecliptical longitudes:Sun: +20.496" Moon: −0.704" Correction in conjunction: −0.000451 daysFor UT: at 1 January 2000, ΔT was +63.83 s.
The term includes a tidal contribution of 0.5×. The most current estimate from Lunar Laser Ranging for the acceleration is:"/cy2. Therefore, the new quadratic term of D is = -6.8498"T2. Indeed, the polynomial provided by Chapront et alii provides the same value; this translates to a correction of +14.622×10−12N2 days to the time of conjunction. For UT: analysis of historical observations shows that ΔT has a long-term increase of +31 s/cy2. Converted to days and lunations, the correction from ET to UT becomes:−235×10−12N2 days; the theoretical tidal contribution to ΔT is about +42 s/cy2 the smaller observed value is thought to be due to changes in the shape of the Earth. Because the discrepancy is not explained, uncertainty of our prediction of UT may be as large as the difference between these values: 11 s/cy2; the error in the position of the Moon itself is only maybe 0.5"/cy2, or (because the apparent mean angular velocit
Sukayna bint Husayn
Ruqayyah bint Al-Ḥusayn, was the daughter of Husayn ibn Ali and Rubab bint Imra al-Qais ibn Adi bin Aws. Her brothers included Ali Zaynul-Abidin, Ali al-Akbar, Ali al-Asghar, her sisters included Fatimah as-Sughra and Fatimah al-Kubra, with the latter being called'Sakinah'. The story of Sakinah is one of the many emotional stories that Muslims tell about Husayn and his martyrdom at the hands of Yazid's troops; the Battle of Karbala and the subsequent events at the court of Yazid are explained and mourned annually during the commemoration of the 10th of Muharram known as ‘Âshûrá’. She accompanied her father. On the 2nd of Muharram, 61 AH, Husain and 72 of his family members and companions were forced to camp in the plains of Karbala by Yazid's army of 30,000 men. Yazid ibn Muawiyyah was the practical Caliph who desired religious authority by obtaining the allegiance of Husain, but the Imam would not give up his principles. On the 10th of Muharram, the Imam's household was attacked, a number of his companions were killed, the survivors were made captives.
The survivors included the Imam's sisters and daughters, including Sakinah, relatives of companions of the Imam, his son, Ali Zaynul-Abidin, who did not participate in the battle, due to an illness. Sakinah, as with others, had been grieved over the killings, they had suffered from thirst. The survivors were marched by Yazid's army from Karbala to Kufah, where Sakinah received water from a sympathetic woman, to Damascus in Shaam. There was a lack of pity from the captors' part during the journey. At these times of hardship and misery, Ruqayyah was sympathetic to others, such as her mother, whom she consoled her mother on the death of Ali al-Asghar. In the dungeon, Sakinah's aunt Zainab bint Ali tried to console her, said that she would soon meet her father. One night, when Sakinah was asleep, she woke up crying and started to look for her father everywhere. All the women tried to console her so that she would stop crying, but she continued: "O my dear aunt, Where is my father? A few minutes ago I was with my father, he kissed me and said that "My dear Sakinah you will soon be with me."
But where is my father now?" At this, all the women started to cry, the crying was heard by Yazid at his court. Yazid sent the severed head of Husain to the prison, when Sakinah received the head of her father, she started to cry more and held it tight and asked her father: "Who cut off my father's head, who martyred my father, why are we held as captives?" With these words of sorrow, Sakina was quiet. Everyone thought that Sakinah had gone to sleep again, but she had died, at the age of four or five, her body was buried in the dungeon. Zaynab held the still child, her clothes were burnt in Karbala, due to injuries, had intermingled with her flesh. Therefore, she was buried in the same burnt, ripped clothes in the dungeon of Shaam; as the grave was being filled after the burial, the mother let out a scream. All of the women huddled around her, the prison walls began to shake with the cry, "Ya Sakina, Ya Mazloomah!". Yazid decided to release them from prison, allowing them to return to Medinah. Rubab would come to her grave, placing her cheek on it and cry out, "Speak to me Sakinah.
Only a word, my child, speak to me."Centuries an ‘Ālim had a dream in which Sakinah asked him to move her body from the grave to another site, due to water pouring into her grave. He and some people opened the grave, saw that ground water was indeed entering the grave, besides that her body was still intact. Sakinah's body was moved from its original burial place, the dungeon, reburied where her Mosque is now located. Adnanites Arabs Banu Hashim Family tree of Husayn ibn Ali Fatimah bint Muhammad Fatimah bint Musa Quraysh Sayyidah Ruqayyah of Cairo Semite Umm ‘Ammar Sumayyah bint Khayyat, wife of Yasir ibn ʿAmir ibn Malik al-ʿAnsi Yahya ibn Zakariyya Momen, Moojan An Introduction to Shi'a Islam, Yale University Press, 1985. Sakina Sakina, the young Hashemite princess Poem for Bibi Sakina by Mahmood Abu Shahbaaz Londoni
A caliphate is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph, a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah. The caliphates were polities based in Islam which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires. During the medieval period, three major caliphates succeeded each other: the Rashidun Caliphate, the Umayyad Caliphate and the Abbasid Caliphate. In the fourth major caliphate, the Ottoman Caliphate, the rulers of the Ottoman Empire claimed caliphal authority from 1517. During the history of Islam, a few other Muslim states all hereditary monarchies, have claimed to be caliphates. Prior to the rise of Muhammad and the unification of the tribes of Arabia under Islam, Arabs followed a pre-Islamic Arab polytheism, lived as self-governing sedentary and nomadic communities, raided their neighbouring tribes. Following the early Muslim conquests of the Arabian Peninsula, the region became unified and most of the tribes adopted Islam.
The first caliphate, the Rashidun Caliphate, was established after Muhammad's death in 632. The four Rashidun caliphs, who directly succeeded Muhammad as leaders of the Muslim community, were chosen through shura, a process of community consultation that some consider to be an early form of Islamic democracy; the fourth caliph, who, unlike the prior three, was from the same clan as Muhammad, is considered by Shia Muslims to be the first rightful caliph and Imam after Muhammad. Ali reigned during the First Fitna, a civil war between supporters of Ali and supporters of the assassinated previous caliph, from Banu Umayya, as well as rebels in Egypt; the second caliphate, the Umayyad Caliphate, was ruled by Banu Umayya, a Meccan clan descended from Umayya ibn Abd Shams. The caliphate continued the Arab conquests, incorporating the Caucasus, Sindh, the Maghreb and the Iberian Peninsula into the Muslim world; the caliphate had considerable acceptance of the Christians within its territory, necessitated by their large numbers in the region of Syria.
Following the Abbasid Revolution from 746–750, which arose from non-Arab Muslim disenfranchisement, the Abbasid Caliphate was established in 750. The third caliphate, the Abbasid Caliphate was ruled by the Abbasids, a dynasty of Meccan origin which descended from Hashim, a great-grandfather of Muhammad, making them part of Banu Hashim, via Abbas, an uncle of Muhammad, hence the name. Caliph al-Mansur founded its second capital of Baghdad in 762 which became a major scientific and art centre, as did the territory as a whole during a period known as the Islamic Golden Age. From the 10th century, Abbasid rule became confined to an area around Baghdad. From 945 to 1157, the Abbasid Caliphate came under Buyid and Seljuq military control. In 1250, a non-Arab army created by the Abbasids called. In 1258, the Mongol Empire sacked Baghdad, ending the Abbasid Caliphate, in 1261 the Mamluks in Egypt re-established the Abbasid Caliphate in Cairo. Though lacking in political power, the Abbasid dynasty continued to claim authority in religious matters until the Ottoman conquest of Mamluk Egypt in 1517.
The fourth major caliphate, the Ottoman Caliphate, was established after their conquest of Mamluk Egypt in 1517. The conquest gave the Ottomans control over the holy cities of Mecca and Medina controlled by the Mamluks; the Ottomans came to be viewed as the de facto leaders and representatives of the Muslim world. In the Indian subcontinent, dominant powers such as the Delhi Sultanate's Alauddin Khilji, Mughal Empire's sixth ruler Aurangzeb, Mysore's kings Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan have been heralded as few of the Indian caliphs existed, due to their establishments of Islamic laws throughout South Asia. Following their defeat in World War I, their empire was partitioned by the United Kingdom and French Third Republic, on 3 March 1924, the first President of the Turkish Republic, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, as part of his reforms, constitutionally abolished the institution of the caliphate. A few other states that existed through history have called themselves caliphates, including the Isma'ili Fatimid Caliphate in Northeast Africa, the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Iberia, the Berber Almohad Caliphate in Morocco and the Fula Sokoto Caliphate in present-day northern Nigeria.
The Sunni branch of Islam stipulates that, as a head of state, a caliph may come to power in one of four ways: either through an election, through nomination, through a selection by a committee, or by force. Followers of Shia Islam, believe a caliph should be an Imam chosen by God from the Ahl al-Bayt. In the early 21st century, following the failure of the Arab Spring and defeat of the self-proclaimed "Islamic State", there has seen "a broad mainstream embrace of a collective Muslim identity" by young Muslims and the appeal of a caliphate as a "idealized future Muslim state" has grown stronger. Before the advent of Islam, Arabian monarchs traditionally used the title malik, or another from the same root; the term caliph, derives from the Arabic word khalīfah, which means "successor", "steward", or "deputy" and has traditionally been considered a shortening of Khalīfat Rasūl Allāh. However, studies of pre-Islamic texts suggest that the original meaning of the phr
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Muḥammad al-Baqir, full name Muhammad bin'Ali bin al-Husayn bin Ali bin Abi Talib known as Abu Ja'far or al-Baqir was the fifth Shia Imam, succeeding his father Zayn al-Abidin and succeeded by his son Ja'far al-Sadiq. He was the first Imam descended from both grandsons of Muhammad: Husayn ibn Ali, he is revered by Shiite Muslims for his religious leadership, respected by Sunni Muslims for his knowledge and Islamic scholarship as a jurist in Medina. Al-Baqir had a prominent seyyid lineage, his father was Ali ibn Husayn "Zayn al-Abidin", his paternal grandfather was Husayn ibn Ali, while his mother was Fatima Umm Abd Allah, his maternal grandfather was Hasan ibn Ali. His grandfathers Hasan and Husayn were the two eldest surviving sons of Ali through his first wife Fatimah, the eldest daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Al-Baqir was born in Medina around 56 AH, when Muawiyah I was trying to ensure that his son Yazid I could inherit the caliphate; when Al-Baqir was a child, his family was affected by the Battle of Karbala.
According to Ya'qubi, al-Baqir was present at Karbala. In his youth he witnessed the struggle for power among the Umayyads, Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr and a number of Shiite parties, whilst his father maintained a distance from local political activity. Al-Baqir is an abbreviation of Baqir al-'ilm, which means "he who opens knowledge", al-Baqir is said to have been known for his knowledge. According to Ibn Khallikan, he received the nickname "al-Baqir" due to the "ample fund of knowledge" he collected. However, Ya'qubi believed that he was called al-Baqir because he "split open knowledge", examining its depths; the Shiites believe that Baqir al-'ilm was not an ordinary title, because it was given to him by Muhammad. According to al-Kulayni, Muhammad's only living companion Jabir ibn Abd Allah would sit in the mosque and cry: "Ya baqir al-ilm, Ya baqir al-ilm". Although Medinans thought that Jabir was insane, he assured them that Muhammad had told him: "O Jabir! You will meet a man from my family who will have the same characteristics as mine.
He will split open knowledge extensively." According to al-Kulayni, Jabir ibn Abd Allah met al-Baqir. Abd Allah saw that the imam was still a child, examined him to see if he had the features which Muhammad had described. Jabir asked; when al-Baqir answered that he was Muhammad ibn Ali ibn al-Husayn, Jabir "approached him, kissed his head and swore by his father and mother that Muhammad had recited greeting upon him.". According to al-Kafi, Imam Baqir stressed the importance of intelligence saying that Allah will hold everyone accountable on the day of judgement according to the degree of intelligence they received in the worldly life.. During the imamah of Muhammad al-Baqir, riots erupted throughout the Islamic world due to the Umayyad Caliphate's oppression. Disagreements within the Umayyad party kept them occupied, they left members of the household undisturbed for some time. However, tyranny in the Battle of Karbala had attracted many people to the imams; these conditions had permitted people to visit the imam freely.
The possibility of spreading Islam was available to the fifth imam, indicated by a number of traditions about the imam and scholars trained under him. After the death of Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin, most of the Shiites agreed upon his son al-Baqir as the next imam. According to Ibn Khallikan, appealed for people to support his cause. According to Al-Masudi, he asked for advice from Muhammad al-Baqir. Zaid did not listen to his brother's advice, led the people of Kufa in a fruitless riot. According to Al-Shahrastani, a dispute had arisen between Muhammad al-Baqir and Zaid because Zaid had been following the Mu'tazilite Wasil ibn Ata. Zaid had announced that the position of imam was conditional on his appearing publicly to assert his rights. Muhammad al-Baqir replied, "Your faith is in your father, as such, for according to your theory he was not an imam, for he never came forth to assert his claims." Despite his non-involvement in political activities, the Umayyad rulers harassed Muhammad al-Baqir.
Many Shia individuals and delegations came to Medina from Kufa to hear al-Baqir's teachings and ask him questions, among, who had the right to rule. He was distrusted because of the uprising of his brother Zayd ibn Ali and other relatives. Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik made a pilgrimage to Mecca, where Mohammed al-Baqir and his son Ja'far al-Sadiq were present. At a gathering, al-Baqir delivered a sermon: "We are the favorite and chosen servants of God, His vicegerents on the face of the earth. One who obeys us is successful and one who opposes would be evil and wretched." His statements were conveyed to Hisham, who wrote to the governor of Medina when he returned to his court in Syria instructing him to send al-Baqir and his son to Damascus. When they arrived, he kept them waiting for three days. In Ma'athiru'l-Baqir the imam discussed a number of topics, from the nature of the soul and the qualities of the Ulam